- William James (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
- 2. Early Writings
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- 1. Chronology of James’s Life
- William James
He identifies four postulates of rationality as value-related, but unknowable, matters of belief; these are God, immortality, freedom, and moral duty Will , pp. He proceeds to deal with each of them individually. Because we do not naturally experience the supernatural, James, the radical empiricist, thinks of faith in God as falling short of knowledge. Yet such faith is pragmatically meaningful to many people, and it is reasonable to wonder whether, how, and to what extent it can be justified.
For James, the logical philosopher trained in science, both logic and science have limits beyond which we can legitimately seek the sentiment of rationality. James acknowledges that in our scientific age, there is something dubious about the voluntaristic view that, in some circumstances, we can legitimately choose to believe in the absence of any objective justification.
However, he claims we naturally do so all the time, our moral and political ideas being obvious examples. When you believe that your mother loves you or in the sincerity of your best friend, you have no conclusively objective evidence. In addition, you will never be able to secure such evidence. Yet it often seems unreasonable to refuse to commit to believing such matters; if we did so, the pragmatic consequences would be a more impoverished social life. Indeed, in some cases, believing and acting on that belief can help increase the chances of the belief being true. Now let us apply this argument to religious belief.
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What does religion in general propose for our belief? The two-pronged answer is that ultimate reality is most valuable and that we are better off if we believe that. Committing to that two-pronged belief is meaningful, as is the refusal to do so. At any given moment, I must either make that two-pronged commitment or not; and how I experience this life, as well as prospects for a possible after-life, may be at stake.
William James (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)
Whether one makes that commitment or not, pragmatic consequences can be involved. Nor should we imagine that we could avoid having to make a choice, as the commitment not to commit is itself a commitment Will , pp. This definition indicates that religion does not require faith in a transcendent, monotheistic God, and that it does not mandate the social dimension of religious community.
James develops lengthy analyses of religious conversion, saintliness, and mysticism. He critically considers traditional arguments for God—the cosmological argument, the argument from design, the moral argument, and the argument from popular consensus—finding none of them particularly cogent, but exhibiting the most respect for the argument from design. He likewise weighs in the balance and finds wanting arguments for metaphysical and moral divine attributes, finding the latter of more pragmatic relevance to human values, choices, and behavior than the former.
In his final lecture, he draws conclusions regarding three beliefs that experience finds in religions in general: Furthermore, religions typically involve two psychological qualities in their believers: Given that thought and feeling both determine conduct, James thinks that different religions are similar in feeling and conduct, their doctrines being more variable, but less essential. Most generally, these doctrines attempt to diagnose a fundamental uneasiness about our natural state and to prescribe a solution whereby we might be saved Varieties , pp.
He believes there is more to reality than our natural world and that this unseen realm generates practical effects in this world. James describes himself as a supernaturalist rather than a materialist of a sort less refined than idealists and as unable to subscribe to popular Christianity. He is unwilling to assume that God is one or infinite, even contemplating the polytheistic notion that the divine is a collection of godlike selves Varieties , pp.
We are free to make our own moves; yet the master knows all the moves we could possibly make, the odds of our choosing one over the others, and how best to respond to any move we choose to make. This indicates two departures from the traditional Judeo-Christian concept of God, in that the master is interacting with us in time rather than eternal and does not know everything in the future, to the extent that it is freely chosen by us.
We can love and respect God to the extent that we are committed to the pursuit of common values. Elsewhere, rejecting the Hegelian notion of God as an all-encompassing Absolute, he subscribes to a God that is finite in knowledge or in power or in both, one that acts in time and has a history and an environment, like us Universe , pp. In contrast to monists such as Hegel, James believes in multiple worlds, specifying seven realms of reality we can experience: Normally we can inhabit more than one of these and be able to discriminate among them. Part of what makes James a great philosopher in the grand tradition is that, unlike so many post-Hegelian Western philosophers, he advocates the pivotal importance of metaphysics.
The theory of reality in general provides a crucial foundational context for philosophy of human nature, philosophy of religion, ethics, social philosophy, and so forth.
Philosophy essentially is an intellectual attempt to come to grips with reality, as he says on the first page of Pragmatism. In its third lecture, James approaches four standard metaphysical issues using his pragmatic method, those of 1 physical and spiritual substance, 2 materialism vs. For each of these, we cannot conclusively establish where we should stand based merely on what experience discloses about the past, but can take reasonable positions based on pragmatic anticipated future consequences. As modern philosophy demonstrates, we can never directly and immediately experience any sort of substance; however, we do experience physical qualities and mental events and can best make sense of them by attributing them to bodies and minds.
The world is what it is, regardless of whether it is the result of divine activity or of the random interactions of atoms moving in space; whether or not it was intelligently designed in the distant past has no bearing on the fact that we experience it as we do. But a world intelligently designed by a deity pragmatically involves the possibility of a promising future, whereas one resulting from unconscious physical forces promises nothing more than a collapse into meaningless obliteration. On the one hand, if everything we may do or fail to do is determined, why bother doing anything?
On the other hand, if we are free to choose at least some of our actions, then effort can be meaningful. In the fourth lecture, James states that our world can be viewed as one monism or as an irreducible many pluralism. There are certain ways in which we humans generate a unity of the objects of our experience, yet the absolute unity to which monism is committed remains a perpetually vanishing ideal. In his seventh lecture, James identifies three dimensions of reality: James intended Some Problems of Philosophy to be largely a textbook in metaphysics, which he defines in terms of the ultimate principles of reality, both within and beyond our human experience.
Monism, pursued to its logical extreme, is deterministic, setting up a sharp dichotomy between what is necessary and what is impossible, while pluralism allows for possibilities that may, but need not, be realized. The former must be either optimistic or pessimistic in its outlook, depending on whether the future that is determined is seen as attractive or unattractive.
Pluralism, being melioristic, calls for our trusting in and cooperating with one another in order to realize desirable possibilities that are not assured Problems , pp. In his Essays in Radical Empiricism , James attempts to distance himself from the philosophical dualism that sees physical reality bodies and spiritual reality minds as essentially distinct.
We never experience mind in separation from body, and he dismisses as an illusion the notion of consciousness as substantial; however, he does not want to reject the reality of mind as a materialist might do. So after years of opposing monism, he adopts an admittedly vague sort of neutral neither materialistic nor idealistic monism that sees thoughts and things as fundamentally the same stuff, the further definition of which eludes us Empiricism , pp.
In the eighth lecture of Pragmatism , James sees monism as tending to a passive sort of quietism rather than to a vital life of active effort. By contrast, pluralistic pragmatism emphasizes the possibilities that may be if we work to realize them. Monism determines the future optimistically as working out for the best, whatever we do, or pessimistically as working out for the worst, whatever we do. By contrast, pluralistic meliorism holds that it can get better if we freely try to make it so. Whether we embrace the option of freedom and moral responsibility or not is ultimately a matter of personal faith rather than one of objective logic or scientific evidence Pragmatism , pp.
Like God and human immortality, the possibility of which James defends without firmly committing himself to believing in it Immortality , pp. Indeterminism, the belief in freedom, holds that there is some degree of possibility that is not necessitated by the rest of reality, while determinism must deny all such possibilities. These beliefs constitute exhaustive and mutually exclusive alternatives, so that if we reject either, we logically should accept the other. Let us consider a commonplace example such as walking home from campus. Before the fact neither the determinist nor the indeterminist can infallibly predict which path will be taken, but after the fact the determinist can irrefutably claim that the path taken was necessary, while the indeterminist can irrefutably claim that it was freely chosen.
Thus far, there is no advantage on either side. But now consider the example of a man gruesomely murdering his loving wife. We hear the awful details recounted and naturally regret what the wicked man did to her. Now, what are we to make of that regret from the perspective of determinism? What sense can it make to regret what had to occur? From that perspective, we logically must embrace pessimism all of reality is determined to be bad or optimism everything is destined to work out for the best or subjectivism good and evil are merely subjective interpretations we artificially cast on things.
All of these can be logically coherent positions, but each of them minimizes the evil we experience in the world and trivializes our natural reaction of regret as pointless. From a practical as opposed to a logical point of view, can we live with that? James deliberately puts the point quite personally.
Though thoughtful and reflective pessimists, optimists, and subjectivists can live with it, he would not, because its pragmatic implications would render life not worth living. In that sense, determinism, though logically tenable, is pragmatically unacceptable, and James commits to indeterminism Will , pp. In addition to God, immortality, and freedom, moral duty is a fourth postulate of rationality. First, our human nature comprises a capacity for an intuitive moral sense, but this must be developed in a context of values that socially evolve.
Second, our basic moral concepts of good and bad, right and wrong, and so forth, are all person-relative, grounded in the claims people make on their environment. Third, when values conflict, those which would seem to satisfy as many personal demands as possible, while frustrating the fewest, should have priority regardless of the nature of those demands.
This represents a pragmatic form of moral relativism, in which no action can be absolutely good or evil in all conceivable circumstances. In answering the question of what is the primary objective of human life, James maintains that a natural answer is happiness. It is this, which motivates us to act and endure. Evolution is often seen as a progressive advance towards happiness Varieties , pp.
Different views of history affect how teachers teach history. Consider the different types of feedback that Mr. Kelsey gave a student paper; see Box 7. Barnes saw the papers as an indication of the bell-shaped distribution of abilities; Ms. Kelsey saw them as representing the misconception that history is about memorizing a mass of information and recounting a series of facts. These two teachers had very different ideas about the nature of learning history. Those ideas affected how they taught and what they wanted their students to achieve.
2. Early Writings
For expert history teachers, their knowledge of the discipline and beliefs about its structure interact with their teaching strategies. Rather than simply introduce students to sets of facts to be learned, these teachers help people to understand the problematic nature of historical interpretation and analysis and to appreciate the relevance of history for their everyday lives. One example of outstanding history teaching comes from the classroom of Bob Bain, a public school teacher in Beechwood, Ohio.
Historians, he notes, are cursed with an abundance of data—the traces of the past threaten to overwhelm them unless they find some way of separating what is important from what is peripheral. The assumptions that historians hold about significance shape how they write their histories, the data they select, and the narrative they compose, as well as the larger schemes they bring to organize and periodize the past.
Often these assumptions about historical significance remain unarticulated in the classroom. Bob Bain begins his ninth-grade high school class by having all the students create a time capsule of what they think are the most important artifacts from the past. In this way, the students explicitly articulate their underlying assumptions of what constitutes historical significance.
At first, students apply the rules rigidly and algorithmically, with little understanding that just as they made the rules, they can also change them. But as students become more practiced in plying their judgments of significance, they come to see the rules as tools for assaying the arguments of different historians, which allows them to begin to understand why historians disagree. Leinhardt and Greeno , spent 2 years studying a highly accomplished teacher of advanced placement history in an urban high school in Pittsburgh.
When the French and Indian war ended, British expected Americans to help them pay back there war debts. If I had the choice between being loyal, or rebelling and having something to eat, I know what my choice would be. I think a lot of people also just were going with the flow, or were being pressured by the Sons of Liberty. By the end of the course, students moved from being passive spectators of the past to enfranchised agents who could participate in the forms of thinking, reasoning, and engagement that are the hallmark of skilled historical cognition.
For example, early in the school year, Ms. Remember that your reader is basically ignorant, so you need to express your view as clearly as you can. Try to form your ideas from the beginning to a middle and then an end. What made the colonists rebel— money, propaganda, conformity? In the middle, justify your view. What factors support your idea and will convince your reader? By January his responses to questions about the fall of the cotton-based economy in the South were linked to British trade policy and colonial ventures in Asia, as well as to the failure of Southern leaders to read public opinion accurately in Great Britain.
Elizabeth Jensen prepares her group of eleventh graders to debate the following resolution:. The British government possesses the legitimate authority to tax the American colonies. But today that voice is silent as her students take up the question of the legitimacy of British taxation in the American colonies. England says she keeps troops here for our own protection. On face value, this seems reasonable enough, but there is really no substance to their claims.
First of all, who do they think they are protecting us from? Quoting from our friend Mr. Maybe they need to protect us from the Spanish? Yet the same war also subdued the Spanish, so they are no real worry either. In fact, the only threat to our order is the Indians…but…we have a decent militia of our own…. So why are they putting troops here? The only possible reason is to keep us in line. With more and more troops coming over, soon every freedom we hold dear will be stripped away. The great irony is that Britain expects us to pay for these vicious troops, these British squelchers of colonial justice.
We moved here, we are paying less taxes than we did for two generations in England, and you complain? But did you know that over one-half of their war debt was caused by defending us in the French and Indian War…. Yet virtual representation makes this whining of yours an untruth. Every British citizen, whether he had a right to vote or not, is represented in Parliament. Why does this representation not extend to America? Okay, then what about the Intolerable Acts…denying us rights of British subjects. What about the rights we are denied? The Sons of Liberty tarred and feather people, pillaged homes— they were definitely deserving of some sort of punishment.
For a moment, the room is a cacophony of charges and countercharges. The teacher, still in the corner, still with spiral notebook in lap, issues her only command of the day. Order is restored and the loyalists continue their opening argument from Wineburg and Wilson, She knows that her and year-olds cannot begin to grasp the complexities of the debates without first understanding that these disagreements were rooted in fundamentally different conceptions of human nature—a point glossed over in two paragraphs in her history textbook.
Rather than beginning the year with a unit on European discovery and exploration, as her text dictates, she begins with a conference on the nature of man. Students in her eleventh-grade history class read excerpts from the writings of philosophers Hume, Locke, Plato, and Aristotle , leaders of state and revolutionaries Jefferson, Lenin, Gandhi , and tyrants Hitler, Mussolini , presenting and advocating these views before their classmates. Six weeks later, when it is time to study the ratification of the Constitution, these now-familiar figures—Plato, Aristotle, and others—are reconvened to be courted by impassioned groups of Federalists and anti-Federalists.
These examples provide glimpses of outstanding teaching in the discipline of history. As we previously noted, this point sharply contradicts one of the popular—and dangerous—myths about teaching: The uniqueness of the content knowledge and pedagogical knowledge necessary to teach his-. As is the case in history, most people believe that they know what mathematics is about—computation. Most people are familiar with only the computational aspects of mathematics and so are likely to argue for its place in the school curriculum and for traditional methods of instructing children in computation.
In contrast, mathematicians see computation as merely a tool in the real stuff of mathematics, which includes problem solving, and characterizing and understanding structure and patterns. The current debate concerning what students should learn in mathematics seems to set proponents of teaching computational skills against the advocates of fostering conceptual understanding and reflects the wide range of beliefs about what aspects of mathematics are important to know.
A growing body of research provides convincing evidence that what teachers know and believe about mathematics is closely linked to their instructional decisions and actions Brown, ; National Council of Teachers of Mathematics, ; Wilson, a, b; Brophy, ; Thompson, Thus, as we examine mathematics instruction, we need to pay attention to the subject-matter knowledge of teachers, their pedagogical knowledge general and content specific , and their knowledge of children as learners of mathematics.
In this section, we examine three cases of mathematics instruction that are viewed as being close to the current vision of exemplary instruction and discuss the knowledge base on which the teacher is drawing, as well as the beliefs and goals which guide his or her instructional decisions. For teaching multidigit multiplication, teacher-researcher Magdelene Lampert created a series of lessons in which she taught a heterogeneous group of 28 fourth-grade students. The students ranged in computational skill from beginning to learn the single-digit multiplication facts to being able to accurately solve n-digit by n-digit multiplications.
The lessons were intended to give children experiences in which the important mathematical principles of additive and multiplicative composition, associativity, commutativity, and the distributive property of multiplication over addition were all evident in the steps of the procedures used to arrive at an answer Lampert, It is clear from her description of her instruction that both her deep understanding of multiplicative structures and her knowledge of a wide range of representations and problem situations related to multiplication were brought to bear as she planned and taught these lessons.
I also taught new information in the form of symbolic structures and emphasized the connection between symbols and operations on quantities, but I made it a classroom requirement that students use their own ways of deciding whether something was mathematically reasonable in doing the work. On the part of the teacher, the principles might be known as a more formal abstract system, whereas on the part of the learners, they are known in relation to familiar experiential contexts.
But what seems most important is that teachers and students together are disposed toward a particular way of viewing and doing mathematics in the classroom. Magdelene Lampert set out to connect what students already knew about multidigit multiplication with principled conceptual knowledge. She did so in three sets of lessons. Another set of lessons used simple stories and drawings to illustrate the ways in which large quantities could be grouped. Finally, the third set of lessons used only numbers and arithmetic symbols to represent problems.
Throughout the lessons, students were challenged to explain their answers and to rely on their arguments, rather than to rely on the teacher or book for verification of correctness. An example serves to highlight this approach; see Box 7. They were able to talk meaningfully about place value and order of operations to give legitimacy to procedures and to reason about their outcomes, even though they did not use technical terms to do so.
I took their experimentations and arguments as evidence that they had come to see mathematics as more than a set of procedures for finding answers. Clearly, her own deep understanding of mathematics comes into play as she teaches these lessons. Helping third-grade students extend their understanding of numbers from the natural numbers to the integers is a challenge undertaken by another teacher-researcher.
That is, she not only takes into account what the important mathematical ideas are, but also how children think about the particular area of mathematics on which she is focusing. She draws on both her understanding of the integers as mathematical entities subject-matter knowledge and her extensive pedagogical content knowledge specifically about integers.
A wealth of possible models for negative numbers exists and she reviewed a number of them—magic peanuts, money, game scoring, a frog on a number line, buildings with floors above and below ground. She decided to use the building model first and money later: And if I did this multiplication and found the answer, what would I know about those. Okay, here are the jars.
The stars in them will stand for butterflies. Now, it will be easier for us to count how many butterflies there are altogether, if we think of the jars in groups. Lampert then has the children explore other ways of grouping the jars, for example, into two groups of 6 jars. It is a sign that she needs to do many more activities involving different groupings.
Students continue to develop their understanding of the principles that govern multiplication and to invent computational procedures based on those principles. Students defend the reasonableness of their procedures by using drawings and stories. Eventually, students explore more traditional as well as alternative algorithms for two-digit multiplication, using only written symbols. She hoped that the positional aspects of the building model would help children recognize that negative numbers were not equivalent to zero, a common misconception.
She was aware that the building model would be difficult to use for modeling subtraction of negative numbers. Deborah Ball begins her work with the students, using the building model by labeling its floors. Students were presented with increasingly difficult problems. Ball then used a model of money as a second representational context for exploring negative numbers, noting that it, too, has limitations. Like Lampert, Ball wanted her students to accept the responsibility of deciding when a solution is reasonable and likely to be correct, rather than depending on text or teacher for confirmation of correctness.
The concept of cognitively guided instruction helps illustrate another important characteristic of effective mathematics instruction: Teachers, it is claimed, will use their knowledge to make appropriate instructional decisions to assist students to construct their mathematical knowledge.
Cognitively guided instruction is used by Annie Keith, who teaches a combination first- and second-grade class in an elementary school in Madison Wisconsin Hiebert et al. A portrait of Ms. Students spend a great deal of time discussing alternative strategies with each other, in groups, and as a whole class. The teacher often participates in these discussions but almost never demonstrates the solution to problems.
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Important ideas in mathematics are developed as students explore solutions to problems, rather than being a focus of instruction per se. For example, place-value concepts are developed as students use base materials, such as base blocks and counting frames, to solve word problems involving multidigit numbers. Everyday first-grade and second-grade activities, such as sharing snacks, lunch count, and attendance, regularly serve as contexts for problem-solving tasks.
Mathematics lessons frequently make use of math centers in which the students do a variety of activities. On any given day, children at one center may solve word problems presented by the teacher while at another center children write word problems to present to the class later or play a math game. She continually challenges her students to think and to try to make sense of what they are doing in math.
She uses the activities as opportunities for her to learn what individual students know and understand about mathematics. As students work in groups to solve problems, she observes the various solutions and mentally makes notes about which students should present their work: Her knowledge of the important ideas in mathematics serves as one framework for the selection process, but her understanding of how children think about the mathematical ideas they are using also affects her decisions about who should present.
She might select a solution that is actually incorrect to be presented so that she can initiate a discussion of a common misconception. Both the presentations of solutions and the class discussions that follow provide her with information about what her students know and what problems she should use with them next.
She forms hypotheses about what her students understand and selects instructional activities based on these hypotheses. She modifies her instruction as she gathers additional information about her students and compares it with the mathematics she wants them to learn.
Her approach is not a free-for-all without teacher guidance: Some attempts to revitalize mathematics instruction have emphasized the importance of modeling phenomena. Work on modeling can be done from kindergarten through twelth grade K— Modeling involves cycles of model construction, model evaluation, and model revision. It is central to professional practice in many disciplines, such as mathematics and science, but it is largely missing from school instruction.
Modeling practices are ubiquitous and diverse, ranging from the construction of physical models, such as a planetarium or a model of the human vascular system, to the development of abstract symbol systems, exemplified by the mathematics of algebra, geometry, and calculus. The ubiquity and diversity of models in these disciplines suggest that modeling can help students develop understanding about a wide range of important ideas. Modeling practices can and should be fostered at every age and grade level Clement, ; Hestenes, ; Lehrer and Romberg, a, b; Schauble et al.
Taking a model-based approach to a problem entails inventing or selecting a model, exploring the qualities of the model, and then applying the model to answer a question of interest. For example, the geometry of triangles has an internal logic and also has predictive power for phenomena ranging from optics to wayfinding as in navigational systems to laying floor tile. Modeling emphasizes a need for forms of mathematics that are typically underrepresented in the standard curriculum, such as spatial visualization and geometry, data structure, measurement, and uncertainty.
For example, the scientific study of animal behavior, like bird foraging, is se-. Note, for instance, the rubber bands that mimic the connective function of ligaments and the wooden dowels that are arranged so that their translation in the vertical plane cannot exceed degrees. Though the search for function is supported by initial resemblance, what counts as resemblance typically changes as children revise their models.
For example, attempts to make models exemplify elbow motion often lead to an interest in the way muscles might be arranged from Lehrer and Schauble, a, b. Increasingly, approaches to early mathematics teaching incorporate the premises that all learning involves extending understanding to new situations, that young children come to school with many ideas about mathematics, that knowledge relevant to a new setting is not always accessed spontaneously, and that learning can be enhanced by respecting and encouraging.
This principle is related specifically to many concepts from social psychology e. Introductory psychology classes can incorporate opportunities for students to engage with the larger community through service-learning projects, guest speakers and psychology clubs. Interpersonal relationships and communication are critical to both the teaching-learning process and the social development of students.
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This principle provides detailed and specific guidelines for improving both teacher-student and student-peer relationships in the classroom. Various components of emotional well-being can be included across many psychology units, such as self-concept and self-esteem social psychology , self-efficacy and locus of control motivation and personality and happiness and coping skills emotion and stress. The two principles related to classroom management emphasize how to develop a classroom climate that enhances learning.
Expectations for classroom conduct and social interaction are learned and can be taught using proven principles of behavior and effective classroom instruction.
1. Chronology of James’s Life
Numerous research-based ideas are presented for both correcting inappropriate student behaviors and for establishing appropriate replacement behaviors at both the classroom and school-wide levels. Effective classroom management is based on a setting and communicating high expectations, b consistently nurturing positive relationships, and c providing a high level of student support. This principle highlights practical techniques to create a culture of high academic achievement and positive classroom behavior at both the classroom and school levels. The Top 20 document references information about restorative practices and social and emotional learning that includes a variety of specific and practical strategies for building teacher-student relationships.
The three principles devoted to the process of student evaluation discuss methods for creating and implementing valid and fair assessments that contribute to student learning. Formative and summative assessments are both important and useful, but they require different approaches and interpretations.
Formative assessments are typically used as a part of everyday practice and are given either prior to or during instruction.
Such tools are designed to collect evidence regarding the progress of student learning in order to provide effective guidance. Summative assessments, on the other hand, result in an overall evaluation of student learning or program effectiveness and are typically utilized at the end of a unit or course thus having more limited impact on current instruction.
Frequent use of formative assessment accompanied by immediate and specific instruction helps students achieve learning goals and assume a greater responsibility of their own learning process. The analysis of data collected through formative assessment allows the instructor to differentiate instruction and provide appropriate individualized support. See also the APA teaching module on formative assessment.
Student skill, knowledge, and ability are best measured with assessment processes grounded in psychological science with well-defined standards for quality and fairness. Formative and summative assessments need to be evaluated for both reliability and validity. The Top 20 document provides instructors with four essential questions that can be used to evaluate the overall validity of a particular assessment for measuring student learning and tips for measuring reliability.
Instructors can improve the reliability and validity of formative and summative assessments by aligning them to learning targets, utilizing item analysis, discussing the results with other educators, and monitoring outcomes for discrepancies across groups or subgroups of students. During the unit on intelligence and individual differences, it can be helpful to demonstrate to students how the exams they are taking can be evaluated for content validity by illustrating how the assessments are aligned with learning targets or the National Standards for High School Psychology Curricula.
Effective teaching requires that instructors be able to accurately interpret test results and clearly communicate the results to students and parents. Students can use what they learn about testing and statistics to evaluate the various assessments given in class for reliability and validity. Discussions of descriptive statistics are more meaningful when students examine their own assessments.
Certainly there will be debate about the Top 20 principles, and many research-based educational practices are not included in the document. Although this is not an exhaustive list of educational psychological research, it does provide an important starting point for improving teaching and learning outcomes. The Top 20 principles were vetted over many years based on major documents related to the science of teaching and learning, and the purpose of the project was not to provide a comprehensive list, but a prioritized one. These principles are helpful for the instructor but can also be incorporated into the psychology curriculum as examples of how applied psychology can be used to solve real-world problems.
At the same time, these principles will help students develop skills to learn more effectively in all of their classes. Graduate and Postgraduate Teachers , Undergraduate Teachers.
Pre K - 12 Teachers. High School Students , Undergraduate Students. This is a great article that aligns really well with pedagogical research. It serves as a good reminder for me as I create my upcoming courses.