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The repertoire known in Morocco today is also referred as "Al-Haik" or "Haik" in short, after the poet Muhammad Al-Haik, who, in the 18 th century, collected whatever repertoire remained in the memories of the poets and musicians of his time in order to save and preserve it. The other North African traditions have other Nubat: The Andalusian scales are based on a system of intervals that differs from that of the Eastern Arabic music.
Seemingly, the intervals are parallel to those of western music tones and semi-tones , and if one would transcribe the scales and melodies in western notation, they would not need to use Eastern microtones quarter and eighth tones as is customary in Eastern Arabic and Turkish music. However, it is important to note that microtones are used during performance, although without any clear rules rooted in classical theory.
Additionally, because parts of Nubat that were not preserved in their complete form have been assimilated into some of the main Nubat, there are often modulations from the main scale during the performance. As previously mentioned, the Nuba's form is similar to that of a musical suite, that is to say, a musical work comprised of a number of movements. The Nuba is performed with an ensemble that includes an orchestra, soloist musicians, a choir, and soloist singers.
The Nuba is comprised of two introductions and five movements. Each movement Mizan is characterized by a fixed rhythmic pattern from which it derives its name. Between the Mizans movements , an improvisational section in free rhythm known as Beiten two verses; see below is performed.
The five movements comprise the five main segments of each Nuba, and this structure is common to each of the three styles that were mentioned above. M'shaliya- The orchestra plays a few pieces in order to tune their instruments and to base the Tab'a the musical scale before the Nuba itself begins.
The rhythmic character of this part is free. Sometimes soloist musicians play parts of this introduction in a free improvisation. Tuashia — the orchestra plays a few pieces that have a structured rhythmic character, which are played until the audience is seated and the right atmosphere for the performance of the five movements of the Nuba is created.
Five movements that make up each and every Nuba are performed: Each movement has its own rhythmic unit called Mizan meter , which is why all the movements are referred to with the general name Mizan.
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The Basit movement is based on a triple meter three beats per measure that can be performed by one of the following ways: This movement is based on a duple meter: The rhythmic structure of this movement consists of three measures that are sequenced in this way: In contrast with the Basit movement where the emphasis is on the second beat, in this movement the emphasis is on the first beat, and hence the rhythmic structure sounds different in the two movements even though they share the triple meter. The performance of the Mizan begins with Tar playing a type of frame drum that is followed by a series of songs Sana'a that are performed without pause until the end of the Mizan.
An important characteristic of the performance of the Nuba is the acceleration of the tempo in each Mizan, from slow at the beginning to a fast tempo at the end. In between the different songs of the structural progression of the Mizan, folksongs called Barwals are performed. These songs are folksongs without a chorus that are used as a kind of recess. The have a strophic structure and the number of lines varies between the verses. The melodies of these songs are in the Andalusian folk style and are usually situated in the final Mizans of the Nuba Darj or the Quddam , probably because of the relatively simple meters of these two movements.
Because of the size of the repertoire and the extensive length of the complete Nuba progression, a full progression will never be performed in one night, that is to say a Tasdir series that includes all five Mizans and all their parts. The function of these songs is to act as a bridge within the Mizan and to allow the omission of certain parts through a progression that feels natural and organic within the entire structure. In between the different Mizans there is a transition segment called the Beiten two verses. The text of this segment is comprised of two verses, usually taken from another song.
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The music is usually improvised on a melodic structure that is known beforehand, and it is used as a transition from one Mizan to the next, especially between the different rhythmic patterns of the two sequential Mizans. There are two kinds of Beiten. The first opens with the mode's root note the first note of the musical scale , and it is called "mujtat"; the second type of Beiten opens with the fifth note of the musical scale the dominant and develops the musical progression around this note.
The Beiten are characterized by being performed by soloists that perform musical progressions that ornament the melody's fixed structure. The Beiten's melodies are characterized by trills and melodic ascensions and declinations in a very free rhythm. Today there are twenty different Beitens, which are assigned to different Nubat, with each Nuba having its own fixed Beitens. Each of the five movements of the Nuba the Mizan includes a sequence of poems-songs that are called Sana'ai plural of Sana'a ; these songs are performed sequentially and without pause in between them.
The Sana'a is an Arabic poetic form whose origins are in the type of poem called the Moachah. This is the most important type of song in the Andalusian music and Nuba.
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