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Johann Friedrich Unger, Adventures 5, 7 and 9 derive ultimately from Norse sources, i. It is only in this form of the stories that the smith is called Mimer. That is most clearly demonstrated in the ballad form of the tales of Otnit and Wieland. The practice of compilation, of including additional motifs and stories that have little or nothing to do with the principal story being related, runs through all the English versions of the story of Siegfried and the Nibelungs to a greater or lesser degree.
What is most important is the focus on Siegfried as the hero of a variety of amazing exploits. While the Nibelungenlied lapsed from general consciousness by the end of the sixteenth century, the figure of Siegfried persisted. New editions of this prose version continued to be printed up to the middle of the nineteenth century. There is, therefore, a long literary tradition of the exploits of a mythical or fairytale Siegfried separate from his role in the Nibelungenlied. The first of these is through history books, the second through travel guides.
It is to be found in R. John Murray, , where, in a brief passage dealing with medieval literature, the author declares: A school history book dealing with the whole of German history from Roman times to the present day cannot be expected to give details about matters of literature, so it is remarkable to have the poem highlighted.
It is a measure of the importance attached to the poem in Germany that British children were now told about it. It is remarkable too that the reference comes before any English translation was available. Marcus Ward, Charlotte M. Yonge tries to combine Norse and German versions of the medieval stories, but her confused chapter is marred by misstatements and misspellings. This is not a view that can be substantiated. An Old German Story.
British travellers were supplied with a considerable variety of guide-books from the post-Napoleonic period onwards. Many of these were translations of German books and were published in major cities such as Frankfurt, Mainz and Cologne. They tend to concentrate on the part of the Rhine between Cologne and Mainz, so Worms rarely figures in them.
The Drachenfels, of course, always comes in for a story, but the earliest tradition is of a maiden being sacrificed by two pagan princes and protecting herself against the dragon by holding a crucifix in front of her. This is the most persistent tradition, but in the second half of the century there are occasional allusions to Siegfried. The Rhine to the Arctic Boston: This fine old German poem was written towards the latter end of the 12th century, but the traditions on which it is founded appear to have been handed down, probably in popular lays, from very remote times, and to have been common to all the tribes German, Saxon, and Scandinavian of the Teuton race.
No less than 20 poems of the Edda, which, as it has been satisfactorily shown, must have been composed prior to the year , contain the same tragical story of the mythic-heroic personages who figure in the Nibelungen p. We shall return to Baldwin in due course. Since they concentrate on the Romantic stretch of the river, few have anything to say about Worms. One manuscript of the poem has Siegfried murdered in the Forest of the Vosges, but another has, as here, the Odenwald. So too were the translations of the Nibelungenlied that we have already noted in the last quarter of the nineteenth century.
There were also two substantial retellings of the poem in books designed for readers with a serious interest in medieval heroic literature. A vigorous, simplified account was given by E. Das Nibelungenlied , adapted for the use of young readers by Lydia Hands London: These had been executed nearly forty years previously for a German edition of Der Nibelungen Noth In nine chapters she covers the high points of the poem, weaving in threads occasionally from other sources.
She also includes the adventures of Siegfried with Mimer and the dragon, which Carlyle mentions in outlining the adventures of the young Siegfried. Probably this has some purely personal significance; perhaps it was the name of a German boy Hands knew.https://imrepopub.tk/map22.php
Another of her innovations is a helpful female spirit incongruously called Hermione, whom Siegfried meets in the forest! However, Siegfried is given an early visit to Isenland on which he meets, but rejects, Brunhild, before undertaking the adventures by the Rhine which equip him with the Nibelung treasure, the sword Balmung and the cloak of darkness.
When he goes to Worms to woo Criemhild, he does not challenge the Burgundians, but is simply welcomed by them. Hagen here is not a vassal, but the uncle of Gunther and his brothers. The ensuing quarrel between the two queens in concerned solely with the respective status of their two husbands. It leads ineluctably to the murder of Siegfried at the fountain in the forest. After her departure Hagen sinks the treasure in the Rhine.
Used book in very good condition. Some cover wear, may contain a few marks. Ships from the UK. Shows some signs of wear, and may have some markings on the inside. Your purchase also supports literacy charities. Better World Books Ltd Condition: Heavy wear to cover. Pages contain marginal notes, underlining, and or highlighting. Accessories such as CD, codes, toys, and dust jackets may not be included. Advanced Book Search Browse by Subject. This drew heavily on the reading of the Ring as a revolutionary drama and critique of the modern world, famously expounded by George Bernard Shaw in The Perfect Wagnerite.
Early performances were booed but the audience of gave it a minute ovation in its final year;   the production is now generally regarded as revolutionary and a classic. Although many Ring productions try to remain close to Wagner's original stage design and direction, others seek to re-interpret the Ring for modern audiences, often including decor and action that Wagner himself did not envisage. The production by Peter Hall , conducted by Georg Solti at Bayreuth in is an example of the former, while the production by Richard Jones at the Royal Opera House Covent Garden in —, conducted by Bernard Haitink , is an example of the latter.
In the first production of the cycle in Russia in modern times was conducted by Valery Gergiev at the Mariinsky Opera , Saint Petersburg, designed by George Tsypin. The production drew parallels with Ossetian mythology. Each part of the cycle had a different director. The production uses imagery from various eras of American history and has a feminist and environmentalist viewpoint.
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Recent performances of this production took place at the John F. The staging of Das Rheingold by Robert Lepage involved 24 identical wedges able to rotate independently on a horizontal axis across the stage, providing level, sloping, angled or moving surfaces facing the audience. Bubbles, falling stones and fire are projected on to these surfaces, linked by computer with the music and movement of the characters. Classical Voice America heralded the production as "one of the best Rings anywhere in a long time.
It is possible to perform The Ring with fewer resources than usual. In , the City of Birmingham Touring Opera now Birmingham Opera Company , presented a two-evening adaptation by Jonathan Dove for a limited number of solo singers, each doubling several roles, and 18 orchestral players.
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Telling Tales - Siegfried and the Nibelungenlied - Open Book Publishers
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Der Ring des Nibelungen: Composition of the poem. Composition of the music. Der Ring des Nibelungen discography. Retrieved June 17, Companion , edited by Barry Millington which, as well as containing essays, including one on the source material which provides an English translation of the entire text that strives to remain faithful to the early medieval Stabreim technique Wagner used. See Mendelssohn , pp. The Lion roars for Wagner". The New York Times. Retrieved 8 October Retrieved 11 October Archived from the original on 26 April Retrieved 3 December Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts.
Retrieved 10 February Retrieved 23 August Archived from the original on 5 March Retrieved 5 August