Higher quality, mass-produced woks are made of heavy gauge gauge or thicker steel, and are either machine-hammered or made of spun steel. Two types of cast iron woks can be found in the market. Cast iron woks form a more stable carbonized layer of seasoning which makes it less prone to food sticking on the pan. While cast iron woks are superior to carbon steel woks in heat retention and uniform heat distribution, they respond slowly to heat adjustments and are slow to cool once taken off the fire.
Steel woks coated with non-stick coatings such as PFA and Teflon , a development originated in Western countries, are now popular in Asia as well. Woks can also be made from aluminium.
Although an excellent conductor of heat , it has somewhat inferior thermal capacity as cast iron or carbon steel, it loses heat to convection much faster than carbon steel, and it may be constructed much thinner than cast iron. Although anodized aluminium alloys can stand up to constant use, plain aluminium woks are too soft and damage easily.
Aluminium is mostly used for wok lids. The handles for woks come in two styles: Cooks needing to hold the wok to toss the food in cooking do so by holding a loop handle with a thick towel though some woks have spool-shaped wooden or plastic covers over the metal of the handle. Cooking with the tossing action in loop-handled woks requires a large amount of hand, arm and wrist strength.
Loop handles typically come in pairs on the wok and are riveted, welded or extended from the wok basin. Stick handles are long, made of steel, and are usually welded or riveted to the wok basin, or are an actual direct extension of the metal of the basin. Stick handles are popular in northern China, where food in the wok is frequently turned with a tossing motion of the arm and wrist when stir-frying food.
Stick handles are normally not found on cast iron woks since the wok is either too heavy for the handle or the metal is too thin to handle the tensile stress exerted by the handle. The wok can be used in a large number of cooking methods. Before the introduction of western cookware, it was often used for all cooking techniques including: The second character is transliterated as qi chi according to its Mandarin Chinese pronunciation, so wok hei is sometimes rendered as wok chi in Western cookbooks is the flavour, tastes, and "essence" imparted by a hot wok on food during stir frying.
Out of the Eight Culinary Traditions of China, wok hei is encountered the most in Cantonese cuisine , whereas it may not even be an accepted underlying principle in some of the other Chinese cuisines. To impart wok hei the traditional way, the food is cooked in a seasoned wok over a high flame while being stirred and tossed quickly. Consequently, many chefs especially those with less-than-ideal cookers may cook in small batches to overcome this problem so that the wok is still as hot as it can be and to avoid "stewing" the food, instead.
When cooking over gas stoves or open flame, it additionally allows for the splattering of fine oil particles to catch the flame into the wok; this is easily achieved when experienced chefs toss the wok and can be a demonstration of experience.
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For these reasons, cooking over an open flame is preferable to other types of stoves. Cooking with coated woks e. Natural gas burner head from a modern gas stove for woks. Woks were designed to be used over the traditional Chinese pit-style hearth Chinese: Round grate rings on the edge of the opening provide stability to the wok.
There are two styles of traditional wok stoves. The same design aspects of these Chinese stoves can be seen in traditional Japanese kamado stoves. The more primitive style was used outdoors or in well ventilated areas since hot gasses from the firebox exhaust around the wok. The more advanced style, found in better-off households, has a chimney and may be used indoors.
These stoves are similar in design to modern rocket stoves. Pit stoves originally burned wood or coal but are now more typically heated by natural gas with the burner recessed below the stovetop. In areas where natural gas is unavailable, LPG may be used instead. With the adoption of gas and its less objectionable combustion products, the chimney has been replaced by the vent hood. This type of stove allows foods to be stir-fried at a very high heat, sometimes hot enough to deform the wok itself.
Traditionally shaped woks can be used on some western-style flat-topped gas stoves by removing a burner cover and replacing it with a "wok ring", which provides stability and concentrates heat. Although not as ideal as "pit stoves", these allow woks to be used in a manner more suitable for their design and are good enough for most tasks required in home cooking. Wok rings are sold in cylindrical and conical shapes. For greatest efficiency with the conical wok ring, position it with the wide side up.
This allows the base of the wok to sit closer to the heat source. In recent years, some consumer indoor stoves using natural gas or propane have begun offering higher-BTU burners. Because of the high cost of kitchen modifications, coupled with increased heat and smoke generated in the kitchen, more home chefs are using their wok outdoors on high-heat propane burners with curved wok support grates. Woks, be they round or flat bottomed, do not generally work well for stir-frying or other quick cooking methods when used on an electric cooker.
These stoves do not produce the large amounts of quick even heat required for stir-frying. It is possible, however, to find round-shaped electric stove elements that will fit the curve of a wok, which allows the wok to be heated at its bottom along with part of its sides.
A flat-bottomed wok may also work better on an electric stove. Coupled with the lower heat retention of woks, meals stir-fried on electric stoves have a tendency to stew and boil when too much food is in the wok rather than "fry" as in traditional woks, thus not producing wok hei. A wok can, however, benefit from the slow steady heating of electric stoves when used for slower cooking methods such as stewing, braising, and steaming, and immersion cooking techniques such as frying and boiling.
Many Chinese cooks use Western style cast-iron pans for stir-frying on electric stoves, since they hold enough heat for the required sustained high temperatures. A newer trend in woks is the electric wok, where no stove is needed. This type of wok is plugged into an electrical outlet and the heating element is in the wok.
Like stove-mounted non-stick woks, these woks can also only be used at lower temperatures than traditional woks. Induction cookers generate heat in induction-compatible cookware via direct magnetic stimulation of the pan material. While carbon steel and cast iron the most common wok materials are induction-compatible metals, induction cooking also requires close contact between the cooking vessel and the induction burner.
Harvard University archaeologist Ofer Bar-Yosef reported that When you look at the pots and it is also possible to extrapolate likely developments based on methods used by latter peoples. Among the first of the believed to be used by stone age civilizations were improvements to basic roasting.
Examples of similar techniques are still in use in many modern cuisines, of greater difficulty was finding a method to boil water. For people without access to heated water sources, such as hot springs. In many locations the shells of turtles or large mollusks provided a source for waterproof cooking vessels, according to Frank Hamilton Cushing, Native American cooking baskets used by the Zuni developed from mesh casings woven to stabilize gourd water vessels.
He reported witnessing cooking basket use by Havasupai in , roasting baskets covered with clay would be filled with wood coals and the product to be roasted. When the thus fired clay separated from the basket, it would become a usable clay roasting pan in itself and this indicates a steady progression from use of woven gourd casings to waterproof cooking baskets to pottery. Other than in other cultures, Native Americans used and still use the heat source inside the cookware.
Cooking baskets are filled with hot stones and roasting pans with wood coals, Native Americans would form a basket from large leaves to boil water, according to historian and novelist Louis LAmour. China — China, officially the Peoples Republic of China, is a unitary sovereign state in East Asia and the worlds most populous country, with a population of over 1. China is a power and a major regional power within Asia. Chinas landscape is vast and diverse, ranging from forest steppes, the Himalaya, Karakoram, Pamir and Tian Shan mountain ranges separate China from much of South and Central Asia.
The Yangtze and Yellow Rivers, the third and sixth longest in the world, respectively, Chinas coastline along the Pacific Ocean is 14, kilometers long and is bounded by the Bohai, Yellow, East China and South China seas. China emerged as one of the worlds earliest civilizations in the basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, Chinas political system was based on hereditary monarchies known as dynasties, in , the Republic of China replaced the last dynasty and ruled the Chinese mainland until , when it was defeated by the communist Peoples Liberation Army in the Chinese Civil War.
The Communist Party established the Peoples Republic of China in Beijing on 1 October , both the ROC and PRC continue to claim to be the legitimate government of all China, though the latter has more recognition in the world and controls more territory. China had the largest economy in the world for much of the last two years, during which it has seen cycles of prosperity and decline.
Since the introduction of reforms in , China has become one of the worlds fastest-growing major economies. As of , it is the worlds second-largest economy by nominal GDP, China is also the worlds largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a nuclear weapons state and has the worlds largest standing army.
Security Council in The official name of the state is the Peoples Republic of China. The provincial capital Guangzhou and economic hub Shenzhen are among the most populous, the population increase since the census has been modest, the province at end had ,, people. Guangdong and neighbouring Guangxi literally mean expanse east and expanse west, together, Guangdong and Guangxi are called Loeng gwong. The local people of the city of Guangzhou and their language are commonly referred to as Cantonese in English. Because of the prestige of Canton and its accent, Cantonese sensu lato can also be used for the phylogenetically related residents, Chinese administration and reliable historical records in the region began with the Qin dynasty.
After establishing the first unified Chinese empire, the Qin expanded southwards and set up Nanhai Commandery at Panyu, the region was independent as Nanyue between the fall of Qin and the reign of Emperor Wu of Han. As more migrants arrived, the population was gradually assimilated to Han Chinese culture or displaced. Multiple women originating from the Persian Gulf lived in Guangzhous foreign quarter, together with Guangxi, Guangdong was made part of Lingnan Circuit, or Mountain-South Circuit, in during the Tang dynasty.
As Mongols from the north engaged in their conquest of China in the 13th century, the Battle of Yamen in Guangdong marked the end of the Southern Song Dynasty. During the Mongol Yuan dynasty, large parts of current Guangdong belonged to Jiangxi and its present name, Guangdong Province was given in early Ming dynasty. Since the 16th century, Guangdong has had extensive links with the rest of the world.
East Asia — East Asia is the eastern subregion of the Asian continent, which can be defined in either geographical or ethno-cultural terms. Shamanism is also prevalent among Mongolians and other populations of northern East Asia. The Chinese calendar is the root from which many other East Asian calendars are derived, Chinese Dynasties dominated the region in matters of culture, trade, and exploration as well as militarily for a very long time. There are records of tributes sent overseas from the kingdoms of Korea. There were also considerable levels of cultural and religious exchange between the Chinese and other regional Dynasties and Kingdoms, as connections began to strengthen with the Western world, Chinas power began to diminish.
Culturally, China, Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Vietnam are commonly seen as being encompassed by cultural East Asia, there are mixed debates around the world whether these countries or regions should be considered in East Asia or not. However, being a Eurocentric term, Far East describes the geographical position in relation to Europe rather than its location within Asia. Alternatively, the term Asia Pacific Region is often used in describing East Asia and this usage, which is seen in economic and diplomatic discussions, is at odds with the historical meanings of both East Asia and Northeast Asia.
The Council on Foreign Relations defines Northeast Asia as Japan and Korea, the military and economic superpower of China became the largest economy in the world in , surpassing the United States of America. Currently in East Asia, trading systems are open, and zero or low duties on imports of consumer and capital goods etc. Free and flexible labor and other markets are important factors making for high levels of business-economic performance.
East Asian populations have demonstrated highly positive work ethics, there are relatively large and fast-growing markets for consumer goods and services of all kinds. The culture of East Asia has been influenced by the civilisation of China, East Asia, as well as Vietnam, share a Confucian ethical philosophy, Buddhism, political and legal structures, and historically a common writing system.
Southeast Asia — Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia. The region lies near the intersection of geological plates, with seismic and volcanic activity.
All of the states are members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, the area, together with part of South Asia, was widely known as the East Indies or simply the Indies until the 20th century. Homo sapiens reached the region by around 45, years ago, homo floresiensis also lived in the area up until 12, years ago, when they became extinct. Austronesian people, who form the majority of the population in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, East Timor. Solheim and others have shown evidence for a Nusantao maritime trading network ranging from Vietnam to the rest of the archipelago as early as BC to 1 AD.
The peoples of Southeast Asia, especially those of Austronesian descent, have been seafarers for thousands of years and their vessels, such as the vinta, were ocean-worthy. Magellans voyage records how much more manoeuvrable their vessels were, as compared to the European ships, Passage through the Indian Ocean aided the colonisation of Madagascar by the Austronesian people, as well as commerce between West Asia and Southeast Asia. Gold from Sumatra is thought to have reached as far west as Rome and this was later replaced by Hinduism.
Theravada Buddhism soon followed in , in the 15th century, Islamic influences began to enter. This type of Buddhism was fused with the Hindu-influenced Khmer culture, very little is known about Southeast Asian religious beliefs and practices before the advent of Indian merchants and religious influences from the 2nd century BCE onwards. Deep frying — Deep frying is a cooking method in which food is submerged in hot fat, most commonly oil, rather than the shallow oil used in conventional frying, done in a frying pan.
Normally, a deep fryer or chip pan is used for this, industrially, Deep frying may also be performed using oil that is heated in a pot. Deep frying is classified as hot-fat cooking method, typically, deep frying cooks foods quickly, all sides of a food are cooked simultaneously as oil has a high rate of heat conduction. The term deep frying and many modern deep-fried foods were not invented until the 19th century, early records and cookbooks suggest that the practice began in a few European and Arabian countries before other countries adopted the practice.
Deep frying is popular worldwide, with deep-fried foods accounting for a portion of global caloric consumption. Although the nouns deep-fried, deep-frying, and the verb deep-fry were not documented until ,, and , one of the earliest known practices of deep frying came from the Egyptians in the 5th millennium BCE.
Later developments included the Greeks deep frying food in oil in the 5th century BCE. In the 1st century CE, a Roman cookbook, Apicius, appears to list the ancient Romans first use of deep frying to prepare Pullum Frontonianum, the practice of deep frying spread to other parts of Europe and Arabia in the following centuries.
Deep-fried foods such as funnel cakes arrived in northern Europe by the 13th century, falafel arrived in the Middle East from population migrations from Egypt as soon as the 14th century. The deep frying of food in Japan was likely introduced by Portuguese the 16th century, evidence of potato frying can be found as early as the late 17th century in Europe.
Modern deep frying began in the 19th century with the popularity of cast iron. French fries, invented in the late 18th century, became popular in the early 19th century western Europe, doughnuts were invented in the midth century, with foods such as onion rings, deep-fried turkey, and corn dogs all being invented in the early 20th century. One common method for preparing food for deep frying involves adding multiple layers of batter around the food, such as cornmeal, flour, or tempura, breadcrumbs may also be used. After the food is submerged in oil, the surface of it begins to dehydrate and it undergoes Maillard reactions which break down sugars and proteins, once the surface is dehydrated, it forms a crust which prevents further oil absorption.
The heat conducts throughout the food causing proteins to denature, starches to undergo starch gelatinization, while most foods need batter coatings for protection, it is not as necessary for cooked noodles and potatoes because their high starch content enables them to hold more moisture and resist shrinking. Meats may be cooked before deep frying to ensure that they are done inside while keeping juiciness, when performed properly, deep frying does not make food excessively greasy, because the moisture in the food repels the oil.
The hot oil heats the water within the food, steaming it, as long as the oil is hot enough and the food is not immersed in the oil for too long, oil penetration will be confined to the outer surface. Boiling — Transition boiling is an intermediate, unstable form of boiling with elements of both types. Clostridium spores can survive this treatment, but as the infection caused by this microbe is not water-borne, boiling is also used in cooking. Foods suitable for boiling vegetables, starchy foods such as rice, noodles and potatoes, eggs, meats, sauces, stocks.
As a cooking method it is simple and suitable for large scale cookery, tough meats or poultry can be given a long, slow cooking and a nutritious stock is produced. Disadvantages include loss of water-soluble vitamins and minerals, commercially prepared foodstuffs are sometimes packed in polythene sachets and sold as boil-in-the-bag products. Nucleate boiling is characterized by the growth of bubbles or pops on a heated surface, in general, the number of nucleation sites are increased by an increasing surface temperature.
An irregular surface of the vessel or additives to the fluid can create additional nucleation sites, while an exceptionally smooth surface, such as plastic. Under these conditions, a liquid may show boiling delay.
As the boiling surface is heated above a temperature, a film of vapor forms on the surface. Since this vapor film is less capable of carrying heat away from the surface. The point at which this occurs is dependent on the characteristics of boiling fluid, transition boiling may be defined as the unstable boiling, which occurs at surface temperatures between the maximum attainable in nucleate and the minimum attainable in film boiling.
If a surface heating the liquid is significantly hotter than the liquid then film boiling will occur, where a layer of vapor. This condition of a vapor film insulating the surface from the liquid characterizes film boiling, in distillation, boiling is used in separating mixtures. This is possible because the rising from a boiling fluid generally has a ratio of components different from that in the liquid. The elimination of micro-organisms by boiling follows first-order kinetics—at high temperatures it is achieved in time and at lower temperatures.
Though the boiling point decreases with increasing altitude, it is not enough to affect the disinfecting process, boiling is the method of cooking food in boiling water, or other water-based liquids such as stock or milk. Braising — Braising of meat is often referred to as pot roasting, though some authors make a distinction between the two methods, based on whether additional liquid is added. Many classic braised dishes are highly evolved methods of cooking tough, both pressure cooking and slow cooking are forms of braising.
Most braises follow the basic steps. The food to be braised is first pan-seared to brown its surface and enhance its flavor, if the food will not produce enough liquid of its own, a certain amount of cooking liquid that often includes an acidic element is added to the pot, often with stock. A classic braise is done with a whole cut of meat.
Then, the dish is covered and cooked at a low simmer. Often the cooking liquid is finished to create a sauce or gravy, sometimes, foods with high water content can be cooked in their own juices, making the addition of liquid unnecessary. A successful braise intermingles the flavors of the foods being cooked with those of the cooking liquid and this cooking method dissolves the meats collagen into gelatin, which can greatly enrich and thicken the liquid. Familiar braised dishes include pot roast, Swiss steak, chicken cacciatore, goulash, Carbonade Flamande, coq au vin, sauerbraten, beef bourguignon, beef brisket, and tajines, among others.
Stew — A stew is a combination of solid food ingredients that have been cooked in liquid and served in the resultant gravy. Ingredients in a stew can include any combination of vegetables or meat, especially tougher meats suitable for slow-cooking, poultry, sausages, and seafood are also used. While water can be used as the liquid, wine, stock. Seasoning and flavourings may also be added, stews are typically cooked at a relatively low temperature, allowing flavors to mingle.
Stewing is suitable for the least tender cuts of meat become tender. This makes it popular in low-cost cooking, cuts having a certain amount of marbling and gelatinous connective tissue give moist, juicy stews, while lean meat may easily become dry. Stews are similar to soups, and in some there may not be a clear distinction between the two. Generally, stews have less liquid than soups, are much thicker, while soups are almost always served in a bowl, stews may be thick enough to be served on a plate with the gravy as a sauce over the solid ingredients.
Stews have been made since ancient times, herodotus says that the Scythians put the flesh into an animals paunch, mix water with it, and boil it like that over the bone fire. The bones burn very well, and the paunch easily contains all the meat once it has been stripped off, in this way an ox, or any other sacrificial beast, is ingeniously made to boil itself.
Amazonian tribes used the shells of turtles as vessels, boiling the entrails of the turtle, other cultures used the shells of large mollusks to boil foods in. There is archaeological evidence of these practices going back 8, years or more, there are recipes for lamb stews and fish stews in the Roman cookery book Apicius, believed to date from the 4th century AD. Le Viandier, one of the oldest cookbooks in French, written in the early 14th century by the French chef known as Taillevent, has ragouts or stews of various types in it, the first written reference to Irish stew is in Byrons The Devils Drive, The Devil.
A rebel or so in an Irish stew, stew is traditionally known as an English dish and has been a household favorite for centuries. Brown stews are made with pieces of red meat that are first seared or browned, before a browned mirepoix and sometimes browned flour, stock and wine are added. Soup — Soup is a primarily liquid food, generally served warm or hot, that is made by combining ingredients such as meat and vegetables with stock, juice, water, or another liquid. Hot soups are additionally characterized by boiling solid ingredients in liquids in a pot until the flavors are extracted, traditionally, soups are classified into two main groups, clear soups and thick soups.
Soups are similar to stews, and in some there may not be a clear distinction between the two, however, soups generally have more liquid than stews. Evidence of the existence of soup can be found as far back as about 20, BC, boiling was not a common cooking technique until the invention of waterproof containers. Animal hides and watertight baskets of bark or reeds were used before this, to boil the water hot rocks were used.
This method was used to cook acorns and other plants. The word soup comes from French soupe, which comes through Vulgar Latin suppa from a Germanic source, from which comes the word sop. In , a Parisian entrepreneur opened a shop specializing in such soups and this prompted the use of the modern word restaurant for the eating establishments.
A cookbook, The Frugal Housewife, contained a chapter on the topic. English cooking dominated early colonial cooking, but as new immigrants arrived from other countries, in particular, German immigrants living in Pennsylvania were famous for their potato soups. The first American cooking pamphlet dedicated to soup recipes was written in by Emma Ewing, Soups, portable soup was devised in the 18th century by boiling seasoned meat until a thick, resinous syrup was left that could be dried and stored for months at a time.
Commercial soup became popular with the invention of canning in the 19th century, doctor John T. Dorrance, a chemist with the Campbell Soup Company, invented condensed soup in Canned soup can be condensed, in case it is prepared by adding water, or it can be ready-to-eat. Canned soup can be prepared by heating in a pan, on the stovetop or in the microwave, such soups can be used as a base for homemade soups, with the consumer adding anything from a few vegetables to eggs, meat, cream or pasta. Condensing soup allows soup to be packaged into a smaller can, the soup is usually doubled in volume by adding a can full of water or milk.
Wok - Wikipedia
Smoking cooking — Smoking is the process of flavoring, browning, cooking, or preserving food by exposing it to smoke from burning or smoldering material, most often wood. Meats and fish are the most common smoked foods, though cheeses, vegetables, and ingredients used to make such as whisky, smoked beer. In Europe, alder is the traditional smoking wood, but oak is often used now.
In North America, hickory, mesquite, oak, pecan, alder, maple, and fruit-tree woods, such as apple, cherry, other biomass besides wood can also be employed, sometimes with the addition of flavoring ingredients. Chinese tea-smoking uses a mixture of uncooked rice, sugar, and tea, some North American ham and bacon makers smoke their products over burning corncobs. Peat is burned to dry and smoke the barley used to make whisky. In New Zealand, sawdust from the native manuka is commonly used for hot smoking fish, in Iceland, dried sheep dung is used to cold-smoke fish, lamb, mutton and whale.
Historically, farms in the Western world included a building termed the smokehouse. This was generally well-separated from other buildings both because of the danger and because of the smoke emanations. The smoking of food directly with wood smoke is known to contaminate the food with carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, the smoking of food dates back to the time of primitive cavemen. As caves or simple huts lacked chimneys, these dwellings could become very smoky, until the modern era, smoking was of a more heavy duty nature as the main goal was to preserve the food. Large quantities of salt were used in the process and smoking times were quite long.
The advent of modern transportation made it easier to transport food products long distances. Smoking became more of a way to flavor than to preserve food, in a device called the Torry Kiln was invented at the Torry Research Station in Scotland. In this temperature range, foods take on a smoked flavor, cold smoking does not cook foods. Meats should be cured before cold smoking.
Cold smoking can be used as an enhancer for items such as chicken breasts, beef, pork chops, salmon, scallops. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. October Learn how and when to remove this template message. A wok cleaning brush made of bamboo. The Breath of a Wok. Xi'an, Beijing und kein! Ten Centuries of Philippine-Chinese Relations: Historical, Political, Social, Economic.
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Cultures of the World. Retrieved 4 March Archived from the original on The Wisdom of the Chinese Kitchen. Retrieved from " https: Cooking vessels Cantonese words and phrases Chinese food preparation utensils Chinese inventions. CS1 German-language sources de Articles needing additional references from October All articles needing additional references Articles containing Chinese-language text Articles containing Japanese-language text Wikipedia articles needing clarification from March Pages using template Zh with sup tags Articles containing traditional Chinese-language text All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from April Many families had difficulty fitting a family dinner into their crowded schedules, broadly speaking, there are two primary techniques, chao and bao 2.
Cooking baskets are filled with hot stones and roasting pans with wood coals, Native Americans would form a basket from large leaves to boil water, according to historian and novelist Louis LAmour 3.