This book is intended for the owners and drivers of all makes of car. It will be relevant to motorists taking their own car abroad and to holidaymakers or business travellers who hire a locally at their destination. Flavia Frigeri Order on Amazon. Et je suis sorti en saluant Jeff et Jim, suivi de mon chien Jonas. Et lui aussi a eu envie de partir…. Y a-t-il des restaurants kids friendly? Que faire dans les parcs et jardins parisiens? Me marier en blanc… Ma vie en vrai: Emily Ruskovich Order on Amazon. Margaret Davidson Order on Amazon.
Claire et Christian Gaudin Order on Amazon. How do the French create the alluringly beautiful sanctuaries they call home — formal yet comfortable, organized yet casual, filled with decorative objects that are also a practical part of their everyday lives? What may feel effortless is not, of course, and in Home Sweet Maison, Danielle Postel-Vinay shares what she has learned about the French art of making a home.
Through a transformative friendship with a Frenchwoman who mentored her in the good life, her marriage to a Parisian man, and years of immersive research while living in France, Postel-Vinay learned the true essence of how the French live la belle vie. Sophisticated, charming, and aspirational, Home Sweet Maison is a unique look at how the French view their most intimate spaces, family life, and themselves. With touches of history and how-to, Postel-Vinay explains the life-changing benefits of introducing French traditions and practices into your home. You may personalize the entrance to your apartment, make your dining room the soul of your home, or create a kitchen space that moves with the efficiency of a four-star restaurant, but more important, Home Sweet Maison shows that anyone, with any kind of living space, can create a sanctuary; a home filled with warmth and self-expression, better suited to living a rich, full, connected life.
Through addresses, carefully selected for their singularity—unusual museums, timeless brasseries, cool bistros, local markets, soul-filled shops, irresistible pastries, and romantic gardens—urban explorers will find a thousand reasons to walk the streets of Paris again and again, always discovering something new. Sac au dos, livre en main. David Giotto has problems — serious ones. He has problems with his extraordinary enemies — and friends.
Here is the selection for the week of August 2nd: Alors nous veillons sur nos vocables, nous ne les abandonnons pas sur les palissades, nous ne les jetons pas aux oiseaux de proie, nous ne les dissipons pas dans les salons ou les lupanars. Here is the selection for the week of July 26th: Here is the selection for the week of July 19th: Enfin, Emmy va pouvoir entrer dans le vif du sujet, partir sur le front, se faire un nom au fil de la plume!
Here is the selection for the week of July 12th: Parmi ces milliers de citations: Francis Scott Fitzgerald fut un nouvelliste hors pair. Here is the selection for the week of July 5th: The biggest and most beloved names in English literature have all been here, and you can still see or visit their stomping grounds and favorite places. Moving through time and genre, from Spencer and Shakespeare to Amis and Barnes, from tragedy and romance to chick-lit and science fiction, Literary London is a snappy and informative guide, showing just why—as another famous local writer put it—he who is tired of London is tired of life.
Pourquoi aller au lit? Parce que tout le monde le fait. Here is the selection for the week of June 28th: The indispensable guide to recognize and taste the best of French cheese. Le perfect guide and souvenir for foreign tourists in France. In English or French. Here is the selection for the week of June 21st: Discover the history of the Resistance or that of the Arabic world.. Africa, cinema, Egypt, history, impressionism, Middle Ages, music, ancient and contemporary art: The best practical illustrated guide dedicated to all visitors eager to discover the treasures of the French Capital.
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Parigramme Order Paris Museums on Amazon. Packed with amusing anecdotes and true stories about the characters and places of the region. A must for anybody even thinking about crossing the Channel for the good life in rural France! Every summer thousands of Brits and other Europeans head to the south west of France for bliss, beauty and freedom.
His project was doomed apparently — he was constantly told by industry sages that nothing goes on there out of season. But he soon discovered that the strange characters, ambitious local politicians, vain sportsmen and yes, badly-behaving foreigners provided more than enough material to keep newsrooms happy. There are the politicians preaching the benefits of Brexit while living a grand life in France. There is also one village in the Pyrenees where many flock believing when the inevitable end of the world comes, it will be the sole place that will survive.
More stories include treasure-seekers convinced of a Catholic Church cover-up, the downright dishonest practices in the truffle markets and other inhabitants of the region who have included ex-terrorists and murderers on the run. Here is the selection for the week of June 14th: Mais Peggy Guggenheim est aussi une femme malheureuse qui se trouve laide et rate ses deux mariages. Tallandier Order Peggy Guggenheime on Amazon. Editions Atlas Order Metro on Amazon. Usborne Order Drapeaux on Amazon. In fact the whole book is one long road trip.
His collection of anecdotes, sometimes nearly burlesque, centered around driving in France but touching on all aspects is a fun and informative read. You feel solidarity with Joe as he adapts and deals with the administration. The differences in car culture here and there, administration, navigation, insurance, signage with all their related anecdotes. He had plenty of bad luck and a little too much hubris. This story is his inner journey his personal adaptation to France and is a worthwhile read for those arriving in France or those here for many years already. Order French License on Amazon.
Here is the selection for the week of June 7th: Here is the selection for the week of May 29th: Order Autour de Paris on Amazon. Here is the selection for the week of May 17th: Joe Start is an American in the Paris area for more than 15 years. The Chairfather get the humor? Joe is on a first name basis with them, informal, probing and a tad insolent. He meets the eternals head on as an eternal American. Lunch with the late litterati. Gnosh with the gone glitterati. Fascinating facts, scandalous stories and gossip.
Posterity has never been so present. The passed have never been more alive! Order The Chairfather on Amazon. When a little mouse hunts all over Paris for an elusive childhood smell, he discovers what he has been searching for, and something more as well! In English and Polish. A collection of humorous, touching, unputdownable stories set in Paris, The Jazz-Girl, the Piano, and the Dedicated Tuner transports you into a feel-good world of jazz, pianos and the little-known art of piano tuning.
An entertaining slice of life, regardless of whether or not you play a musical instrument, this book explores the world of Nina Somerville, an Englishwoman who — while others are going through a mid-life crisis — discovers by complete chance her true calling: In a bid to enjoy that passion to the full, she purchases the piano of her dreams — a Steinway baby grand — leading her to make yet another discovery: Against the backdrop of the Eiffel tower and the Champs-Elysees, from the quest for the perfect sound to an unexpected chance to perform in public, music takes Nina on a journey which is at times improbable and hilarious, but equally moving, not to mention extremely informative.
Here is the selection for the week of May 10th: Expats leave many loved ones behind. Precious moments in hugging arms now out of reach but not out of mind. How to carry on with this emptiness inside? Chacune a deux enfants, un mari et un chat!
Virginie est journaliste, Corinne est graphiste illustratrice. Virginie and Corinne are two expatriate friends living in the United States. They are both married with two children and a cat, also expatriate! Virginie is a journalist, Corinne is a graphic designer and illustrator. Et comment une telle violence a-t-elle pu surgir dans une ville si paisible?
Reading and writing Listening pistes audio disponibles dur le site editions-larousse. Incertitudes et controverses entourent les origines du tricolore et de ses composantes. These women, who came from different parts of France and diverse background, would later cross the Atlantic to join husbands, settle in various corners of America, suffer culture shock, and adapt to marriage in a foreign land of postwar plenty with varying degrees of success.
Despite these difficulties, like many other immigrants, they got on with it and survived. There were disputes over jurisdiction. Ecclesiastical law, or Canon law, was the law of the church, derived largely from official pronouncements of ecclesiastical councils or dignitaries. Secular law, in the north of France, was what the local administrators and court officers thought had always been applied in their province; but since their memories were not perfect, the law itself changed rather rapidly, as new ad hoc solutions were found for the same issues.
It was not written down in most areas until the thirteenth or even the fourteenth century. Roman law, in the form of the Corpus Juris Civilis , 9 mostly compiled under the Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian in about , and based on earlier models, was studied from the late eleventh century on, first of all at Bologna. Its influence on French law was considerable by the time of the plays I shall be discussing, and many of the plays which deal with the courts include citations to the Corpus Juris Civilis and the Corpus Juris Canonici.
The use of a system of citation now long replaced makes the citations all the more recondite. Although this may add to the obscurity of the plays for a modern audience, it is actually an element of realism, which has lawyers and judges speak on stage in the way they probably spoke in real courts. There was some rivalry between the ecclesiastical courts and the secular courts, and this rivalry is sometimes expressed as satire of one kind of lawyer for the delight of an audience consisting of the other kind.
French medieval courts did not use juries at the time when the courts were the subject of theatrical writings, so a jury is never seen on stage. Instead, a judge might have a number of assessors, who gave him advice on how to rule on various issues, including collateral ones. Other rights which are considered basic to American justice, and guaranteed by the United States Constitution chiefly in amendments were not available to litigants in medieval France.
There was no cross-examination of witnesses, for example, who were generally examined out of the presence of the parties; and in some courts the testimony of witnesses was not revealed to the parties even after the examination. The following account is reductive and based largely on Beaumanoir, chapters 1, 6, 7, 39, 40, 59, and The judge, acting alone, but perhaps with some assessors looking on, tries to sharpen the issues, in order to make it clear what the parties disagree about.
The parties can produce documents at this stage, such as written contracts and the like. The parties have little to do after this except to present their witnesses. The witnesses, who may be challenged for bias, or consanguinity, etc. The answers are written down and sealed. This all takes place out of the presence of the parties, who are thus powerless to influence the testimony and examination of the witnesses, and also unable to cross-examine them.
An account of the written testimony is then closed up and sealed, and delivered to the judge. The third and final phase of the trial is the judgment. The judge and his assessors read or listen to the record of the testimony of the witnesses, and then deliberate and formulate a judgment. The parties are recalled to listen to a reading of the judgment and they must appeal immediately ILLICO for false judgment or lose their chance to do so.
The pleadings take place in public, so that the audience of a play could with little difficulty be transformed into the spectators at a trial. The examination of witnesses takes place in camera, and if it were presented on stage, the audience would be silent and invisible spectators of something normally hidden. Finally, the judgment is again public, but it gives little scope for dialogue, since it consists mainly in the reading or pronouncement of sentence, which might be very short. It is clear that the first of these stages, the pleadings, gives the best scope for dramatic presentation.
This would not be so in a modern trial, where the pleadings complaint and answer are filed in writing, at an interval of several weeks. In a medieval court the pleadings were oral and confrontational, and the answer had to be given, in many cases, immediately. As in modern trials, the parties in medieval disputes, or their lawyers, could raise liminal or collateral issues which required intermediate judgments: This kind of issue might delay a suit, but would not be on the main point in dispute.
Such objections and objections were called dilatory, and included such things as challenges to jurisdiction, claims of insufficient process or insufficient service of process, or illness of the party, which prevented him from attending court on the assigned day, and a host of other minor or procedural matters.
Eventually, however, the accused, or the defendant, had to admit or deny the truth of the allegations. The first brought immediate condemnation, and the second required proof, such as the testimony of witnesses or the production of documents. Once an answer to the main complaint had been made, further dilatory exceptions were not permitted. There are numerous trials in Old French literature: About seventy of these plays have been preserved.
La condamnation de Banquet. The first half of the play is taken up with the three feasts which lead to the death of four of the revelers: The seven revelers are served by four servants, and finally set upon by a group of ten diseases. There appear in addition a sermoniser and a fool, so that there are a total of 26 different characters in this part of the play, no two of whom can be conveniently played by the same actor.
These new characters include the Father confessor, seven serjants , the judge and four members of his counsel, who are medical writers of Antiquity. There are several different locations involved: The accused are ordered to be arrested, and the serjants find them still at the scene of the crime. The doctors ask to examine the defendants.
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The complaint is repeated, and the evidence of the arresting officers is taken. Here, as elsewhere, the author provides a footnote in the original printed edition, giving a reference to the Digest. The defendants are again removed, while the doctors consult. They give their opinions, and the defendants are brought back again. The confession of course obviates the need to examine witnesses, a procedure which would have lengthened this already lengthy play.
After a further removal of the defendants, the counselors recommend death for Banquet and then for Soupper a banishment of six hours from Disner, in addition to heavy weights placed on his wrists so that he cannot serve food so readily. The defendants are brought back, and after the verdict has been read by the clerk Remede, the sentence is carried out: Soupper is sent away and Banquet is hanged, on stage. From this we can probably deduce that banqueting will not cease for long. Of course, the hanging must have been carried out using some sort of harness to protect the actor, and it is possible that the audience could see this harness, and understand that Banquet was not really hanged at all.
The whole play is of course in verse, and not a monotonous series of octosyllabic couplets, but a varied assortment of meters and rhyme schemes, including frequent rondeaux. The verbal exuberance of several speeches is worthy of Rabelais: Harvey says of this play: There are many elements in the play which ironically undercut the seriousness of the message: Thanks to this play, we can see followed the criminal procedure of the time, as codified in an ordonnance of , just a few years before the play was first printed.
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Audi partem , ce dit le Droit. Il faut examiner le cas, Et consulter, par bon endroit, Avec docteurs et advocas. En telz crimes ou altercas, Il chet grant consultacion, Car je ne vueil, pour mil ducas, Avoir nom de corruption. We have no sympathy for Banquet, because he is plainly guilty of premeditated assault and murder: Passetemps correctly names his crime when she cries out: There is some evidence that it was seen in performance as late as In this sense, the play is very much a celebration.
The judge is anxious that justice should also be seen to be done.
The play was written by a doctor of Civil and Canon law, and may reflect some of the traditions of the Basoche, the society of law-clerks. Deschamps was a lawyer, and a royal bailli of the jurisdiction of Senlis, just north of Paris. There is no courtroom scene in this play, which deals with the first contact between a would-be litigant and his attorney: He discovers that his client has a store of twenty gold francs, and offers to play a game for them.
The other accepts, and insists on choosing his own game and the judges, inviting Trubert to swear an oath renouncing all possible remedies if he should lose. The rash Trubert, like an unwary and naive litigator, promises, and loses all his money, including the four francs which his client has already paid him, and more which he borrows on security of most of his clothes. The comic effect of this piece is that the methods used by the clever Antrongnart are precisely those used by an unscrupulous lawyer to fleece a client.
A renter or lease-holder may be in possession of some property, without being the owner or landlord. When someone is deprived of possession, he or she has an action for repossession. For real property usually land , this is called novel disseisin, French nouvelle disseisine or disseisine et de nouvelle. If the true owner has been dispossessed, or loses a suit on novel disseisin, he or she has an action on ownership. Beaumanoir has a chapter on this issue.
His authorization is immediately challenged by M e Simon, but it appears to be in order. The judge then hears four pleadings: After this, the judge hears M e Simon ask for his client to be repossessed of the property temporarily, until a judgment is given on the main issue.
After consulting with his assessors, the judge awards possession pro tem to La Simple, declares that there are issues in dispute, and orders a further hearing to examine witnesses. Several times the judge has to stop some squabbling between the attorneys. This scenario departs a little from what we know of civil procedure in the secular courts going back to the thirteenth century: It is the seriousness of the procedure when applied to this property that makes for the humor of the piece; but it is precisely the fact that the subject is frivolous that means that the procedure must be impeccable for the joke to work.
The unlikelihood, even the outrageousness, of the substance guarantees the authenticity of the form. The argument presented by the assessor is in any case very abstruse, although it might well have appealed to an audience of lawyers. The six witnesses are none of them prepossessing, being mostly low-life characters, and the play ends when the clerk finishes reading the report. No judgment is given. It is tempting to think that this play might actually have been written first, and the other, more dramatic one, only later, and on possession instead of ownership.
The date and time of the examination of each is carefully noted, and the main part of the testimony is written out in full, with the irrelevant material or protestations of ignorance being given in abbreviated form.
The main part of each deposition adds something to our knowledge of the case, and this kind of information is not repeated. In this way, the Enqueste is perhaps untypical, and constructed as a literary exercise, rather than as the report of a judicial one. The material is in any case mostly trivial or scandalous.
Mignon is treated as property, which is subject to acquisition, inheritance, and even escheat to the crown when the owner dies without heirs. La Simple seems to obtain permanent rights to him when he goes through a ceremony that looks like homage, swearing with his hands between hers to serve her faithfully, 46 and making a renunciation in due form of all possible appeals against her sovereignty.
Once again, the very frivolousness of its subject matter suggests that the comic effect is derived from the perfectly correct procedure used to deal with the problem. The learned nature of some of the discussion would suggest, however, that the audience expected or intended by the author was not naive about legal matters, and enjoyed an argument over an obscure point of procedure as much as a lampoon of lawyers and litigants. The legal professionals all treat the suit as perfectly serious, and once this attitude has been accepted by the audience, there is nothing to disapprove of in the behavior of any of these persons.
The lawyers do their best for their clients, the judge tries to move the proceedings along, and the assessor makes what he feels to be the needed explanation about the burden of proof. The witnesses, preposterous as they are, are treated with respect and questioned about relevant issues.
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One can have some confidence that lawyers and judges who proceeded in this way probably reached sensible and equitable results in their trials. The remaining plays I shall discuss take place in lower level courts, at the village or small town level, perhaps even in the open air rather than a courtroom. There is some discussion as to whether certain of these courts are secular or ecclesiastical. And these plays are farces. The poor man says he will not take less or more than a hundred. The rich man hides behind the altar, and when the poor man asks God for money, he tosses him a purse with ninety-nine crowns.