- The Phrontistery: Obscure Words and Vocabulary Resources
- From Classical times to 1604
- How to Cite a Dictionary Online in APA Format
The Phrontistery: Obscure Words and Vocabulary Resources
There are also many online dictionaries accessible via the Internet. According to the Manual of Specialized Lexicographies , a specialized dictionary , also referred to as a technical dictionary, is a dictionary that focuses upon a specific subject field. Following the description in The Bilingual LSP Dictionary , lexicographers categorize specialized dictionaries into three types: A multi-field dictionary broadly covers several subject fields e. For example, the language Inter-Active Terminology for Europe is a multi-field dictionary, the American National Biography is a single-field, and the African American National Biography Project is a sub-field dictionary.
In terms of the coverage distinction between "minimizing dictionaries" and "maximizing dictionaries", multi-field dictionaries tend to minimize coverage across subject fields for instance, Oxford Dictionary of World Religions and Yadgar Dictionary of Computer and Internet Terms  whereas single-field and sub-field dictionaries tend to maximize coverage within a limited subject field The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology. Another variant is the glossary , an alphabetical list of defined terms in a specialized field, such as medicine medical dictionary.
From Classical times to 1604
The simplest dictionary, a defining dictionary , provides a core glossary of the simplest meanings of the simplest concepts. From these, other concepts can be explained and defined, in particular for those who are first learning a language. In English, the commercial defining dictionaries typically include only one or two meanings of under words. With these, the rest of English, and even the most common English idioms and metaphors , can be defined. Lexicographers apply two basic philosophies to the defining of words: Noah Webster , intent on forging a distinct identity for the American language, altered spellings and accentuated differences in meaning and pronunciation of some words.
This is why American English now uses the spelling color while the rest of the English-speaking world prefers colour. Similarly, British English subsequently underwent a few spelling changes that did not affect American English; see further at American and British English spelling differences. Large 20th-century dictionaries such as the Oxford English Dictionary OED and Webster's Third are descriptive, and attempt to describe the actual use of words. Most dictionaries of English now apply the descriptive method to a word's definition, and then, outside of the definition itself, and information alerting readers to attitudes which may influence their choices on words often considered vulgar, offensive, erroneous, or easily confused.
American Heritage goes further, discussing issues separately in numerous "usage notes. Because of the widespread use of dictionaries in schools, and their acceptance by many as language authorities, their treatment of the language does affect usage to some degree, with even the most descriptive dictionaries providing conservative continuity.
In the long run, however, the meanings of words in English are primarily determined by usage, and the language is being changed and created every day. The roots of language are irrational and of a magical nature. Sometimes the same dictionary can be descriptive in some domains and prescriptive in others. A historical dictionary is a specific kind of descriptive dictionary which describes the development of words and senses over time, usually using citations to original source material to support its conclusions. In contrast to traditional dictionaries, which are designed to be used by human beings, dictionaries for natural language processing NLP are built to be used by computer programs.
The final user is a human being but the direct user is a program. Such a dictionary does not need to be able to be printed on paper.
The structure of the content is not linear, ordered entry by entry but has the form of a complex network see Diathesis alternation. Because most of these dictionaries are used to control machine translations or cross-lingual information retrieval CLIR the content is usually multilingual and usually of huge size. In order to allow formalized exchange and merging of dictionaries, an ISO standard called Lexical Markup Framework LMF has been defined and used among the industrial and academic community. In many languages, such as the English language, the pronunciation of some words is not consistently apparent from their spelling.
In these languages, dictionaries usually provide the pronunciation.
How to Cite a Dictionary Online in APA Format
Yet others use their own pronunciation respelling systems without diacritics: Some online or electronic dictionaries provide audio recordings of words being spoken. The age of the Internet brought online dictionaries to the desktop and, more recently, to the smart phone. David Skinner in noted that "Among the top ten lookups on Merriam-Webster Online at this moment are 'holistic, pragmatic, caveat, esoteric' and 'bourgeois. There exist a number of websites which operate as online dictionaries, usually with a specialized focus.
Some of them have exclusively user driven content, often consisting of neologisms. Some of the more notable examples include:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Online dictionary. For other uses, see Dictionary disambiguation. Comparison of English dictionaries. List of online dictionaries. Dictionaries, compilers, critics, and users. Archived from the original on Philitas of Cos as scholar and poet".
Retrieved 5 August Eckmann, Encyclopaedia of Islam , 2nd ed. Retrieved 13 October Considine 27 March Dictionaries in Early Modern Europe: Lexicography and the Making of Heritage.
Retrieved 16 May Archived from the original on 11 October Ethnocentrism and the English Dictionary. Current Issues in Late Modern English. Dictionary Glossary Lexicon Phrase book Thesaurus.
List of lexicographers List of online dictionaries. Australian National Australian Oxford Macquarie. Retrieved from " https: Webarchive template wayback links All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from November Wikipedia articles needing clarification from November Articles with Curlie links Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from Collier's Encyclopedia Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the New International Encyclopedia Articles prone to spam from June Wikipedia articles with GND identifiers Wikipedia articles with LCCN identifiers.
I forgot to shut the window before leaving.
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Both forgot and forgotten are used as the past participle of forget: Many have already forgot or forgotten the hard times of the Depression. Only forgotten is used attributively: Related Words ignore fail overlook neglect skip blow obliterate omit discount drop slight blink trespass disregard transgress disremember misrecollect overpass. Contemporary Examples Again, forgetting about the owners and everything they did, I was in love with The Source.
It Was All a Dream: Oscar Season Kicks Off in Toronto: The Unheralded Comedy Genius: Historical Examples When I look at it I'm to remember that you are forgetting me?