Since not a single document exists from before his efforts to unify Christianity. Dear Rich, I must offer a set of corrections to what is, I have to say, an overly simlistic statement.
No need to worry about Irenaeus or anybody else that early having an undue effect on the copying of them. Anyway, it is a comment that could lead in various directions. It raises some rather thorny questions about the historians relationship to subject of investigation. I might be tempted to detect, lurking in the shadows, the notion that the historian can be situated in some sort of hypothetical neutral ground in relationship to the subject. Thank you for posting the article.
It is very helpful for those us who do not live near a major library. All knowledge we have is human knowledge, refracted through the abilities, interests, and resources of knowing humans. No big philosophical issues involved really. Professor Hurtado, thank you for your helpful and informative essay.
However counter-intuitive it will perhaps seem, the exalted claims and the unprecedented devotional practices that reflect a treatment of Jesus as somehow sharing divine attributes and status began among Jewish believers and within the earliest moments of the young Christian movement.
If the dead body of Jesus is still in the tomb, death has not been defeated, there is no victory at all, because the body that died is still dead! This seems to require an explanation. I propose that we must posit revelatory experiences that conveyed this conviction to early influential figures and circles. These experiences likely included visions such as I have sketched. The most important component in any such experiences was something sufficient to convey the conviction that God now requires Jesus to be reverenced.
An encounter with the risen Jesus does not seem to me adequate for this. Professor Hurtado, I apologize for any mis-characterizations. It seems my attempt to present your argument in succinct fashion did not go too well. Its difficult to imagine Christianity coming into existence with a crucified, dead and buried Messiah. No aim on my part at all of minimizing the significance for earliest Christians of the claim that God had raised Jesus from death and exalted him to heavenly glory.
Unquestionably, this faith lies at the basis of earliest Christianity. My own research has focused more specifically, however, on the causation-factors prompting and shaping earliest Jesus-devotion, specifically, the incorporation of the risen Jesus into the corporate worship of earliest Christianity. Thank you very much for making your essay available, Prof Hurtado. For it seems to me that the New Testament tends to look at Christology from the point of view of discipleship, and vice versa; never dichotomizing the two, as the titular approach somehow did.
Moreover, your approach seems to make the translation of scholarship into contemporary Christian faith and practice more straight-forward. Nevertheless, your area is one place where that distinction can appear a bit forced. Thank you very much for this Prof. Scholars have to particularize and distinguish things for clarity of analysis. But sometimes it can become counter-productive. But mature Christian faith should have nothing to fear from good historical analysis.
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There is very little reference to the earthly economy of Christ, and none whatever to His divine-human mediatorship, to His saving death and resurrection Eccl. According to the late Fr. However, where the dionysian system reaches its most extreme is in overturning the eschatological and historical dimensions of the Eucharist.
Even communion, the most important act of the Eucharist, is no more than a symbol of man's union and absorption with the divine hypostasis. Under this peculiar mysticism, holiness is no longer connected with the coming Kingdom, i. It is rather identified with the soul's union with the Logos, and therefore, with the catharsis , the purification from all that prohibits union with the primal Logos, including all that is material, tangible and historical.
In other words, the reference point is not the eschatological glory of the Kingdom of God, but the state of blessedness in Paradise before the Fall. In the life of the Church these two basic expressions of spirituality have always remained parallel to each other, sometimes meeting together and forming a creative unity, and some other times moving apart creating dilemmas and conflicts. Where should one search to find personal wholeness and salvation, and what is the authentic mode of holiness?
Or in the desert, the hermitage, the monastery, where naturally the effort for catharsis and for the healing of passions through ascetic discipline of the individual is more effective? This was, and remains, a critical dilemma in the life of the Church, especially in the East. No doubt, the center of the Church's spiritual life, with few exceptions, has always remained the Eucharist, the sole place where the Church becomes what really is: And it was this eschatological dimension of the Christian ecclesiology that determines the authentic expression of holiness.
In other words, holiness is inextricably linked with a eucharistic understanding of the Church as a communion of the eschaton. The Rediscovery of the Eucharistic Awareness and Vision. More importantly, he has convincingly proved the priority and the authenticity of the latter. According to Afanassieff the effect of the universal ecclesiology was so strong, that for centuries it seemed the only possible option, almost an ecclesiological axiom, without which every single thought about the Church seemed impossible. However, Afanassieff went on, the universal ecclesiology was not the only one.
That is why the catholicity of the Church is manifested completely in every local Church. But in this case first in importance and extremely determinative is the role of the bishop, whose office constitutes the preeminent expression of the unity of the Church, and in consequence the Eucharist one of his functions . In addition, the eucharistic theology underlines the eschatological dimension of the Church; that is why it understands all the offices of the Church, and especially those of the ordained priesthood, not as authorities or offices in the conventional sense, but as images of the authentic eschatological Kingdom of God.
In opposition to this, the universal ecclesiology, having as its point of departure the historical expression of the Church, understands the unity and catholicity of the Church, as well as the apostolic succession, in a linear way;  that is why the bishop, even when interpreted as type and image of Christ, has priority over the eucharistic community.
Early Jesus-Devotion Essay
As it has officially stated there: His body and blood, given to us in the elements of bread and wine, integrate liturgy and diaconate Concluding Remarks on the Eucharistic Spirituality and Holiness. Only in this way do the Christians bear witness to the fundamental characteristics of the Church, i. And only thus are all kinds of nationalistic and phyletistic behavior effectively overcome, promoting not only Church unity, but also actively contributing to the struggle for the unity of humankind.
In terms of tangible effects, a eucharistic understanding of holiness always points towards a common evangelistic witness.
For according to the biblical references cf. It was such a eucharistic understanding of holiness that has in many cases helped the Church to overcome the corrupted hierarchical order which is a reflection of the fallen earthly order, and not of the kenotic divine one both in society and in the priestly ecclesiastical order. The secular world we live in today, as well as the broken and divided humankind, need new forms of holiness. For Christians across denominational boundaries the future of humanity depends on a spiritual life that pays more attention to the perspectives of unity and communion.
Let us once again recall the famous johannine saying: And this is what eucharistic spirituality and holiness is all about: It is the affirmation of the created world history and everything in material creation , and the referring of it all anaphora back to the Father Creator, while always keeping alive the vision of the eschaton.
Boston , especially pp. Around these two poles has A. Golitzin too examined, and rightly so, St. Symeon the New Theologian, the most characteristic expression of Orthodox spirituality cf.
Daily Devotionals and Bible Devotions
Whaling, Paulist Press , p. John and Charles Wesley, p. Worship comes first, doctrine and discipline second. In other words eschatology and pneumatology run parallel to each other. Brown, Priest and Bishop: Biblical Reflections, New York By nature the Church cannot reflect the worldly image of secular organizations, which is based on power and domination, but the kenotic image of the Holy Trinity, which is based on love and communion. If one takes a little further this trinitarian approach and takes into consideration the distinction of the hypostases persons within the Holy Trinity, one can come to the conclusion that the Church is a Church of "God" the father before it becomes a Church of "Christ" and of a certain place.
In the Eucharistic Liturgy all the proper eucharistic prayers are addressed to God. Volf, After Our Likeness. Popularity Popularity Featured Price: Low to High Price: High to Low Avg. Devotional Essays Jan 13, Available for download now. Available to ship in days. Provide feedback about this page. There's a problem loading this menu right now.
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