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Nevertheless their attitudes towards translation help identify the particularity of their experiences in a constant shift between the elaboration of identity and the opening towards different kinds of otherness. Another group of women engaged itself more or less directly with translation , linking the construction of a national identity to the dimension of gender in a complex way. In Trieste, Slovene culture had found an important place of development. The increase in the population of the city from about 5, inhabitants in to , in was in large part due to the Slovene immigration of workers or entrepreneurs.
The community that took shape started to express a demand for culture, for a national identity that could identify itself in this culture. And again, translation was the first means through which this was fostered. It took place mainly through a combination of religious and educational interests. Working at a similar level, the churchman Mihael Verne also produced translations. The Italian nationalist vindications of gave rise to a strong reaction from the Slovene side, so indeed the motto that was used on that occasion made explicit the program already outlined through the translation activity: At the time, the kind of interests and issues the journal brought to the fore was met with a certain suspiciousness and hostility, both from the part of the Catholic Church and from that of official Slovene cultural institutions Cibic.
Homeless transgendered woman murdered in Rome honored by Jesuits
This was the main reason why the journal had to interrupt its publication after only five years, notwithstanding an increasing audience and the interest it managed to arouse. From the point of view of intercultural relations and translations, Slovenka came to play a major role in the construction and definition of a Slav cultural dimension. However, besides this main attention to Slav cultures, the spectrum of interests the journal managed to draw also included Western European cultures such as Italian, first of all, but also French and German.
Luchmanova, in which the ideal connotation of female identity was described. To a woman author corresponded a male translator, Adolf Pahar. Krestovska and translator, again, Pahar. The presence of translation became greater in the following two years, configuring a Slav-oriented intercultural dimension as the space of construction of an identity in which nationality and gender intersected.
Yet, the typology of texts, interests and cultural identities taken into account continued to follow the pattern described for the first year. In the years and , a total of 17 texts translated from Russian with some of them serialized in several issues — for 26 annual issues — appeared. But other Slav source languages and cultures were considered, such as Czech, first of all, with 12 texts, followed by Croatian, Serb, Bulgarian, with one text each.
The predominance of Russian culture can be explained by a generalized cultural hegemony in the whole of Europe in those years, whereas the strong presence of Czech culture is the sign of a significant link to Trieste, Slovene women in particular with Prague, where some of them had a chance to study and live such as Zofka Kveder, who found in the Czech capital an escape from what she perceived as the closure of Slovene culture and exchanged a lengthy correspondence with Slovenka , depicting the cultural and social atmosphere she was experiencing there.
Yet there were also translations from the most influential Western European languages of the time, German 7 texts and French 3 texts. Not only for this wide interest for experiences coming from other cultures to be somehow assimilated and incorporated in the process of identity construction, but also for the extremely radical feminist positions the journal expressed especially in the last two years, and , Slovenka had to interrupt its publications under the attack both of the Catholic church and the Slovene political nationalist establishment who conceived of the Slovene national identity as grounded on an univocal quest for origin, and not as an ongoing construction based upon diverse and multifarious contributions.
As the journal took on a more definite political stance, literary translations gradually disappeared in favor of more politically engaged documents or texts. These continued to offer a picture of intercultural dialogue in relation to the debates proposed as mentioned before: After they had contributed to creating a novel space of intercultural interaction, translations left room for this kind of article, which furthered and expanded the main political interest of the journal but never lost sight of the fundamental role of cultural interchange and dialogue.
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While the journalists of Slovenka participated in the construction of a particular Slovene identity, just a few years later, before World War I, a group of young intellectuals from Trieste conducted a parallel operation with regard to Italian culture. Translation was one of the means that allowed them to both present themselves as mediators between Central European culture, mostly German, and Italian culture, and define their belonging to Italian culture and tradition.
Intellectuals such as Scipio Slataper, Giani and Carlo Stuparich, and Biagio Marin, established contact with Florence, in particular with the journal La voce , which wanted to renew Italian culture and society Baroni. Many of them studied at the University of Florence, but, at the same time maintained a privileged relation with Vienna and Prague where some of them studied.
Giani Stuparich, for example, wrote a study in on the Czech nation La nazione ceca which constituted a real introduction to Czech culture and history for Italy. Ara and Magris have described these references as an ideal triangle Vienna-Prague-Florence with Trieste in the middle as the point of mediation. If Vienna and Prague, with their cultures, were the points of departure, the idealized point of arrival was Florence, seen as the place of origin of the Italian language, the source of authority and legitimacy for a pure language to which the Triestini aspired.
In Florence they mainly looked for the tools for mastering, not only from a stylistic point of view, a language which they felt did not completely belong to them see Intellettuali di frontiera. This group constructed its role as an alternative to both official academic Italian culture the whole project of La voce was centered around the idea of a necessary renewal of this culture and society and to the late-Neoclassic, Romantic canon of German literature that was dominant in Trieste schools, reading circles, and bookshops. Their position was of course different and much more complex than that of those who proclaimed an aproblematic nationalist Italian identity for Trieste, such as Ruggero Timeus, for example.
Nevertheless, their main focus of interest was Italy; they were in dialogue with Italian culture and this was their target, the world towards which all their experiences were directed. Apart from the previously cited book by Stuparich, the Slav world remained largely ignored and marginal for them, notwithstanding a problematic attraction and an ever-vague threatening lure as the novel Il mio carso by Slataper effectively shows.
Scipio Slataper developed a particular interest for Ibsen on whom he wrote his dissertation later, posthumously published as a book and found a kind of alter ego in Friedrich Hebbel, author, between the s and s, of tragedies with strong ethical stances, an often emphatic style and positions that may be and have been aligned with a celebration of a Pangermanic identity Cusatelli.
Yet, it was a founding moment because it constituted the very dimension where the identity of this generation of intellectuals as Italian mediators of German culture was constructed. Slataper proceeded, first of all, to deny the existence of any cultural identity to Trieste. Naturally, this was nothing but a powerful construction which served the function of canceling the legitimacy of any previous tradition in order to establish a univocal identity for the city.
The translation of Hebbel was the second step, the moment when Slataper actually showed what, in the lack of traditions and cultures, the context of Trieste could produce. Since Slataper had a very clear aim representing himself and his generation as the Italian mediators of German culture all this had to be denied, silenced, and reduced to a tabula rasa in which the process of reconstruction could start.
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This is a kind of paradigmatic episode that highlights the importance, previously pointed out, of establishing relations of affinity as the ground for translation. Here, the paradigm of brotherhood underlines the construction of this identity also through translation. Slataper, for example, wrote in his journal August 26 th that he chose to study and translate Hebbel because he felt he was his brother quoted in Stuparich Translators and translations cannot be confined to Trieste and its context, they do not simply and mechanically belong to it, yet, at the same time, they are key moments in the definition of its identity, the very dimension where an identity of plurality and mediation is performed.
Because he was a fresh Italian conscience that had grown up in a turbid mixing of races. And he was strong enough to eradicate himself from the margins where his native environment exhausted itself. This attention to and emphasis on the target culture can be found, in general, in all the experiences here considered. Translations are very clearly directed towards the construction of an identity that must manage plurality in order to create a product that fits into the receiving culture. Stuparich describes the life in the Habsburg Empire as a constant threat to a fixed identity: The agency of translation is explicitly linked to what is not yet known, to something new that has yet to be introduced.
Many examples of this attitude can be found in prefaces, paratextual declarations or other writings. To mention a few: And five years later, in another letter in which she proposed to the poet the publication of her translations in a volume instead of a journal, Wondrich repeated that her main aim was that of letting the German public know about these poems Letter from Sanatorio Eggenberg bei Graz dated April 7 th , quoted in Frizzi This sense of discovery, of introduction of novelties, is generalized and declined in various ways.
Translation, therefore, is represented as the first hint, the first necessary step for approaching the German writer still largely unknown. Yet it is also nothing more than a surrogate, a metonymic presentation of a larger whole. In this context, discourses on translation paint a picture of inadequacy and devaluation, of a necessary secondary nature in relation to the source text.
Almost all translators talk about the difficulties they have encountered in their work and give rather negative evaluations of their results. Augusto Hermet made a suggestion for his readers that reveals his conception of translation strictly linked here to interpretation as a necessary instrumental obstacle to be overcome: The stylistic particularities of the source text are often the main motivation for the inevitable failures of the translation.
The most common feature of the translations in the context here considered is that they are always recognized as such, always defined in their status as translations, never hidden or assimilated to the non-translated texts they coexist with. This constant articulation and re-articulation is a feature of the context itself I have taken into account, which is variously represented in cultural historiography, yet can nevertheless be considered as an arena of confrontation where different voices continuously negotiate their positions of domination or subalternity.
In Trieste, different forms of expression, but mainly literary writing in different languages, enabled the possibility to speak for different cultures. Yet it was specifically through translation that the most crucial issue of articulating otherness and identity, plurality and unity could be addressed. In the case I have considered, differently composed networks of people confront themselves with what translation puts at stake and provide different solutions in terms of identity construction and definitions of cultural references.
Homeless transgendered woman murdered in Rome honored by Jesuits - CNN
We have immigrant intellectuals who find in Trieste the space for experimenting the construction of a particular Italian identity; we also have women, whose education and identity is focused around language plurality, who look in various directions in order to establish their role as intellectuals; moreover, we have other women who put translation at the core of their project for a gendered national Slovene identity; and finally, young anti-academic men intellectuals who posit themselves as mediators in order to acquire a role in view of their inclusion inside the panorama of Italian culture.
However variegated and maybe even divergent in their aims and functions, these experiences all share some concerns in relation to translation: In a context of language plurality and cultural diversity translation performs at the same time the univocal definition of boundaries and the always multiple processes of identity construction. Trieste tra scritti di viaggio e immagini retrospettive. Istituto giuliano di storia cultura e documentazione, University of Ottawa Press: Supplement of Metodi e ricerche , La prima rivista femminile slovena. Bianco rosa e verde. Scrittrici a Trieste tra Ottocento e Novecento.
Il Friuli — Venezia Giulia. Common Skies, Divided Horizons. London — New York: Dialoghi di frotiera tra letteratura slovena e italiana.
History, Post-structuralism and the Colonial Context. Berkeley, Los Angeles, Oxford: University of California Press, Triestini a Firenze A City in Search of an Author. The Literary Identity of Trieste. London and New York: Sheffield Academic Press, Method in Translation History. Intersections of Language and Memory. London and New York, Routledge: Early English Literature in English Translation.
La capanna dello zio Tom. The Book of the Thousand Nights and a Night. A plain and literal translation, by Richard F. Il servo Bortolo e il suo diritto. Traduzione dallo sloveno di I.
Parnaso, no date but Novellen aus den Abruzzen. Deutsch von Robert Hamerling. Racconto ridotto per i fanciulli da Luigi di San Giusto. Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von. Traduzione di Luigi di San Giusto. Il viaggio in Italia. Verlag des Bibliographischen Instituts, Verse un Prosa aus dem modernen Italien. Tragedia in 5 atti. Tradotta da Marcello Loewy e Scipio Slataper. Traduzione e introduzione di Scipio Slataper. Stars Screen Binge Culture Media.
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Jesuits honor murdered transgender woman Story highlights Homeless transgendered woman murdered at Rome's main rail station in July Andrea Quintero left Colombia with hopes of better treatment but was beaten to death in Rome Charity workers, government officials and city's mayor paid tribute at Jesuit church Priest stunned funeral by referring to Quintero as 'She'. Andrea Quintero was described by those who knew her as a gentle soul and a devout Catholic. Transgendered and homeless, she left Colombia for Italy in search of a society that could accept her for who she was -- a man who felt like a woman.
But in Rome it was no different. In fact it was worse. She said her paralyzed arm and prominent limp were evidence of the regular beatings she endured as a drifter at Rome's main railway station.