- Abrahamic religions
- Abraham in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
- Place of Abraham in Islam, Christianity, Judaism
The six parts to Jesus' trial—three stages in a religious court and three stages before a Roman court—were all held in Jerusalem. His crucifixion at Golgotha , his burial nearby traditionally the Church of the Holy Sepulchre , and his resurrection and ascension and prophecy to return all are said to have occurred or will occur there.
Jerusalem became holy to Muslims, third after Mecca and Medina. The Al-Aqsa Mosque , which translates to "farthest mosque" in sura Al-Isra in the Quran and its surroundings are addressed in the Quran as "the holy land". Muslim tradition as recorded in the ahadith identifies al-Aqsa with a mosque in Jerusalem.
The first Muslims did not pray toward Kaaba , but toward Jerusalem this was the qibla for 13 years: Even though members of Judaism, Christianity, and Islam do not all claim Abraham as an ancestor, some members of these religions have tried to claim him as exclusively theirs. For Jews , Abraham is the founding patriarch of the children of Israel.
Similarly, converts, who join the covenant, are all identified as sons and daughters of Abraham. According to Jewish tradition, Abraham was the first post- Flood prophet to reject idolatry through rational analysis, although Shem and Eber carried on the tradition from Noah. Christians view Abraham as an important exemplar of faith , and a spiritual, as well as physical, ancestor of Jesus. In Christian belief, Abraham is a role model of faith, [Heb. Christian commentators have a tendency to interpret God's promises to Abraham as applying to Christianity subsequent to, and sometimes rather than as in supersessionism , being applied to Judaism, whose adherents rejected Jesus.
They argue this on the basis that just as Abraham as a Gentile before he was circumcised "believed God and it was credited to him as righteousness" [Gen. This is most fully developed in Paul's theology where all who believe in God are spiritual descendants of Abraham. Also, the same as Judaism, Islam believes that Abraham rejected idolatry through logical reasoning.
Abraham is also recalled in certain details of the annual Hajj pilgrimage.
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The Abrahamic God is conceived of as eternal , omnipotent , omniscient and as the creator of the universe. God is further held to have the properties of holiness, justice, omnibenevolence and omnipresence. Proponents of Abrahamic faiths believe that God is also transcendent , but at the same time personal and involved, listening to prayer and reacting to the actions of his creatures.
In Jewish theology , God is strictly monotheistic. God is an absolute one, indivisible and incomparable being who is the ultimate cause of all existence. Jewish tradition teaches that the true aspect of God is incomprehensible and unknowable and that it is only God's revealed aspect that brought the universe into existence, and interacts with mankind and the world.
It also represents God's compassion towards the world. In Jewish tradition another name of God is Elohim , relating to the interaction between God and the universe, God as manifest in the physical world, it designates the justice of God, and means "the One who is the totality of powers, forces and causes in the universe". In Christian theology , God is the eternal being who created and preserves the world. Christians believe God to be both transcendent and immanent involved in the world.
Around the year , Tertullian formulated a version of the doctrine of the Trinity which clearly affirmed the divinity of Jesus and came close to the later definitive form produced by the Ecumenical Council of The theology of the attributes and nature of God has been discussed since the earliest days of Christianity, with Irenaeus writing in the 2nd century: In Islamic theology , God Arabic: He is above all comprehension, yet is acquainted with all things.
Islamic belief in God is distinct from Christianity in that God has no progeny. He does not beget nor was he begotten. Nor is there to Him any equivalent". All these religions rely on a body of scriptures, some of which are considered to be the word of God—hence sacred and unquestionable—and some the work of religious men, revered mainly by tradition and to the extent that they are considered to have been divinely inspired, if not dictated, by the divine being.
These are complemented by and supplemented with various originally oral traditions: Midrash , the Mishnah , the Talmud and collected rabbinical writings. The Hebrew text of the Tanakh, and the Torah in particular is considered holy, down to the last letter: Latin Bibles originally contained 73 books; however, 7 books, collectively called the Apocrypha or Deuterocanon depending on one's opinion of them, were removed by Martin Luther due to a lack of original Hebrew sources, and now vary on their inclusion between denominations. Greek Bibles contain additional materials.
The New Testament comprises four accounts of the life and teachings of Jesus the Four Gospels , as well as several other writings the epistles and the Book of Revelation. They are usually considered to be divinely inspired , and together comprise the Christian Bible.
The vast majority of Christian faiths including Catholicism, Orthodox Christianity, and most forms of Protestantism recognize that the Gospels were passed on by oral tradition, and were not set to paper until decades after the resurrection of Jesus and that the extant versions are copies of those originals. The version of the Bible considered to be most valid in the sense of best conveying the true meaning of the word of God has varied considerably: The sacred scriptures of the Christian Bible are complemented by a large body of writings by individual Christians and councils of Christian leaders see canon law.
Some Christian churches and denominations consider certain additional writings to be binding; other Christian groups consider only the Bible to be binding sola scriptura. Islam's holiest book is the Quran, comprising Suras "chapters of the Qur'an". However, Muslims also believe in the religious texts of Judaism and Christianity in their original forms, albeit not the current versions. According to the Quran and mainstream Muslim belief , the verses of the Quran were revealed by God through the Archangel Jibrail to Muhammad on separate occasions.
These revelations were written down and also memorized by hundreds of companions of Muhammad. These multiple sources were collected into one official copy. After the death of Mohammed, Quran was copied on several copies and Caliph Uthman provided these copies to different cities of Islamic Empire. The Quran mentions and reveres several of the Israelite prophets, including Moses and Jesus , among others see also: The stories of these prophets are very similar to those in the Bible.
However, the detailed precepts of the Tanakh and the New Testament are not adopted outright; they are replaced by the new commandments accepted as revealed directly by God through Gabriel to Muhammad and codified in the Quran. Like the Jews with the Torah, Muslims consider the original Arabic text of the Quran as uncorrupted and holy to the last letter, and any translations are considered to be interpretations of the meaning of the Quran, as only the original Arabic text is considered to be the divine scripture.
Like the Rabbinic Oral Law to the Hebrew Bible, the Quran is complemented by the Hadith , a set of books by later authors recording the sayings of the prophet Muhammad. The Hadith interpret and elaborate Qur'anic precepts. Islamic scholars have categorized each Hadith at one of the following levels of authenticity or isnad: By the 9th century, six major Hadith collections were accepted as reliable to Sunni Muslims.
Shia Muslims, however, refer to other authenticated hadiths instead. The Hadith and the life story of Muhammad sira form the Sunnah , an authoritative supplement to the Quran. The Quran contains repeated references to the "religion of Abraham" see Suras 2: In the Quran, this expression refers specifically to Islam; sometimes in contrast to Christianity and Judaism, as in Sura 2: I would rather the Religion of Abraham the True, and he joined not gods with God.
In the major Abrahamic religions, there exists the expectation of an individual who will herald the time of the end or bring about the Kingdom of God on Earth; in other words, the Messianic prophecy. Judaism awaits the coming of the Jewish Messiah ; the Jewish concept of Messiah differs from the Christian concept in several significant ways, despite the same term being applied to both.
The Jewish Messiah is not seen as a "god", but as a mortal man who by his holiness is worthy of that description. His appearance is not the end of history, rather it signals the coming of the world to come.
Abraham in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam
Christianity awaits the Second Coming of Christ, though Full Preterists believe this has already happened. Islam awaits both the second coming of Jesus to complete his life and die and the coming of Mahdi Sunnis in his first incarnation, Shia as the return of Muhammad al-Mahdi.
Most Abrahamic religions agree that a human being comprises the body, which dies, and the soul , which is capable of remaining alive beyond human death and carries the person's essence, and that God will judge each person's life accordingly after death. The importance of this and the focus on it, as well as the precise criteria and end result, differ between religions. Judaism's views on the afterlife "the Next World" are quite diverse. This can be attributed to the fact that although there clearly are traditions in the Hebrew Bible of an afterlife see Naboth and the Witch of Endor , Judaism focuses on this life and how to lead a holy life to please God, rather than future reward.
Christians have more diverse and definite teachings on the end times and what constitutes afterlife. Most Christian approaches either include different abodes for the dead Heaven , Hell , Limbo , Purgatory or universal reconciliation because all souls are made in the image of God. A small minority teach annihilationism , the doctrine that those persons who are not reconciled to God simply cease to exist.
Those who obey God and submit to God will be rewarded with their own place in Paradise. While sinners are punished with fire, there are also many other forms of punishment described, depending on the sin committed; Hell is divided into numerous levels. Those who worship and remember God are promised eternal abode in a physical and spiritual Paradise. Heaven is divided into eight levels , with the highest level of Paradise being the reward of those who have been most virtuous, the prophets, and those killed while fighting for Allah martyrs.
Upon repentance to God, many sins can be forgiven, on the condition they are not repeated, as God is supremely merciful. Additionally, those who believe in God, but have led sinful lives, may be punished for a time, and then eventually released into Paradise. If anyone dies in a state of Shirk i.
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Once a person is admitted to Paradise, this person will abide there for eternity. Worship, ceremonies and religion-related customs differ substantially among the Abrahamic religions. Among the few similarities are a seven-day cycle in which one day is nominally reserved for worship, prayer or other religious activities— Shabbat , Sabbath , or jumu'ah ; this custom is related to the biblical story of Genesis, where God created the universe in six days and rested in the seventh. Orthodox Judaism practice is guided by the interpretation of the Torah and the Talmud.
Before the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem , Jewish priests offered sacrifices there two times daily; since then, the practice has been replaced, until the Temple is rebuilt, by Jewish men being required to pray three times daily, including the chanting of the Torah , and facing in the direction of Jerusalem 's Temple Mount.
Other practices include circumcision , dietary laws , Shabbat , Passover , Torah study , Tefillin , purity and others. Conservative Judaism , Reform Judaism and the Reconstructionist movement all move away, in different degrees, from the strict tradition of the law. Jewish women's prayer obligations vary by denomination ; in contemporary Orthodox practice, women do not read from the Torah and are only required to say certain parts of these daily services.
All versions of Judaism share a common, specialized calendar, containing many festivals. The calendar is lunisolar, with lunar months and a solar year an extra month is added every second or third year to allow the shorter lunar year to "catch up" to the solar year. All streams observe the same festivals, but some emphasize them differently. As is usual with its extensive law system, the Orthodox have the most complex manner of observing the festivals, while the Reform pay more attention to the simple symbolism of each one.
Christian worship varies from denomination to denomination. Individual prayer is usually not ritualised, while group prayer may be ritual or non-ritual according to the occasion. During church services, some form of liturgy is frequently followed.
Place of Abraham in Islam, Christianity, Judaism
Rituals are performed during sacraments , which also vary from denomination to denomination and usually include Baptism and Communion , and may also include Confirmation , Confession , Last Rites and Holy Orders. Catholic worship practice is governed by the Roman Missal and other documents.
Individuals, churches and denominations place different emphasis on ritual—some denominations consider most ritual activity optional, see Adiaphora , particularly since the Protestant Reformation. The first pillar is the belief in the oneness of Allah, and in Muhammad as his final and most perfect prophet.
The second is to pray five times daily salat towards the direction qibla of the Kaaba in Mecca. The third pillar is almsgiving Zakah , a portion of one's wealth given to the poor or to other specified causes, which means the giving of a specific share of one's wealth and savings to persons or causes, as is commanded in the Quran and elucidated as to specific percentages for different kinds of income and wealth in the hadith. The normal share to be paid is two and a half percent of one's earnings: Fasting sawm during the ninth month of the Muslim lunar calendar, Ramadan , is the fourth pillar of Islam, to which all Muslims after the age of puberty in good health as judged by a Muslim doctor to be able fast without incurring grave danger to health: In such a case, restitution must be made by feeding one poor person for each day missed.
Finally, Muslims are also required, if physically able, to undertake a pilgrimage to Mecca at least once in one's life: Only individuals whose financial position and health are severely insufficient are exempt from making Hajj e. During this pilgrimage, the Muslims spend three to seven days in worship, performing several strictly defined rituals, most notably circumambulating the Kaaba among millions of other Muslims and the " stoning of the devil " at Mina.
At the end of the Hajj , the heads of men are shaved, sheep and other halal animals, notably camels , are slaughtered as a ritual sacrifice by bleeding out at the neck according to a strictly prescribed ritual slaughter method similar to the Jewish kashrut , to commemorate the moment when, according to Islamic tradition, Allah replaced Abraham's son Ishmael contrasted with the Judaeo-Christian tradition that Isaac was the intended sacrifice with a sheep, thereby preventing human sacrifice. The meat from these animals is then distributed locally to needy Muslims, neighbours and relatives.
Finally, the hajji puts off ihram and the hajj is complete. Judaism practices circumcision for males as a matter of religious obligation at the age of 8 days old, as does Islam as part of Sunnah. Western Christianity replaced that custom with a baptism  ceremony varying according to the denomination, but generally including immersion , aspersion , or anointment with water. The Council of Florence in the 15th century  prohibited it. Paragraph of the Catholic Catechism calls non-medical amputation or mutilation immoral. Catholic scholars make various arguments in support of the idea that this policy is not in contradiction with the previous edicts.
The Catholic Church currently maintains a neutral position on the practice of non-religious circumcision,  and in it banned the practice of religious circumcision in the 11th Council of Florence. Many countries with majorities of Christian adherents have low circumcision rates, while both religious and non-religious circumcision is common in many predominantly Christian countries such as the United States ,  and the Philippines , Australia ,  and Canada , Cameroon , Democratic Republic of the Congo , Ethiopia , Equatorial Guinea , Ghana , Nigeria , and Kenya , and many other African Christian countries,   Circumcision is near universal in the Christian countries of Oceania.
Male circumcision is among the rites of Islam and is part of the fitrah , or the innate disposition and natural character and instinct of the human creation. Judaism and Islam have strict dietary laws , with permitted food known as kosher in Judaism, and halal in Islam. These two religions prohibit the consumption of pork; Islam prohibits the consumption of alcoholic beverages of any kind.
Halal restrictions can be seen as a modification of the kashrut dietary laws, so many kosher foods are considered halal; especially in the case of meat, which Islam prescribes must be slaughtered in the name of God. Hence, in many places, Muslims used to consume kosher food. However, some foods not considered kosher are considered halal in Islam.
With rare exceptions, Christians do not consider the Old Testament's strict food laws as relevant for today's church; see also Biblical law in Christianity. Most Protestants have no set food laws, but there are minority exceptions. The Roman Catholic Church believes in observing abstinence and penance. For example, all Fridays through the year and the time of Lent are penitential days. Therefore, they do not eat pork, shellfish, or other foods considered unclean under the Old Covenant.
The "Fundamental Beliefs" of the SDA state that their members "are to adopt the most healthful diet possible and abstain from the unclean foods identified in the Scriptures". In the Christian Bible , the consumption of strangled animals and of blood was forbidden by Apostolic Decree [Acts With the Greeks , indeed, it continued always in force as their Euchologies still show. Jehovah's Witnesses abstain from eating blood and from blood transfusions based on Acts The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints prohibits the consumption of alcohol, coffee, and non-herbal tea.
While there is not a set of prohibited food, the church encourages members to refrain from eating excessive amounts of red meat. Sabbath in the Bible is a weekly day of rest and time of worship. It is observed differently in Judaism and Christianity and informs a similar occasion in several other Abrahamic faiths. Though many viewpoints and definitions have arisen over the millennia, most originate in the same textual tradition. Judaism accepts converts, but has had no explicit missionaries since the end of the Second Temple era.
Judaism states that non-Jews can achieve righteousness by following Noahide Laws , a set of moral imperatives that, according to the Talmud , were given by God  as a binding set of laws for the "children of Noah "—that is, all of humanity. Moses Maimonides , one of the major Jewish teachers, commented: Because the commandments applicable to the Jews are much more detailed and onerous than Noahide laws, Jewish scholars have traditionally maintained that it is better to be a good non-Jew than a bad Jew, thus discouraging conversion.
Many Christian organizations, especially Protestant churches, send missionaries to non-Christian communities throughout the world. See also Great Commission. Forced conversions to Catholicism have been alleged at various points throughout history. Forced conversions to Protestantism may have occurred as well, notably during the Reformation , especially in England and Ireland see recusancy and Popish plot.
Forced conversions are condemned as sinful by major denominations such as the Roman Catholic Church, which officially states that forced conversions pollute the Christian religion and offend human dignity, so that past or present offences are regarded as a scandal a cause of unbelief. Dawah is an important Islamic concept which denotes the preaching of Islam. Da'wah activities can take many forms. Some pursue Islamic studies specifically to perform Da'wah. Mosques and other Islamic centers sometimes spread Da'wah actively, similar to evangelical churches.
Others consider being open to the public and answering questions to be Da'wah. Recalling Muslims to the faith and expanding their knowledge can also be considered Da'wah. This section reports on writings and talks which describe or advocate dialogue between the Abrahamic religions. He describes the situation in this way: Amir Hussain In , a book called Progressive Muslims: And, we might even notice that in theological terms, the person of Abraham becomes an object, in some ways, of disagreement and, also, methods of expressing a particular theological viewpoint.
If we notice in the New Testament , Paul, in the Book of Romans, looks to Abraham in a very particular way, very Christian way, as an example of faith. So, unlike those who were justified under the law given to Moses, Abraham who lived before Moses, then before the law, was justified by his faith because God gave him a promise which seemed to have been unbelievable; and Abraham believed in that promise and his belief was counted unto him as righteousness.
So, from an academic point of view, we have this really, intriguing perspectives that we find in the three traditions on Abraham. All of the traditions use Abraham in a particular way and, at the same time, as believers of different traditions, Muslims, Christians, and Jews, have found Abraham as a figure who can allow them to reflect on commonalities in the faith. Islam, considered to be the religion of Abraham, knows numerous traditions about Abraham, some of which do not appear in the Bible.
The religion and culture of Jews. A collection of first-century Jewish and early Christian writings that, along with the Old Testament, makes up the Christian Bible. Hajj is also an obligation no Muslim is allowed to reject or ignore. Click here to learn more about Hajj. First, the Kaba is the central structure around which the Hajj takes place. No Hajj is valid without going around this structure built by Prophets Ibrahim and Ismail in counterclockwise fashion seven times.
Second, Muslims who perform the Hajj or Umra must run in the middle portion of the distance between Safa and Marwa two hills close to the Kaba seven times. This is a commemoration of the sacrifice of the wife of Abraham, Hajira may God be pleased with her for her son Prophet Ismail. It was from this civilization that the Prophet Mohammed was born. The commemoration of this sacrifice is practiced with the sacrifice of an animal during Hajj and one of the two Islamic holy days: God talks about this incident in Quran The sacrifice that is offered by Muslims all over the world every year at Eid-ul-Adha is in commemoration of the supreme act and spirit of sacrifice offered by Prophet Abraham in lieu of his son Ismail.
According to Scripture, he was the son of Terah and the father of Isaac, who was born to Sarah, and he is also the father of Ishmael, who was born to Hagar. God appeared to him in a vision. He promised Abraham that his descendants would inherit the land. When the mother of Isaac, Sarah, died, Abraham bought the cave of Macpelah as a burial place.
Abraham died at the age of Here is an excerpt from that section from Genesis So Abraham rose early in the morning and saddled his donkey, and took two of his young men with him, and Isaac his son; and he split the wood for the burnt offering, and arose and went to the place which God had told him.
Then on the third day Abraham lifted his eyes and saw the place afar off. So Abraham took the wood of the burnt offering and laid it on Isaac his son; and he took the fire in his hand, and a knife, and the two of them went together.