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Topological nuances of art and language within visual rhtoric Topics: Rhyming the rhan on a trimarine: Bio-inspired processing, dynamic encoder, non-separable spatiotemporal filter, frame, dual frame. This paper introduces a novel retinal-inspired filter which is applied on video streams. Indology, Sanskrit, Books, eGangotri Hari Parshad Das Member. Laboratorio Experimental de Cine Member. Uploading multiple files Jeff Kaplan 1 Dec 17, 5: Uploading multiple files Bradnik 1 Dec 17, 6: Uploading multiple files Jeff Kaplan 0 Dec 17, How to upload a book for borrow only Jeff Kaplan 1 Dec 6, 5: How to upload a book for borrow only Jeff Kaplan 0 Dec 7, Please delete Jeff Kaplan 0 Nov 27, 9: Multiple documents advice Jeff Kaplan 0 Nov 27, Please delete Jeff Kaplan 0 Nov 25, 1: The position of Prussian Landmeister was merged with that of the Grand Master.
The Pope began investigating misconduct by the knights, but no charges were found to have substance. Along with the campaigns against the Lithuanians, the knights faced a vengeful Poland and legal threats from the Papacy. During the reign of Grand Master Winrich von Kniprode — , the Order reached the peak of its international prestige and hosted numerous European crusaders and nobility. King Albert of Sweden ceded Gotland to the Order as a pledge similar to a fiefdom , with the understanding that they would eliminate the pirating Victual Brothers from this strategic island base in the Baltic Sea.
This created a personal union between the two countries and a potentially formidable opponent for the Teutonic Knights. The Order initially managed to play Jogaila and his cousin Vytautas against each other, but this strategy failed when Vytautas began to suspect that the Order was planning to annex parts of his territory. The baptism of Jogaila began the official conversion of Lithuania to Christianity.
Although the crusading rationale for the Order's state ended when Prussia and Lithuania had become officially Christian, the Order's feuds and wars with Lithuania and Poland continued. In , at the Battle of Grunwald German: Grand Master Ulrich von Jungingen and most of the Order's higher dignitaries fell on the battlefield 50 out of The Polish-Lithuanian army then began the Siege of Marienburg , the capital of the Order, but was unable to take Marienburg owing to the resistance of Heinrich von Plauen.
When the First Peace of Thorn was signed in , the Order managed to retain essentially all of its territories, although the Knights' reputation as invincible warriors was irreparably damaged. While Poland and Lithuania were growing in power, that of the Teutonic Knights dwindled through infighting. They were forced to impose high taxes to pay a substantial indemnity but did not give the cities sufficient requested representation in the administration of their state.
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After the Gollub War the Knights lost some small border regions and renounced all claims to Samogitia in the Treaty of Melno. Austrian and Bavarian knights feuded with those from the Rhineland , who likewise bickered with Low German -speaking Saxons , from whose ranks the Grand Master was usually chosen. The Knights also sustained a defeat in the Polish-Teutonic War In , the Prussian Confederation , consisting of the gentry and burghers of western Prussia, rose up against the Order, beginning the Thirteen Years' War.
Much of Prussia was devastated in the war, during the course of which the Order returned Neumark to Brandenburg in In the Second Peace of Thorn , the defeated Order recognized the Polish crown 's rights over western Prussia subsequently Royal Prussia while retaining eastern Prussia under nominal Polish overlordship. Although it had lost control of all of its Prussian lands, the Teutonic Order retained its territories within the Holy Roman Empire and Livonia , although the Livonian branch retained considerable autonomy.
Many of the Imperial possessions were ruined in the German Peasants' War from to and subsequently confiscated by Protestant territorial princes. Since they held no contiguous territory, they developed a three-tiered administrative system: Several commanderies were combined to form a bailiwick headed by a Landkomtur. The Order gradually lost control of these holdings until, by , only the seat of the Grand Master at Mergentheim remained. Emperor Charles V combined the two positions in , creating the title Hoch- und Deutschmeister , which also had the rank of Prince of the Empire.
After the Peace of Augsburg in , membership in the Order was open to Protestants, although the majority of brothers remained Catholic. The Grand Masters, often members of the great German families and, after , members of the House of Habsburg - Lorraine , continued to preside over the Order's considerable holdings in Germany.
Teutonic Knights from Germany, Austria, and Bohemia were used as battlefield commanders leading mercenaries for the Habsburg Monarchy during the Ottoman wars in Europe. The military history of the Teutonic Knights was to be ended in by the Article XII of the Peace of Pressburg , which ordered the German territories of the Knights converted into a hereditary domain and gave the Austrian Emperor responsibility for placing a Habsburg prince on its throne.
The Generalkapitel general chapter was the collection of all the priests, knights and half-brothers German: Because of the logistical problems in assembling the members, who were spread over large distances, only deputations of the bailiwicks and commandries gathered to form the General chapter. The General chapter was designed to meet annually, but the conventions were usually limited to the election of a new Grandmaster. The Hochmeister Grandmaster was the highest officer of the order. Until , he was elected by the Generalkapitel. He had the rank of an ecclesiastic imperial state leader and was sovereign prince of Prussia until Despite this high formal position, practically, he only was a kind of first among equals.
There were five offices. The highest officer of each chapter was the Landmeister country master.
They were elected by the regional chapters. In the beginning, they were only substitutes of the Grandmaster but were able to create a power of their own so that, within their territory, the Grandmaster could not decide against their will. At the end of their rule over Prussia, the Grandmaster was only Landmeister of Prussia.
There were three Landmeisters:. Because the properties of the order within the rule of the Deutschmeister did not form a contiguous territory, but were spread over the whole empire and parts of Europe, there was an additional regional structure, the bailiwick. Kammerbaleien were governed by the Grandmaster himself. Some of these bailiwicks had the rank of imperial states. The smallest administrative unit of the order was the Kommende.
In the commandry, all kinds of brothers lived together in a monastic way. Noblemen served as Knight-brothers or Priest-brothers.
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Other people could serve as Sariantbrothers, who were armed soldiers, and as Half-brothers, who were working in economy and healthcare. The Roman Catholic order continued to exist in Austria , out of Napoleon's reach. From until when Archduke Eugen of Austria resigned the grandmastership , the order was headed by members of the Habsburg dynasty.
All the subsequent Grand Masters were priests. In , that branch of the Teutonic knights was converted to a purely spiritual Roman Catholic religious order and renamed the Deutscher Orden "German Order". By the end of the 20th century, this part of the Order had developed into a charitable organization and established numerous clinics, as well as sponsoring excavation and tourism projects in Israel.
In , the German chapter of the Teutonic Order declared bankruptcy and its upper management was dismissed; an investigation by a special committee of the Bavarian parliament in and to determine the cause was inconclusive. The Catholic branch now consists of approximately 1, members, including Roman Catholic priests , nuns , and associates.
While the priests are organized into six provinces Austria , the Czech Republic , Germany, Italy, Slovakia , and Slovenia and predominantly provide spiritual guidance, the nuns primarily care for the ill and the aged. Many of the priests care for German-speaking communities outside of Germany and Austria, especially in Italy and Slovenia; in this sense the Teutonic Order has returned to its 12th-century roots: Since , there has also been a museum dedicated to the Teutonic Knights at their former castle in Bad Mergentheim in Germany, which was the seat of the Grand Master from — A portion of the Order retains more of the character of the knights during the height of its power and prestige.
The coat of arms representing the grand master Deutschmeisterwappen  is shown with a golden cross fleury or cross potent superimposed on the black cross, with the imperial eagle as a central inescutcheon. The golden cross fleury overlaid on the black cross became widely used in the 15th century. A legendary account attributes its introduction to Louis IX of France , who on 20 August granted the master of the order this cross as a variation of the Jerusalem cross , with the fleur-de-lis symbol attached to each arm.
While this legendary account cannot be traced back further than the early modern period Christoph Hartknoch, , there is some evidence that the design does indeed date to the mid 13th century. In the 16th century, officers of the order would quarter their family arms with the order's arms. Example of the Deutschmeisterwappen on the gate of the Bad Mergentheim residence. Emperor Wilhelm II of Germany posed for a photo in in the garb of a monk from the Teutonic Order, climbing the stairs in the reconstructed Marienburg Castle as a symbol of Imperial German policy. Many middle-class German nationalists adopted this imagery and its symbols.
During the Weimar Republic , associations and organisations of this nature contributed to laying the groundwork for the formation of Nazi Germany. Before and during World War II , Nazi propaganda and ideology made frequent use of the Teutonic Knights' imagery, as the Nazis sought to depict the Knights' actions as a forerunner of the Nazi conquests for Lebensraum. Heinrich Himmler tried to idealise the SS as a 20th-century re-incarnation of the medieval Order. This occurred mostly due to Hitler's and Himmler's belief that, throughout history, Roman Catholic military-religious orders had been tools of the Holy See and as such constituted a threat to the Nazi regime.
The converse was true for Polish nationalism see: Sienkiewicz " The Knights of the Cross " , which used the Teutonic Knights as symbolic shorthand for Germans in general, conflating the two into an easily recognisable image of the hostile. Similar associations were used by Soviet propagandists , such as the Teutonic knight villains in the Sergei Eisenstein film Aleksandr Nevskii. This page is based on a Wikipedia article written by authors here.
Images, videos and audio are available under their respective licenses. Coat of arms in the 14th-century style. Extent of the Teutonic Order in Reliquary made in Elbing in for Teutonic komtur Thiele von Lorich, military trophy of Polish king Wladislaus in Frederick II allows the order to invade Prussia , by P. Map of the Teutonic state in