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- Logical Fallacy: Begging the Question
Abortion is an inescapably public matter. To beg the question is to assume something that you have no right to assume. What don't you have a right to assume? The conclusion itself, obviously, or any proposition that is just the conclusion stated in different words. Clearly, to use any argument in which the conclusion is also one of the premisses is to reason in a circle: Since P and C are the same proposition, we can also represent this argument with the second diagram, which shows that this is the smallest circle one can reason in.
Now, this type of circularity is so obvious that it's not likely to occur in a real argument. Instead, real arguments will probably reason in larger circles; for instance, simply including additional premisses will make it difficult to spot the one that's the same as the conclusion. The next diagram shows an example with three premisses, the third of which is the same as the conclusion. However, the more premisses, the harder it will be to detect the circularity or identify which premiss is the same as the conclusion.
An additional way that circularity is concealed is by means of multiple arguments that link together in a chain or tree-like structure. For instance, consider a chain of arguments with three links, each of which is a simple, one-premissed argument. Finally, the conclusion of the last argument in the chain is the same as the premiss of the first argument, which loops the chain back on itself. Circularity is more difficult to detect in such complex arguments, but it's usually additionally concealed by the deceptive use of language: As a result, simply diagramming an argument as shown here may not reveal the circularity without first untangling the confusing use of language, which is part of what makes begging the question an informal fallacy in logic.
Beggin' For Murder
Moreover, if the premisses of an instance of Begging the Question happen to be true, then the argument is sound. What is wrong, then, with begging the question? First of all, not all circular reasoning is fallacious. So, when is it fallacious to argue in a circle?
For an argument to have any epistemological or dialectical force, it must start from premisses already known or believed by its audience, and proceed to a conclusion not known or believed. This, of course, rules out the worst cases of Begging the Question, when the conclusion is the very same proposition as the premiss, since one cannot both believe and not believe the same thing.
A viciously circular argument is one with a conclusion based ultimately upon that conclusion itself, and such arguments can never advance our knowledge. The phrase "begs the question" has come to be used to mean "raises the question" or "suggests the question", as in "that begs the question" followed by the question supposedly begged. The following headlines are examples: Warm Weather Begs the Question: Who's Driving the Internet Bus?
Hot Holiday Begs Big Question: Can the Party Continue?
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This is a confusing usage apparently based upon a literal misreading of the phrase "begs the question". It should be avoided, and must be distinguished from its use to refer to the fallacy. In your Etymological Fallacy "Exposition" section, you point out that "the meanings of words change over time. I have found very few people who were aware of its "Petitio Principii" definition. When terms like "Circular Argument" are currently far more clear to the general population than "begs the question", why do you suggest that "begs the question" should cling to its older definition as opposed to being dropped for its current common usage?
As I mentioned, I have no hard numerical evidence to back up my claim, but I believe the postulate would prove true if studied. I'm sure there would be variance between a Harvard Campus study vs. You also make a good point about the alternative name "circular argument", or "circular reasoning", for this fallacy.
These are far better names than the traditional one, since they give an idea of the logical nature of the mistake, as well as being more memorable. Moreover, "begging the question" is a poor translation of the Latin phrase "petitio principii"; a more accurate translation might be something like "requesting first principles". However, these are good arguments for dropping the phrase "begs the question" altogether, rather than using it to mean "raises the question".
It's still a puzzling phrase when used in the common newspaper sense: Why should newspaper editors use "begs" instead of the available alternatives of "raises", "suggests", or "invites" the question? At best, what started out as a misuse of logical jargon to impress the reader has turned into an idiom because neither the writer nor reader knew what the phrase meant.
Perhaps saving the logical sense of "begs the question" for common use is a lost cause.
Danish Parliament approves harsher law against begging but stops short of requiring deportations
However, it may not be a hopeless cause to get people to stop using the phrase at all. Hurley's A Concise Introduction to Logic , 10th ed. This being the case, it follows that abortion is morally wrong. A key premise is missing, and thus the conclusion does not necessarily follow from the given premise. One might argue that the missing premise is implied, but if one accepts that then it seems the fallacy isn't an issue so much as the strength of the implied premise. After all, a valid argument is one in which if the premises are true, then it is impossible for the conclusion to be false.
If there is only one premise and a second premise linking the first to the conclusion is missing, then it would be possible to have true premise s and a false conclusion, making the argument invalid.
- Begging the Question.
- LE JARDIN NA PLUS QUE DES CHRYSANTHEMES (FICTION) (French Edition).
- Snow In Spring.
- The Politics of Virginity: Abstinence in Sex Education (Reproductive Rights and Policy);
- Und die Welt hebt an zu singen...: Johannes Brahms und der Hamburger Frauenchor im Kontext der Laienchorbewegung des 19. Jahrhunderts (German Edition).
On this basis I answered "False" to the above question. I don't have the tenth edition of Hurley's text; the latest edition I own is the fifth, from I will never see my daughter again and you probably will never see your mother again," Perez says. It hurts to the core. I have to bury my daughter just like your mother probably gonna have to bury you in jail. At this time, News10NBC is not identifying the person the family believes murdered Grimes because he has not been named as a suspect.
Logical Fallacy: Begging the Question
We'll be following up with investigators Thursday. Police did question three people -- a man and two women -- who SWAT pulled from the home after a standoff but no arrests have been announced. May 10, Mother of murdered Rochester teen begging for justice. Advertisement — Content Continues Below.
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