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Between the world wars, the French integrated the latter into the metropolitan framework. It was during this time that admission to the civil service began to pose a problem. Natives Muslim Algerians, Moroccans, and Tunisians sought equal access to civil service posts, educational equality, and quotas for admission. World War II brought a halt to recruitment, and the Vichy regime excluded some categories of the population, especially Jews, women, and Freemasons.
Many reforms were adopted after the war. One established a kind of "affirmative action" in favour of Muslims, another created administrative schools, another reduced the list of positions reserved for French citizens. Another reform measure attempted to give compensation to candidates for the civil service excluded during the war. These measures were not taken to weaken the nationalists, but to enable the native population to achieve entry into a number of agencies. When independence came, cooperative agreements made it possible to maintain in North Africa a French bureaucracy charged with mitigating the expected administrative problems of the new nations.
An Insider's Interpretation in Narrative Mode, This outline of a typical young man's career in Britain's post-war Colonial Service is presented in two parts, account and analysis. Part I outlines, in narrative biographical form, the family background and education of a typical middle-class boy born in the s, who joined the army from school when war broke out in and volunteered to serve with Indian troops. It was not until he returned to England in to resume his university education that he decided, strongly influenced by his family connections with and his own experience of empire, that what he wanted was to serve the Crown abroad, and so he joined the Colonial Service.
The second half of Part I describes the process of applying for a Colonial Service post together with the training involved. It also summarises the nature of the work in Africa, concluding with a brief description of what became of Britain's colonial administrators when in the s her African colonies serially attained independence and the overseas civil servants were obliged to take early retirement and seek another job — the "second career" phenomenon. Part II sets out a number of major characteristics in the formation and practice of the typical District Commissioner, including the perceived differences between the formation and career trajectories of the British District Commissioner and the French commandant de cercle.
The article closes by suggesting new research opportunities for completing the profile of "yesterday's rulers", the European colonial administrators in post-war Africa. Comparing Colonial Administration Methods: After an outline of the characteristics of central colonial administration in Berlin, the article analyses important aspects of native administration and native policy in both German colonies. The simultaneous uprisings of the African population against German rule resulted in the modification of native administration. In this respect the colonial governments used different administration methods for which a more direct or a more indirect system of native administration were the models.
While the government of German East Africa expanded the system of indirect rule, the government of German South-West Africa introduced the system of direct rule in those areas where European colonists preferred to settle. The last part of the article is a comparative study which analyses why the colonial administration methods differed and what the consequences were. In German East Africa the indigenous authorities often had only marginal political influence. This enabled the government to establish colonial rule in a relatively short time with the support of Africans involved in administration, police and military service.
Contrary to this situation in German South-West Africa colonial rule was relatively weak during the first two decades because of the autonomous position of the African authorities and their right to self-government. These differing initial conditions resulted in divergent colonial policies and administrative methods after the uprisings at the beginning of the 20th century. In German East Africa, the government tried to protect the interests of the African population within a paternalistic native policy because the relatively few European employers in the tropical plantation colony were always in need of large quantities of African workers.
Compared to this situation, the government of German South-West Africa followed an adverse aim because it intended to segregate the African population and the European colonists extensively in order to establish a colony for numerous European settlers. The article is based on the three first novellas of Dostoyevsky: Also considered are "Notes from the Underground" , a key novel on the milieu of low-ranking civil servants, seen as a metaphor of the miserable and absurd human condition.
Whereas Tolstoy and Gogol are rather well known for their novels characterizing high and low rank civil servants, this is not the case of Dostoyevsky whose chief novels, like "Crime and Punishment", "The Brothers Karamazov" or "The Gambler" overshadow his other creations.
Still, even there, one discovers bureaucracy as the canvas of any Russian life, along with censorship. Though belonging to the famous Table of Ranks, promulgated in by Peter the Great, with 14 ranks in two hierarchies, military and civil, Dostoyevsky's bread-winners feel deeply out of rank. Their credo is "I am nothing", not only because of their impecuniosity, but as a deep sense of emptiness, and uselessness, in society and the world. This mental abyss is reinforced by the lack of living space leading to a stunted life of resignation.
Public administration and its societal environment communicate with each other by many means. Among the media involved, also art, especially architecture and painting, plays a role. Whereas the importance of representative paintings honouring kings, ministers and other high-ranking officials has always been obvious and thus been studied by art historians, critical paintings assessing the performance of public administration from outside are far less known. This article analyses 12 so-called realistic or naturalistic paintings from France, Italy, Russia, Hungary, England and Scandinavia.
They all deal with administrative aspects of the "social question" in Europe, i. The analysis focuses on a specific iconographic element: Thus it is shown that not only allegories of virtues play a role in administrative iconography, and that paintings do not only visualize knowledge available elsewhere but have their own important forms of inquisitiveness, observation, presentation and judgment.
Thomas Horstmann, Friso Ross: Theses, Findings, Research Perspectives, The internationalisation of social security law and administration was set in motion in the late 19th and early 20th centuries by the cross-border exchange of knowledge on the so-called Social Question. Apart from a certain degree of governmental readiness to cooperate with other states in addressing this matter, it was chiefly private initiative that placed transnational regulations on the agenda.
Private impulses emanated from highly networked lines of communication among the urban elites, who applied themselves to the Social Question with a view to administrative and legal as well as scientific issues.
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These issues are examined within numerous interlinked organisational networks: The organisational networks were dominated by so-called super-users, who assumed manifold functions within them, but also belonged to other networks. The actors participating in this communication process had not yet evolved into experts on the basis of sophisticated disciplines, but they were indeed hommes de lettre with a keen eye for the social challenges of their time.
The subject matter of their communication remained a mixture of labour law, national economics, social insurance, social hygiene, or the early beginnings of local government science. Before the outbreak of the First World War, such exchanges produced only few regulations, but they spawned numerous coalitions and quasi-administrative organisations which paved the way for the adoption of international social security regulations and social standards in post-war Europe.
This review article aims to compare colonial administrations by the British, German, Russian and Japanese powers in East Asia and in the Southern Pacific. European colonies in East Asia were mostly colonial outposts, foreign residential areas or harbour colonies, which served as hubs for a larger informal, mostly economic, domination of the neighbouring territories often remaining under the formal rule of indigenous kings or emperors.
Some of the colonies were leased for a certain time. Japanese possessions, too, fell short of being outright colonies. In Manchuria a larger territory was dominated by Japan through informal or indirect exertion of influence. Colonial administrations differed greatly throughout East Asia and the Southern Pacific. National traditions, economic or military interests, as well as local conditions account for the differences. Russian-occupied Harbin was run and only rudimentarily administered by a private company.
British administrations, too, were light, pursuing a laissez faire policy. German colonies had larger administrations in the beginning, but here, too, administrations were forced to seek partnerships with private corporations. Japan deployed indigenous administrations, and placed Japanese bureaucrats only in key positions.
In general, colonial administrations in Asia and the Pacific region tended to be small-sized, pragmatic and oriented towards the promotion of free trade. The economical and political structures of Early Modern India had been shaped by an increasing European impact on Indian Ocean trade and finally by British territorial expansion.
This article gives an outline of the patterns of European expansion to India and the most eminent studies on this issue, in particular on British administration on the subcontinent. Two periods — the beginning of the 18th century, at the onset of European territorial influence, and the decades before the First World War, at its end — are highlighted.
While the colonial power to a large extent tended to take local customs into account during the first period, the latter witnessed an increasing Europeanization and professionalization of administration of British India. Furthermore, the maintenance of administrative traditions stemming from ancient India, e. Comparative Approaches and Models of Colonial Administration, In comparative studies, it is difficult to propose models and typologies, especially when one compares institutions which have not been studied in the same manner, nor by the same scholarly milieux.
The Colonial Office and Its Leadership, Portugal was one of the first and most enduring European colonial powers of modern times: The Establishment and First Experience of the Ministry of Colonies in Italy , In the period studied here there were two main models of colonial administration, the British and the French. Between Supporting High Administration and Protecting Administered Citizens, The French colonies were a field of experimentation with regard to administrative jurisdiction in France itself. The Belgian Colonial Administration in the Congo and Ruanda-Urundi , When, in , the Congo Free State, founded in by King Leopold II, became a Belgian colony, a specific civil service was created, composed exclusively of civilians who received a special training and were recruited for a full career.
Madagascar , The process of establishing French colonial administration on Madagascar extended over a period of more than four decades. Admission to the Civil Service in North Africa under French Rule, Some characteristics of French colonial administration in North Africa were particularly due to the presence of a sizeable French community. An Insider's Interpretation in Narrative Mode, This outline of a typical young man's career in Britain's post-war Colonial Service is presented in two parts, account and analysis.
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Native Administration in German East Africa and in German South-West Africa, After an outline of the characteristics of central colonial administration in Berlin, the article analyses important aspects of native administration and native policy in both German colonies. Why on Earth Is It in Heaven?
A Comparison of Galatians 4: Jerusalem and Jordan in the Bronze and Iron Ages. Download de Vos, Cornelis J.: Exodus 20,5 und Johannes 9. Vom direkt zum indirekt strafenden Gott, in: Das Land Israel in der Sicht der Septuaginta. Beispiele aus Exodus, Josua und Jesaja, in: Mohr Siebeck , S. Download Doering, Pia Claudia: Das Scheitern prophetischer Rede. Machiavellis Analyse der Rhetorik Girolamo Savonarolas, in: Akademie Verlag , S. Herrschergedenken bei den Karolingern und Abbasiden, in: The Role of non-Arab Contributions, in: Imperiale Herrschaft an der Peripherie?
Download G Doering, Pia Claudia: De Gruyter , S. Religion und Wohlfahrtsstaatlichkeit in Europa. Mohr Siebeck Verlag Herder Verlag , S. Jahrhunderts im deutschsprachigen Raum, Paderborn: Wirklichkeit — Wahrnehmung — Gestaltung, Frankfurt a. Religion and the Opinion Makers. Views of Religion among Elite Journalists in Germany, in: Empirical-Theological Perspectives, Leiden , S. Klartext Frieden und Krieg, 23 , S. Campus Verlag Religion und Moderne, 3 , S.
Bildung, soziale Ungleichheit - und Pierre Bourdieu. Katholiken und der Krieg im Atomzeitalter, , in: Vom 'modernen Krieg' und 'wissenschaftlichen Waffen'. Zum Friedensengagement der westdeutschen Katholiken in der Nachkriegszeit", in: Pax Zeit, 3 , , S. Weder Schmuddelkind noch Prinzessin, oder: Neue Perspektiven auf ein altes Thema, Berlin: Der Osten im Westen? Die Beziehung von Protestantismus, Politik und Gesellschaft im Ein Versuch am Beispiel von Familienwerten und Religion, in: Religion in Deutschland nach , in: Eine zeithistorische Er-kundung am Beispiel des Islams, in: AZ Druck, , S.
Religion, Individuum und Gesellschaft.
Die Zukunft der Erinnerung. Die Stunde der Laien? Religion - Recht - Republik. De Gruyter Verlag , S. Download H Hahn, Johannes: Routledge books , S. The Challenge of Religious Violence: Imperial Ideology and Policy in the Fourth Century, in: Die Olympischen Spiele von Antiochia. Pietas 3, Gutenberg , S. Gewaltanwendung ad maiorem Dei gloriam? Die katholische Kirche und Gewalt. Neue Perspektiven auf das gute Leben, S. Pflichten gegen sich selbst und die Frage nach dem guten Leben, S. Geschichte und Theodizee bei Kant, in: Download J Jansen, Nils: Germanistische Abteilung , S.
The cultural, didactic, and physical spaces of mission schools in the nineteenth century, in: German Moravian Missionaries in the English-speaking World, in: Sussex Academic Press , S. Friedrich Hagenauer and the betrothal of indigenous Western Australian women in colonial Victoria, in: Aboriginal History, 34 , , S. Download K Kogman-Appel, Katrin: Le programme des images dans le manuscrit de Londres MS Add.
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Edition Privat , S. Eschatology in the Catalan mappamundi, in: Joel ben Simeon Looking at the Margins of Society, in: Elisha ben Abraham Bevenisti Cresques, in: Del Barco, Javier Hg. The Audiences of the Late Medieval Haggadah, in: Portrayals of Women with Books: Female Il literacy in Medieval Jewish Culture, in: Jewish Art and Cultural Exchange: Sephardic Ideas in Ashkenaz: Visualizing the Temple in Medieval Regensburg, in: Rejection, Toleration, and Accommodation. At the end of the Huguenot Wars and before the absolutist reforms of Richelieu, it reflects the political-administrative situation in France and its reform requirements.
It shows that the efforts of the Crown to become an assertive state authority were also desirable and imaginable from an aristocratic viewpoint. The combination of Bodin's sovereignty formula with the noble interest resulted from both differentiation and functionalisation of royal power over the nobility, but also — and more importantly — from its limitation. The sovereign, for instance, was not allowed to infringe upon the matrimonial and hereditary traditions, at least those of the high nobility.
He furthermore supported the pursuit of family interests, especially in the context of diplomatic activities. This period was of vital importance to the development of the early modern State in two respects. In substance, it completed the transition to absolutism. Geographically and territorially, the treatise reflects the change of European hegemony from Spain to France. The special mixture of theory and practice made this treatise one of the most widely read publications concerning political-administrative thinking within the Holy Roman Empire for more than a century.
It is an example of the development of the gradual emancipation of officials. As Seckendorff argues, officials played a central role in establishing, consolidating and extending the sovereign's State. They acted not only as a competent counselling and executive authority for the sovereign, but also mediated the sovereign's will to the subjects. Thus officialdom as seen by Seckendorff, who was a highly esteemed counsellor and official himself, can be described as the upholder of the early absolutist State.
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The article focuses on the structure of public administration, the relationship between the sovereign and his counsellors and officials, their qualifications and social profiles, the problems concerning their background and religious denomination as well as the question of whether they were salaried appropriately. In German historical literature based on an analysis of theoretical writings of jurists and political scientists of the 17th century it is commonly accepted that administrative ethics Beamtenethik in that period underwent manifest deconfessionalisation and latent secularisation.
However, when analyzing funeral sermons concerning Lutheran office holders one can realize that there still was a deeply rooted orthodox viewpoint belonging to the politica christiana. Because according to this normative frame all virtues of officials were aligned with fear of God and justice as understood in the Lutheran interpretation of the Bible, this administrative ethics bore an enormous potential for criticism of political power and authority, clearly opposing the contemporaneous ratio-status-literature.
The article puts the question what happened with it in the first half of the 18th century. Analyzing funeral sermons of Lutheran parish priests of that period in Northern Germany, it is shown that this kind of religion-based administrative ethics lost substance and vitality.
Its rhetoric became stale and its critical strength vanished. It survived, however, to a certain extent in the funeral speeches and poems of laymen, especially school directors. But admonitions and exhortations of the living were replaced by praise of the deceased official. Sometimes another kind of thinking swept into traditional formula, hints of the coming Enlightenment. As a side effect, jurists — in the 17th century a profession of doubtful if not bad reputation in the field of faith-based administrative ethics — got a much better standing due to a higher appreciation of their technical expertise.
Kant's Notion of Public Office, or: This study aims to explore Kant's concept of Enlightenment — especially the distinction between public and private use of reason — in the light of his concept of public office and thus of public administration. For Kant there is no Enlightenment without a State based upon the rule of law. Negotiating these two requires a set of specific concepts centred around a wide notion Staatsverwaltung State administration.
The connection between strict obedience and reform-oriented modernity of the administration and its officials constituted the Kantian concept of enlightened bureaucracy. For the purpose of reconstructing this concept the article puts the textually widely scattered comments on administration and officaldom into a systematic coherence which Kant himself only established in a rudimentary way.
Joana Estorninho de Almeida: Between Officeholders and Employees of the State: The article deals with the designations and status of officials as they changed over the last centuries of Old Regime Portugal. The latter were called "cargos" charges. This term meant a different kind of appointment and a distinct social status that was described by a prolific literature.
These officials were mere executors of tasks and orders. Their dependency on their superiors tended to introduce an alternative model of administration. The creation and development of secretariats of State with their staff hierarchically established formalized this distinct kind of organizational paradigm within the political pluralism of Old Regime Portugal. Eventually, in the middle of 18th century, under the direction of the Marquis of Pombal, new conceptions of society and political power were used to develop a series of State reforms.
The main courts received new plans and new institutions were created. The organizational model was that of direction and hierarchy. New categories of officials were established, such as the inspector inspector and the intendente manager , giving their holders no ownership of the position anymore. Legislative measures were undertaken in order to put an end to all patrimonial offices and to implement a salary system.
Instead of office holders owning their office, officials were increasingly considered public employees, subjected to an occupation and limited by public interest, as the sovereign understood it. This new conception was first of all realized in order to rationalize the administrative structure, responding to inner administrative necessities.
Nevertheless, the Crown profited from it in order to establish the State monopoly of power. This article begins by considering portraits of cardinals dating from the 15th and early 16th century. Their common characteristic is the identification with the Church Fathers St. Augustinus taken as models of Christian piety and humanistic erudition. Then, turning away from the Papal States and the high clergy to secular office holders, portraits of jurists come to the fore.
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It is remarkable that in the 17th century in some portraits books clearly indicated their juridical and political content, leaving religious aspects of orientation aside. This applies to representatives and officials of cities as well as to ministers of States.
But in the course of the 18th century references to the official's education, especially to contents of books shown in the portrait, disappeared and books became mere accessories. Obviously, next to resemblance of features, sophisticated clothing indicating the official's social position and ambition was much more important, for painters as well as for patrons.
By contrast to books, desks retained their optical weight in the portraits of office holders.