- Scottish Enlightenment
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Andrews and at King's and Marischal colleges in Aberdeen. Robert Sibbald — was appointed as the first Professor of Medicine at Edinburgh, and he co-founded the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh in Attendance was less expensive and the student body more socially representative. Some 25, copies of the volume set were sold, half of them outside France. In Scottish intellectual life the culture was oriented towards books.
Intellectual life revolved around a series of clubs, beginning in Edinburgh in the s. Clubs did not reach Glasgow until the s. One of the first and most important in the city was the Political Economy Club, aimed at creating links between academics and merchants,  of which noted economist Adam Smith was a prominent early member.
Historian Jonathan Israel argues that by Scotland's major cities had created an intellectual infrastructure of mutually supporting institutions, such as universities, reading societies, libraries, periodicals, museums and masonic lodges.
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The Scottish network was "predominantly liberal Calvinist, Newtonian, and 'design' oriented in character which played a major role in the further development of the transatlantic Enlightenment". The first major philosopher of the Scottish Enlightenment was Francis Hutcheson — , who was professor of moral philosophy at Glasgow from to He was an important link between the ideas of Shaftesbury and the later school of Scottish Common Sense Realism , developing Utilitarianism and Consequentialist thinking.
It can be seen as an attempt to reconcile the new scientific developments of the Enlightenment with religious belief. Major literary figures originating in Scotland in this period included James Boswell —95 , whose An Account of Corsica and The Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides drew on his extensive travels and whose Life of Samuel Johnson is a major source on one of the English Enlightenment's major men of letters and his circle.
He produced an edition of the works of Shakespeare and is best known for Sermons — , a five-volume endorsement of practical Christian morality, and Lectures on Rhetoric and Belles Lettres , an essay on literary composition, which was to have a major impact on the work of Adam Smith. He was also one of the figures who first drew attention to the Ossian cycle of James Macpherson to public attention. Claiming to have found poetry written by the ancient bard Ossian, he published "translations" that were proclaimed as a Celtic equivalent of the Classical epics.
Final , written in , was speedily translated into many European languages, and its appreciation of natural beauty and treatment of the ancient legend has been credited more than any single work with bringing about the Romantic movement in European, and especially in German literature, through its influence on Johann Gottfried von Herder and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe.
Before Robert Burns —96 the most important Scottish language poet was Robert Fergusson —74 , who also worked in English. His work often celebrated his native Edinburgh and Enlightenment conviviality, as in his best known poem "Auld Reekie" As well as making original compositions, Burns also collected folk songs from across Scotland, often revising or adapting them.
Adam Smith developed and published The Wealth of Nations , the starting point of modern economics. Smith discussed potential benefits of specialization by division of labour , including increased labour productivity and gains from trade , whether between town and country or across countries.
Scottish Enlightenment thinkers developed what leading thinkers such as James Burnett, Lord Monboddo —99 and Lord Kames called a science of man ,  which was expressed historically in the work of thinkers such as James Burnett, Adam Ferguson, John Millar , William Robertson and John Walker, all of whom merged a scientific study of how humans behave in ancient and primitive cultures, with an awareness of the determining forces of modernity.
Modern notions of visual anthropology permeated the lectures of leading Scottish academics like Hugh Blair,  and Alan Swingewood argues that modern sociology largely originated in Scotland. He was the first major figure to argue that mankind had evolved language skills in response to his changing environment and social structures. One of the central pillars of the Scottish Enlightenment was scientific and medical knowledge. Many of the key thinkers were trained as physicians or had studied science and medicine at university or on their own at some point in their career.
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Likewise, there was a notable presence of university medically-trained professionals, especially physicians, apothecaries, surgeons and even ministers, who lived in provincial settings. Colin Maclaurin — was appointed as chair of mathematics by the age of 19 at Marischal College, and was the leading British mathematician of his era. Other major figures in science included William Cullen —90 , physician and chemist, James Anderson — , agronomist. Joseph Black —99 , physicist and chemist, discovered carbon dioxide fixed air and latent heat ,  and developed what many consider to be the first chemical formulae.
James Hutton —97 was the first modern geologist , with his Theory of the Earth challenging existing ideas about the age of the earth. David Ure then minister to East Kilbride Parish was the first to represent the shells 'entrochi' in illustrations and make accounts of the geology of southern Scotland.
The findings of David Ure were influential enough to inspire the Scottish endeavour to the recording and interpretation of natural history and Fossils , a major part of the Scottish Enlightenment. Edinburgh became a major centre of medical teaching and research. Robert Sibbald and the establishment of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh in also played a major role in the development of medicine in Enlightenment Scotland.
It was first published in three volumes between and , with 2, pages and engravings, and quickly became a standard reference work in the English-speaking world.
The fourth edition ran to 16, pages in 20 volumes. The Encyclopaedia continued to be published in Edinburgh until , when it was sold to an American publisher. The Scottish Enlightenment had numerous dimensions, influencing the culture of the nation in several areas including architecture, art and music. Scotland produced some of the most significant architects of the period who were involved in the intellectual culture of the Enlightenment. Robert Adam —92 was an interior designer as well as an architect, with his brothers developing the Adam style ,  He influenced the development of architecture in Britain, Western Europe, North America and in Russia.
Artists included John Alexander and his younger contemporary William Mossman — They painted many of the figures of early-Enlightenment Edinburgh. His classicism would be a major influence on French artist Jacques-Louis David — The growth of a musical culture in the capital was marked by the incorporation of the Musical Society of Edinburgh in It gained momentum when major Scottish composers like James Oswald —69 and William McGibbon — became involved around Oswald's Curious Collection of Scottish Songs was one of the first to include Gaelic tunes alongside Lowland ones, setting a fashion common by the middle of the century and helping to create a unified Scottish musical identity.
However, with changing fashions there was a decline in the publication of collections of specifically Scottish collections of tunes, in favour of their incorporation into British collections. While the Scottish Enlightenment is traditionally considered to have concluded toward the end of the 18th century,  disproportionately large Scottish contributions to British science and letters continued for another 50 years or more, thanks to such figures as Thomas Carlyle , James Watt , William Murdoch , James Clerk Maxwell , Lord Kelvin and Sir Walter Scott.
The political ideas had an important impact on the founding fathers of the US , which broke away from the empire in The Scottish dramatist Robert McLellan wrote a number of full-length stage comedies which give a self-conscious representation of Edinburgh at the height of the Scottish enlightenment, most notably The Flouers o Edinburgh These plays include references to many of the figures historically associated with the movement and satirise various social tensions, particularly in the field of spoken language, between traditional society and anglicised Scots who presented themselves as exponents of so-called 'new manners'.
Other later examples include Young Auchinleck , a stage portrait of the young James Boswell , and The Hypocrite which draws attention to conservative religious reaction in the country that threatened to check enlightenment trends. McLellan's picture of these tensions in national terms is complex, even-handed and multi-faceted. Plus those who visited and corresponded with Scottish scholars: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
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The Homospiritual's Journey on Earth
Scottish literature in the eighteenth century. Enlightenment and Expansion, — Reading the Scottish Enlightenment: Books and Their Readers in Provincial Scotland, — Campbell, "The Anglo-Scottish Union of Parker, A History of Scotland London: Archived from the original on 2 July Anderson, "The history of Scottish Education pre", in T. Humes, eds, Scottish Education: Edinburgh University Press, 2nd edn.
The Scottish Nation, — London: Children and the Visual Culture of Literacy and Numeracy". Graphic Literacy and the Scottish Educational System, — ' ". Joseph Black and the Graphic Culture of Experimentation". The Language of Mineralogy: Houston, Scottish Literacy and the Scottish Identity: Vallier, Rousseau New York: Towsey, Reading the Scottish Enlightenment: Books and Their Readers in Provincial Scotland, — The Eighteenth Century", in J.
Oxford University Press, , p. A New History London: MacDonald, Scottish Art London: Philosophy, Revolution, and Human Rights — Mitchison, Lordship to Patronage, Scotland — Edinburgh: Emerson, "The contexts of the Scottish Enlightenment" in A. Reill, Encyclopedia of the Enlightenment Infobase Publishing, 2nd edn.
Guardian of American Orthodoxy Oxford: The gentle are mostly annoying to the harsh… because even if their words bring us to tears, they call us names, they threaten our integrity, or they push us aside like we do not matter, the gentle do not succumb and the gentle will not be made hard in our hearts.
Soften yourselves and be with peace… then, we will proceed toward justice, as it includes a brand of gentle indignation. Currently, Gail resides in the Washington, DC Area and serves her local community as the Executive Director of a nature-based early learning center. I found a series of news articles from June , highlighting the major headlines that shaped the movement for equality in America. I saved these articles, just one month after graduation from Cincinnati Christian University, where I was closeted for years.
We have a long way to go…. But looking back on half a generation of advocacy work represented in this short photo reflection, I can say the following:. I finally believe that I can choose faith or I can leave it if it does not lift me higher. This piece is for lovers… and those who believe in lifelong love, no matter how long it takes for life to present it to us. You go toward all living things and every corner of humanity.
I see it in your work and friendships but pleasure of all pleasure, I see it in how you approach me…. I think about moments like those, when what moves between us is a flow of honesty… words, facial expressions, silence, an embrace… it is simply, unguarded honesty.
iwojafevazyx.ml: Gail Dickert: Books, Biography, Blogs, Audiobooks, Kindle
I have caught glimpses of this intimacy, but never has it stayed so constant, before you. I was there when she spoke of commitment, faith, and a hope for a life full of laughter and mutual acceptance. I held out hope that I could learn from others, that even death could not separate the heart from a lifelong love…. When my father emotionally abused my family, I learned to be responsive to change.
To all of us, who have evolved from every unsafe environment and emerged each time as a new species within our own emotional ecosystem, know that I see you. We want to be seen as the butterfly, magnificent in her transformation, but fragile in flight. Sometimes… we are just a koala… looking for a tree branch and a soft place to call home.
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Before the editing, feedback, questions, or encouragement in the project, there was only the hug. Truly, you would have to be standing there, in the front rows, as she extends her body, voice, and soul into the immediate aura that is, her audience. Specifically during this tour, I saw such light, reverence and passion coming from her back-up singers and brass ensemble.
I am one who has never truly known how to be vulnerable. There is a deep surrender to the Heartlines that connect us all. I cherish this music and the experience of her profound lyrics and presence. And oh the joy, oh the joy it brings to me. The entrails of the animals, The blood running through. There is only one reason trauma survivors do not heal. I read my own notes in the book, which I owned for almost two decades… And I decided to burn it.
I made a fire… And I burned it. But… I had courage alright… The courage to burn a broken path, with an unrealistic goal — and write my own damn resource book! Survivors and loved ones reading this — please consider… How much lighter would the burden be if the goal was integration, not healing? What if the journey is the destination? What if the process is the goal and there is no magical product known as healing? We must stop selling healing and start buying into our own stories of recovery.
I gave you a mirror. See your own recovery as it happens, right now, in real time. See your own story, as it unfolds, each new chapter, at every new turn of your life… It is not the courage to heal that we need to find… It is the courage to see and share… without apology, for the rest of our lives. Brave readers, keep sharing. You can try to remind us that we are better off now, or grass is greener in real time, but that is like offering a distraction, not a solution.
It has come up because the survivor is ready. Release the expectation that you are going to heal this, stop this, or have magic words. Your loved one is transported to another place, another life, another hour of suffering that is unrecognizable to you. But this is a trigger and trauma, for all of its complications, is incredibly astute at avoiding all sense of time. In that volcanic hour, the trauma could have happened an hour ago.
And oddly enough — namaste, to the Criminal Minds writing team who wrote an episode on the topic of a survivor of conversion therapy. It sparked a complete meltdown in me when I watched it… but it brought me to write this post…. Key steps in preventing childhood sexual abuse were covered. Does she have an identity outside of her sense of being a survivor?
And who more, than an year old survivor who had a PART of hers stolen? Has her path of abuse only continued, now in the hands of advocates of prevention? The media has an abusive relationship with survivors… How do I know? Lights, camera, action — our infatuation with these things has created an unsafe environment for survivors who off-camera, are still just trying to figure out how to do the following: Spring nature background with grass and blue sky in the back. We have a long way to go… But looking back on half a generation of advocacy work represented in this short photo reflection, I can say the following: I finally believe that I am whole.
I finally believe that my bedroom and my body are mine. I finally believe that my President is on my side. I see evidence that Love really does matter. And so you have come to me… and I have come to you. This is our marriage. That is our marriage. I am not even strong.
I just evolved under changing and traumatic circumstances. When my neighbor abused my body, I learned to be responsive to change. When my church abused my mind, I learned to be responsive to change. When my peers abused my spirit, I learned to be responsive to change. Others may think we are on the top of the emotional food chain and can handle anything. And we can… and we will. The best hug ever, honestly.