The real Corinne would have forgiven him this little touch of personal vanity. Others would soon approach the novel with a definite parti pris.
They paused here long enough for Schlegel to meet the librarian and to be shown two Roman mosaics in the city. It gave him the opportunity for his first piece of sustained archaeological description: Schlegel shows here that he can be technical and learned, while also giving a spirited portrayal of the scenes depicted. The two ladies made an excursion to the glaciers at Chamonix: The savant-traveller was also—how could it be otherwise? He kept his ears open for gradations in dialect: The journey on foot was also a progression through pristine nature and uncorrupted morals.
True, there were three set-piece descriptions that showed an eye for both nature and human customs; and there was disapproval of the tourism that had already sprung up. The dates of publication, , brought with them reminders that this was the land of ancient freedom: Prince August of Prussia, who was forced to spend six weeks in Coppet while waiting for passports for himself and Clausewitz, fell passionately in love with her during the time he spent at Coppet they later vowed eternal love, without marriage.
Closer in time, he would state to his sister-in-law Dorothea Schlegel that he merely wanted to stir things up, get people annoyed, and to Goethe he used a similar tone. That in its turn was somewhat disingenuous: When these lectures were available, first in German, then in French, the full extent of his thinking on the notion of the classic, on classicism, on neo-classicism, would be shown in its widest context.
It was a question of how one approached revival or recrudescence, not the principle itself. By placing this passage in the centre of his treatise, Schlegel was aligning himself with someone who had entered the Greek world with heart and mind and soul and spirit. Schlegel, like Lessing, cut corners in argument, overlooked inconsistencies that did not suit him, and was often plainly unfair once he had his teeth in an opponent. Schlegel, as was his policy, never mentioned Schiller in this connection, but readers of Europa , that recent work from the Schlegel circle, would be left in no doubt as to its position: She did not place Racine on a pinnacle for all time, as Voltaire had done.
All the same, when directing the same notion of progress towards Greek drama, she placed the trio Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides in descending order of merit. There were further contradictions. While correctly seeing that Euripides and Racine are basically different, she was unable to suppress the insight that only a Frenchman, not a Greek, could have written. He could be more outspoken before the audience of his Vienna Lectures a year later.
As said, it stands essentially between the Berlin Lectures and those in Vienna, rehearsing some insights of the one and anticipating views expressed later. In the Comparaison we have the same gradation of esteem but also for the sake of his argument an implicit equality. He does not bring out essential but equally valid differences, as Herder had done forty years earlier when comparing Sophocles with Shakespeare. He notes rather how much Racine has borrowed from his Greek source and how much he has changed, not why a seventeenth-century dramatist would find many motifs from Greek tragedy unsuitable or why he would read them differently from antiquity or from the early nineteenth century , bound as he was by the conventions of his own theatre that called for a love intrigue quite impossible in Athens but permissible in Paris.
Schlegel cannot deny that the play has great beauty of verse and diction, but that is about all he is prepared to concede. Why this is so, he never discusses; there is no mention of the Jansenist doctrines of Port-Royal or of exemplary states of grace. There is another factor as well: It is not Christian: Here Schlegel is rehearsing arguments that inform the second cycle of his Vienna Lectures. Constant noted nothing in his journal.
Performances of French tragedies, such as Lessing had objected to in Hamburg forty years earlier, were still by no means uncommon in Once Schlegel found himself in the imperial capital, these two enterprises became joined in one effort. She continues, knowing his response in advance: This he already knew, and in a sense the rumour—for it was no more than that—of his sailing to America provided the answer. Switzerland, occasionally France, Austria and Germany, before the great flight to Russia and Sweden in Sophie of course wanted money: August Wilhelm had to hear promptings from his brother about his talent as a dramatist, about careers in new universities like Berlin, just being founded.
Dorothea, extending her rapt admiration for Friedrich to her brother-in-law, averred that the two would be the pyramids that would outlast everything of their age. We cannot of course overlook the litany of querulous and self-pitying communications from Friedrich, but two symbolic confraternal gestures do stand out: August Wilhelm was to give his poem a prominent position in the reissue of his poetic works that he oversaw in Was August Wilhelm the author?
This is only one side. For this periodical Schlegel produced a corpus of learned reviews that must rank as a scholarly achievement almost commensurate with the more accessible Vienna Lectures. The list does not necessarily end there. By the same token, it is also without doubt that Schlegel certainly gave advice on German literature and thought to his benefactress which she in fact acknowledged. The plan of a comprehensive work on Germany—its people, culture, letters, moeurs , in brief whatever the French needed to learn about this fascinating nation in the north that was paradoxically not yet a nation—had never left her.
Now, there was the south, and there was Austria. They had met in Venice in , and she had not forgotten him. The disparity in their ages was no hindrance, as other admirers and lovers knew or were to know. Her plans for Vienna now had a treble thrust: Schelling and Schlegel were on their best behaviour and discoursed amicably, while agreeing to differ in private.
It was also to be the last time that he saw her. But Munich also had its drawbacks: This was granted, and the seventeen-year-old boy made his request: The Emperor, as so often, was forthright, blunt and rude; he then relented and adopted a more kindly tone. Might not a little credit accrue to his tutor Schlegel?
Within a week, she had been received by the Emperor Francis and two royal archdukes.
Her letters are studded with other grand names—Lobkowitz, Lichtenstein, Lubomirski, Potocki. He, at her prompting, had joined them in March: The serious business in Vienna was threefold: It needs to be said that her every step was followed by the assiduous Austrian police, they having taken over from the equally zealous but more efficient Napoleonic surveillance system. This was partly his own doing, and partly because, as so often, he was ahead of his times. There were however problems: Ever since their removal to Paris and then Cologne, Friedrich had been doing just that.
Of his Germanic and patriotic sentiments there could be no doubt; his letters, such as the one that he wrote to his brother in , were beginning to express notions of spiritual authority and order—one church, one constitution, one faith—that suggested the hierarchy of Rome. Rediscovering his exiguous dramatic talents, he was drafting a historical play on Charles V. Could he consult the imperial archives in Vienna? She temporarily lost custody of her talented son Philipp Veit, the later Nazarene painter. By the time of his arrival in Vienna Friedrich had seen the publication of a work that towered in significance over almost anything that he had produced that decade: Ueber die Sprache und Weisheit der Indier.
While it did not involve the very first publication in German of a Sanskrit text, it was the first comprehensive survey of comparative mythology, migration theory, and the principles and origins of language, that was also a chrestomathy, a selection of Sanskrit religious and poetic texts in a German translation. This Friedrich had, during the extraordinary six-month burst of creative energy—and sheer concentration—after their arrival in Paris.
After approaches to Reimer and eventual successful negotiations with Zimmer, it was not to come out until Yet in many ways Friedrich had succeeded in bringing together in one volume aspects of India that would occupy August Wilhelm in what was ultimately a never-ending quest. The work had two major thrusts. It was a study in comparative grammar, which enabled two language groups or families to emerge, equally venerable as organs of sacred truths Hebrew and Sanskrit but divergent in terms of structure. Human history could be traced to movements and removals, of place, language, belief and culture, away from the Centre, the simple and undivided Whole of primeval origins, as disorders and disruptions forced mankind in all directions.
The work shows the comparative religionist, that Friedrich once was, in conflict with the believer on one faith and order. There is no hint of any preparatory work, but coincidences and overlaps between Berlin and Vienna suggest that he had to hand notes from the earlier series and that he used these, suitably adapted, for his new audience. There is evidence that he wanted his lectures to reach a wider public: There is also no doubt that the quickly-forged links with the literary world of Vienna gave some immediacy to his lecturing plans. There was no attempt to present him as the voice of a faction, a school, as he had been in Berlin.
But there was no overlooking the Schlegel presence in Prometheus , either: His own contribution to Prometheus was in itself not inconsiderable: It was in a sense the Vienna that August Wilhelm was poised to conquer. Otherwise, it seemed like a triumph of Kotzebue and Iffland and their dubious sentimentality; or a riot of frivolous comedy after the French, and, this being Vienna, lots of opera.
Her divorce from Bernhardi had been finally decreed, and the courts had awarded custody of her two sons to him. There Ludwig succumbed again to the rheumatic complaint that regularly laid him low in moments of stress; while Friedrich Tieck, his artistic career compromised and his finances exhausted, sent more and more desperate letters to the all-provident Schlegel.
At the end of , Bernhardi appeared in person and took his elder son Wilhelm back with him to Berlin, leaving Felix Theodor, who Schlegel had once believed was his, with his mother. Sophie and Knorring finally married in , but it was not until that she and Felix made the long journey to the Knorring estates in farthest Estonia. It brought odium to the name of Tieck, singly and collectively.
Friendships and collaborations stood or fell according to their stance towards the affair: The medium to be adopted was another matter. Schlegel was there at the outset of an era that saw, Europe-wide, the great wave of public lectures associated with Cuvier, Humboldt, Davy or Coleridge, and his must take their place in that lineage.
But even as he was delivering his lectures in Vienna, others closer to hand were also using the public rostrum: Fichte, in Berlin, had been delivering his Reden an die deutsche Nation [ Speeches to the German Nation ] since the winter, and they represented in many ways the antithesis of what Schlegel stood for. Even more was happening in Dresden.
Title page of vol. Image in the public domain. If Schlegel in his peroration commended the Romantic historical drama to the German nation—in its widest sense—it was in the awareness that this form of dramatic art had evolved in the crucible of other national cultures, the English and Spanish, and hence drew on both North and South for its inspiration, while appealing to the Germanic facility for assimilation and creative adaptation.
There, one nation would be seen through the eyes of another; but here was a German claiming insights into the drama and theatre of the whole of Europe. Words in season eventually secured Schlegel permission to lecture in the capital city, and the university was the first chosen venue. A princely twenty-five florins was charged for fifteen lectures, three per week. One notices also the state censor, perhaps making notes in the back row. Nobles jostled to secure tickets, including Count Wrbna-Freudenthal who later signed the letter granting Schlegel his imperial audience in April.
These were the people with the time and the leisure, who would not miss 25 florins. What he has to say, however, is very much to my liking, e. I can say that I attended the lectures with great pleasure. It suited his hearers better and was more appropriate to his subject-matter. He had now found the right medium, not academic discourse as in Jena, or that demanding section in Prometheus taken from his Berlin cycle.
He would have to make concessions and keep technicalities to a minimum: Romantic doctrine would have to be made accessible to princes and counts of the Empire, a balancing-act that required considerable skill and tact. In a sense, of course, he was not proclaiming Romanticism as something radically new or—the ultimate horror in Vienna—revolutionary. Much of his material was recycled from his own earlier lectures and publications.
Very few, possibly none, of his audience would have been present in all three places, Jena, Berlin and now Vienna, and not many would have noticed how much had already been enunciated in those earlier venues, for instance most of the long sections on the Greeks. Much drew on existing published material, the Parny review in the Athenaeum on Aristophanes , the article on the Spanish theatre in Europa , or the recent Comparaison of that Heinrich von Collin also present was in the process of translating. Schlegel had passed on but few of their insights in isolated publications, and Schelling, without acknowledgment, had done the same.
In Vienna, Schlegel had to take a lot for granted, and he was sparing in his citation of sources. It was not the real point. While philology could never be an irrelevance for Schlegel, the circumstances of the Lectures required large generalisations, relativisms, eye-catching juxtapositions and sweeping conclusions, the most famous of which is this section from the Twelfth Lecture: Ancient art and poetry strives for the strict severance of the disparate, the Romantic delights in indissoluble mixtures: As the oldest law-givers proclaimed and set out their teachings and precepts in modulated harmonies, as Orpheus, the first tamer of the still wild human race, is praised in fable; in the same way the whole of ancient poetry and art is like a cadenced set of prescriptions, the harmonious proclamation of the eternal precepts of a world, finely ordered, that reflects the eternal archetypes of things.
The Romantic, by contrast, is the expression of the mysteries of a chaos that is struggling to bring forth ever new and wondrous births, that is hidden under the order of nature, in its very womb: The one is simpler, clearer and more akin to nature in the self-sufficient perfection of its single works; the other, despite its fragmentary appearance, is closer to the secret of the universe. For instance, the images of biological organic growth as opposed to the mechanical and ordered, are common currency in the language of German idealism: Schlegel applies them to whole periods and styles.
In matters of presentation and disposition, he had learned some lessons from Berlin; while in terms of his general attitudes, he had not greatly changed. Old enmities ran deep. Thus to introduce the essential Shakespeare, Schlegel reformulated the insight, not new or original, which the Germans Herder, Goethe, Eschenburg, Tieck, Schlegel himself had made their own: Read my Shakespeare, is the unspoken message of his Shakespeare lecture to his German audience, an instruction of less relevance for later French, English or other readers.
Certain Schlegelian preferences or prejudices nevertheless emerge: Shakespeare had links with both the intellectual Bacon and the political strivings of his age, but there was in his account of the English nation still some of that spirit of chivalry and feudalism, independence of mind and action, that had animated the Middle Ages.
Not for the first time German ideas were being assimilated to the processes of foreign literature: Schlegel was clearly finding analogies with the Nibelungenlied , one of his current preoccupations. Roman theatre was not like this: Aeschylus and Sophocles had been Athenian citizens, Seneca the court philosopher of Nero. Hence the amount of space, seemingly beyond all proportion three lectures out of fifteen , that Schlegel devotes to the disqualification of the neo-classical, the need to deny it houseroom in the wide scheme of European drama that he unfolds, one that also obliquely takes in the Indians, who with the Greeks were the only ancient people with a native dramatic tradition.
It reflected national characteristics and virtues love, honour. Much of this would take on a peculiar relevance as the Lectures appeared in print, the sections up to and including European neo-classicism in , followed in by the sections on Romantic drama. National drama would also be nation-building: These political aspirations as opposed to legal, military and educational reforms were of course not to be fulfilled in the German lands, and Prince Metternich, no doubt sitting in the front row of the lecture hall, would be the author of the later reaction that saw their frustration.
Their journey took them into the Bohemian lands: Goethe was rumoured to be in Carlsbad. This meeting never eventuated, but in Prague, where they arrived on 26 May, they hoped to meet Friedrich Gentz. He chose therefore to lie low in Prague. At their meeting, they got on famously: He had to borrow money from his brother to get this far, and more would be needed to see him to his ultimate destination. His first communication from Vienna, in July , would inaugurate a litany recounting his tribulations, his waiting in the antechambers of the influential, his harassments, real and imagined, by the secret police.
His first quarters were with Karl Gregor von Knorring: Wieland was gracious, even to Schlegel. Schlegel left the party at Weimar and made a quick dash across to Hanover. It was part of her discovery that the Germans were a profoundly religious people Protestant Germans, that is, for Catholics formed a disproportionately shorter part of the narrative. She may not even have appreciated the differences inside German Protestantism.
But the visit to the Moravian Brethren in Neudietendorf near Erfurt struck a different note. She described the communal life and worship of the Brethren, their regularity and tranquility, the harmony of their inner feelings and their outward conduct. In comparing them with Quakers, whom she knew from England or from Voltaire , she was showing her indifference in matters both of doctrine and observance: Hanover had in experienced occupations and troop billetings not least under Marshal Bernadotte: It was to be the last time that he saw his cherished and devoted mother.
Hanover had been swallowed up by this Napoleonic creation. Outside, Spain rose in revolt; later, Austria prepared for war. But one act of fealty towards Coppet stands out: He is more conciliatory in the matter of national dramatic styles, provided that none claims a monopoly of taste or excellence the second part of his Vienna Lectures, published later in the same year, would adopt a different tone. Instead, he uses Constant to diminish Schiller. Schiller had not succeeded in containing his material in five acts; his trilogy was not, like those of the Greeks, the product of inner necessity, but of despair.
Had Schiller been a more experienced dramatist, had he spent less time on philosophical or historical studies, he might have achieved the same five- act solution as Constant. This was the delayed critical voice of Jena. Reimer in his turn handed Schlegel over to Julius Hitzig in Berlin, a new publisher looking for copy and very glad to add the famous translator to his list. Sophie Bernhardi had not forgotten her poetic ambitions amid her family affairs.
Could Schlegel find a publisher for her verse epic Flore und Blanscheflur? He remembered Zimmer in Heidelberg. Zimmer was not interested, but he sensed a real prize when Schlegel offered him his Vienna Lectures. Schlegel had wanted them to appear in Vienna itself, but publishers there would only pay in paper money. Zimmer could offer proper currency, two and a half Carolins per sheet for a print-run of 1, Doubtless Schelling had a hand in this.
There was an academy project on standard German grammatical usage. Could he be persuaded? In fact Schlegel was far more interested in borrowing the Munich manuscript of the Nibelungenlied. Schlegel had remained behind while she, Sabran and Montmorency set out for the event, which took place on 17 August. It was the only folk event that she in fact seems to have seen and it suited her purposes admirably. There were other spectators of note at Interlaken. That great royal traveller Crown Prince Ludwig was there.
It was the moment to intercede for Friedrich Tieck, still in Rome.
The Life of August Wilhelm Schlegel
Having done the busts of the Weimar notabilities and some in Munich, would Tieck not be the ideal sculptor for the Walhalla, the monument to German greatness that was to arise on the banks of the Danube near Regensburg? Friedrich Ludwig Zacharias Werner. Thus ensued one of the more bizarre episodes in the history of Coppet. He did not practise ethereality: Goethe had been equally fascinated and repelled by him, but the periodical Prometheus expressed itself more drastically: Werner also spent hours in conversation with Schlegel.
Maybe she needed a catalyst such as Werner or Schlegel. Tieck, Novalis and Friedrich Schlegel had been attracted to the Silesian theosophist, whereas August Wilhelm had been less drawn. That was only to cease with his conversion to Catholicism in Schlegel was not to take such a step. For there is enough evidence from his correspondence up to the Russian journey of a searching for spiritual satisfaction, for an easing of soul, but not necessarily inside an ecclesiastical or hierarchical framework. At this stage he was willing to defend the speculations of his brother Friedrich in Ueber die Sprache und Weisheit against the likes of Schelling; indeed in an important letter to the latter of 19 August he saw philosophy as but one way towards truth, not an end in itself; it alone—not even Kant—could not open up the ultimate secrets.
Whereas later it would be history, historical record, the examination of sources on the broadest of bases that would inform his method of study, he was now prepared to entertain hidden links between the spiritual and material world that would not sustain historical or philological analysis. But where personal involvement or friendship entered into it he could be relied upon to produce a striking image that comes over to us as authentic.
He filled niches in the Weimar palace, not only with Goethe and Schiller, but with Klopstock and Voss. His Schelling breathes energy and intelligence; his Alexander von Humboldt has something of the freshness and determination of the young voyager. That was certainly the way that Werner, the later convert to Catholicism and ordained priest, wished to see it. This would not be the hardship it might seem to be, for her father had presciently purchased property there. The fates of these two enterprises were soon to be intertwined.
Was he the property of the Franco-American owner of Chaumont and a reminder that slavery was still being practised in both countries? The poem states that the slave was set free, and it affirms his belief still in the efficacy of the sacraments. For a publisher the author went to Gabriel-Henri Nicolle, who had also brought out Corinne. They knew of her unrepentant interest in politics, for instance her concern as the widow of a Swedish diplomat at the outcome of the succession to the Swedish throne.
The proofs then went to the highest authority himself: His main instruction was the removal of the section favourable to England. It is clear from that context that Auguste, not subject to the same ban as his mother, had taken the letter in person; Schlegel had sought to intervene with Corbigny. The proofs were then pulped.
Pleas for an audience fell on deaf ears. In fact she received a visa for Coppet and decided to return there instead. And was it not clear that Schlegel, the author of the Comparaison , was regarded as her accomplice? Fortunately the French translation had not reached the production stage, and Chamisso was able to retain his manuscript for future use.
The French police bulletins of October and November were notable in drawing attention to the ideological dangers filtering in from Germany: Werner, with his offensive Attila ; Fichte of the Reden an die deutsche Nation , Gentz in the pay of the English , and the Schlegel brothers. Nor with a print run of 5, and several sets of proofs in existence was this humanly possible. Some say, in Lausanne, Humboldt is supposed to have said it. Do you not have any bright new plans for next spring? She had meanwhile decided that it would be prudent for him to absent himself from Coppet or Geneva for a couple of months.
It all added to the precariousness of their situation. In the summer of and lasting into , there was even an infatuation: Schlegel could only enjoy her charms, her intelligence and her talk at a distance.
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It is certainly no coincidence that the two poems that he addressed to her adopt the conventions of Minnesang, one of them even in an approximation to Middle High German stanzaic form, for this was the lady untouchable and inviolate whom one could approach only in verse. It was to the robuster Nibelungenlied that Schlegel now devoted time and leisure, to collate the various manuscripts.
It was, however, to Mohr and Zimmer that Schlegel turned for the works that for him mattered in these last Swiss years: These were not good times for publishers or for authors. North Germany, a market that a bookseller overlooked at his peril, was subject to the decree of 5 February that extended across the French imperial territories to all those under its jurisdiction; Zimmer, in neutral Baden, went ahead with the Poetische Werke nevertheless. Those who remembered the Gedichte , the first collection of his poetry, would note a few additions: Die Kunst der Griechen , that elegy that had once adulated Goethe, was still there, more on account of its correct versification than its genuine sentiments.
He would have even more pleasure when in the same year Ludwig Tieck, a notoriously bad correspondent, surprised him by dedicating to him his collection Phantasus and reawakening the memory of Jena. Here were some political tactics, some acts of deference, but also an acknowledgement of who belonged together, who had stood up for the other over the years—and there were not many of them left.
The volumes sold well: Frontispiece and title page. It was a reminder of how medieval chivalry and fable still informed the Renaissance Ariosto, Tasso, Shakespeare, Cervantes , how the canonical poets all proceeded from the same sources and substance. It also brings out the Romantic dichotomy: In June, , while he was briefly back in Coppet, she decided on an altogether more adventuresome and risky operation: The route to be taken was at this stage not clear, but Vienna would in all likelihood be the point of departure.
In Vienna, he found his brother, doubtless told in advance of this imminent incursion, and not a little surprised.
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It bound him to a political ideology—that of the Habsburg state, its aspirations and its myths—yet who in these years could live free of such allegiances? Ludwig Tieck, living in his bolt hole in remotest Brandenburg, perhaps, or those two footloose if very different figures, Clemens Brentano and Zacharias Werner, until Rome claimed them, but most others could not afford that luxury.
One must picture—if one can—a corpulent Friedrich festooned in this finery, on horseback, in the rain, mud, heat and dust of armies on the march. It was his task to produce an army newspaper. The Austrian army had meanwhile withdrawn to Hungary. He was not back in Vienna until the end of More significant for him were the lectures on history which he gave in Vienna from 19 February to 9 May, And these lectures, delivered in the fine historiographical prose of which Friedrich was capable, had a distinctly Austrian accent. Out of the decline and fall of the old order would emerge figures who symbolized the movements of the times: And the fine rhetoric of delivery did not conceal a historical teleology and a message for the times, something that a political journalist and intellectual was expected to supply.
It is for us brothers of course a great privation to be separated from each other without any prospect of meeting again; he was quite hypochondriac and in lowest spirits before I arrived, but our conversations picked him up again. When I left, he went with me and then he turned back, alone, on foot across a bare and treeless plain, a truly sad image of our separation.
Unlike Friedrich, who was to deliver three more big lecture cycles in Vienna and Dresden, August Wilhelm was only once again to lecture to a general public, much later in Berlin. His lectures on history embraced the ancient world, not the modern, and they were for a university audience. It was a reflection of her own experience, sometimes even shared with him, yet it was so much limited to what she had actually seen and taken in, was so ideologically slanted to her needs, that questions of mere attributions or informants— who helped her with this part or that—became largely irrelevant.
There was little point in asking, as some contemporaries were to do, whether Schlegel had checked it through. Nations should serve as guides one to one another, and they would all be wrong were they to deprive each other of the enlightenment that they can afford one another mutually. There is something very strange about the difference between one people and another: He had, however, not been at her side when she encountered the persons and places that provide some of the great set-pieces: He knew also which places and which persons she chose to omit no Munich, no Berlin salons, no Gentz, for instance and which individuals she chose to elevate to a status largely ordained by her and her own personal acquaintance.
He might also have reflected that his material, his insights, his plot-summaries could be implicitly relied upon for their accuracy, while hers could not, being often second-hand, tailored to her needs, and sometimes wilfully wrong as in her account of the plot of Faust. He may have despaired at her account of Kant, until he recognized, as one must, that she was using him, as so many other figures and ideas, to further her own cultural and political aims, or that she was calling for the study of serious philosophy as opposed to frivolous scepticism or materialism.
There were allusions enough to the times in which they were delivered, arguments for the audience to understand why Germany in its present state could not emulate Athens or Golden Age Spain or Elizabethan England. In that sense his Lectures were a continuation of debates and agonizings since over what had gone wrong, why the old order had collapsed, why the German lands had fallen to Napoleon one after the other and had been divided and ruled as he saw fit.
In postulating how the theatre might contribute to the building of the nation, Schlegel was doing his patriotic duty, less outspokenly of course than political voices like, say, Arndt, Gentz, or Stein, while performing it nevertheless. True, with its territorial divisions, it had then as now lacked a capital city, something that the Germans themselves had been deploring for several generations and that Friedrich Schlegel had noted with regret in Europa.
For her part, she was not interested in institutions or society other than its highest echelons, or indeed too many tiresome factual details. The important thing was to point to what France did not have, but might have, if it let another nation be its guide and inspiration.
It might see alternatives to centralism, control, despotism and acts of arbitrary tyranny. Readers in France might have cause to ponder issues that were not specific to Germany, but which might acquire a new urgency through an openness to another culture: It had been a way of transcending the provincial narrowness of Jena and it would also overcome the restrictions of Bonn, for his later scholarly career was oriented as much to Paris and London as to the Prussian university where he was to live and work.
In fact he was only there from October to November, , and from March to May in America was now ruled out, although as late as November she was contemplating it. They became more and more dependent on snippets of news regarding the political situation in Europe. Could Turkey be a route, once the Russo-Turkish border was secure? When Capelle used chicanery to challenge the validity of the original purchase of Coppet by the Neckers, it was Schlegel who was able to use the good offices of his Heidelberg publisher to secure the deeds.
On his side, he could not aspire to claiming her affection, let alone her love; he was merely indispensable and fraternally so; on her side she permitted no rivals, but at the same time she was free to indulge her passions as she chose. Small wonder that he in a letter of April or May, reproached her with folly and heartlessness towards him. Already in May, Germaine and Rocca entered into a solemn engagement to marry, and in the late summer she found herself pregnant—in her forty-sixth year. Of the official Coppet circle only Fanny Randall was party to the secret; Schlegel never found out while there.
Germaine was to the outside world suffering from dropsy: It was in Berne, too, that he received through his sister-in-law Julie Schlegel in Hanover the news of the death of his mother, on 21 January, A letter from Mathieu de Montmorency of 3 March tried to offer him consolation for his loss: Protestant worship no longer met the needs of his heart: Nowhere is there a word about confession or doctrine: He must have assumed that he would never return, for this cache was to remain undiscovered for over years.
He left behind too his 1,volume library, carefully ordered according to incunables, quartos, and octavos. One could see here the books that had occupied him during this part of his career—the material on Dante, Shakespeare, Homer, Roman antiquities, the Nibelungenlied , the fine arts—and some, like the volumes of the Asiatick Researches , that pointed to future preoccupations. Rocca and Albert would join them later. No-one must suspect anything: It was to end in St Petersburg.
In a sense she had been traversing Europe since late Schlegel was in her company for a large part of that time. Why not an even grander tour? Yet this journey was in every other respect different. The Nazis initially promoted Fraktur and Schwabacher because they were considered Aryan , but they abolished them in , claiming that these letters were Jewish. The Fraktur script however remains present in everyday life in pub signs, beer brands and other forms of advertisement, where it is used to convey a certain rusticality and antiquity.
Many Antiqua typefaces include the long s also. A specific set of rules applies for the use of long s in German text, but nowadays it is rarely used in Antiqua typesetting. The long s only appears in lower case. The orthography reform of led to public controversy and considerable dispute.
After 10 years, without any intervention by the federal parliament, a major revision was installed in , just in time for the coming school year. In , some traditional spellings were finally invalidated, whereas in , on the other hand, many of the old comma rules were again put in force. Traditionally, this letter was used in three situations:. In German, vowels excluding diphthongs; see below are either short or long , as follows:.
In general, the short vowels are open and the long vowels are close. Whether any particular vowel letter represents the long or short phoneme is not completely predictable, although the following regularities exist:. Both of these rules have exceptions e. For an i that is neither in the combination ie making it long nor followed by a double consonant or cluster making it short , there is no general rule. In some cases, there are regional differences: In central Germany Hessen , the o in the proper name "Hoffmann" is pronounced long, whereas most other Germans would pronounce it short; the same applies to the e in the geographical name " Mecklenburg " for people in that region.
With approximately 25 phonemes, the German consonant system exhibits an average number of consonants in comparison with other languages. The consonant inventory of the standard language is shown below. German does not have any dental fricatives as English th. The th sounds, which the English language still has, disappeared on the continent in German with the consonant shifts between the 8th and the 10th centuries. Likewise, the gh in Germanic English words, pronounced in several different ways in modern English as an f , or not at all , can often be linked to German ch: The German language is used in German literature and can be traced back to the Middle Ages , with the most notable authors of the period being Walther von der Vogelweide and Wolfram von Eschenbach.
The Nibelungenlied , whose author remains unknown, is also an important work of the epoch. The fairy tales collections collected and published by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm in the 19th century became famous throughout the world. Reformer and theologian Martin Luther , who was the first to translate the Bible into German, is widely credited for having set the basis for the modern "High German" language. Thirteen German-speaking people have won the Nobel Prize in literature: English has taken many loanwords from German, often without any change of spelling aside from, often, the elimination of umlauts and not capitalizing nouns:.
The government-backed Goethe-Institut  named after the famous German author Johann Wolfgang von Goethe aims to enhance the knowledge of German culture and language within Europe and the rest of the world. This is done by holding exhibitions and conferences with German-related themes, and providing training and guidance in the learning and use of the German language. The Dortmund-based Verein Deutsche Sprache VDS , which was founded in , supports the German language and is the largest language association of citizens in the world. The VDS has more than thirty-five thousand members in over seventy countries.
Its founder, statistics professor Dr. The German state broadcaster Deutsche Welle is the equivalent of the British BBC World Service and provides radio and television broadcasts in German and 30 other languages across the globe. Deutsche Welle also provides an e-learning website to learn German. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses of "Deutsch", see Deutsch disambiguation.
Not to be confused with Germanic languages. Co- Official and majority language. Co-official, but not majority language. Early New High German. Geographical distribution of German speakers. Italy South Tyrol 0. German is official language de jure or de facto and first language of the majority of the population. German is a co-official language, but not the first language of the majority of the population. German or a German dialect is a legally recognized minority language Squares: German or a variety of German is spoken by a sizeable minority, but has no legal recognition. List of territorial entities where German is an official language.
German language in Namibia. Brazilian German and Colonia Tovar dialect. Grammatical gender in German. German orthography and German braille. Listen to a German speaker recite the alphabet in German. German orthography reform of High German consonant shift. Retrieved 24 July Europeans and their languages" PDF report. Archived from the original PDF on 6 January Retrieved 11 October Retrieved 3 May Retrieved 7 July Retrieved 28 September Retrieved August 6, Old English and its closest relatives: An Anthology of German Literature. Zur Geschichte der Deutschen Sprache. A history of the German language: University of Washington Press.
A history of German: Geschichte der deutschen Sprache. The Encyclopedia of Christianity. Eerdmans; Brill, —, 1: A history of the German language. University of California Libraries. The German Nation and Martin Luther. Die Rolle der II. Orthographischen Konferenz in der Geschichte der deutschen Rechtschreibung. Journal of the Simplified Spelling Society. Archived from the original on 23 September Retrieved 18 July Statista, The Statistics Portal. Retrieved 11 July Archived from the original on 4 March Retrieved 20 June Supplement of the Allgemeine Zeitung.
Archived from the original PDF on 24 June Retrieved 23 June Markedness and salience in language contact and second-language acquisition: Founding Provisions South African Government". Retrieved 15 March German Dialects map ". Volume 2, Reference Survey" 1st ed. Retrieved 12 June Archived from the original on 10 May Retrieved 10 May Retrieved 17 October Retrieved 21 August Walter de Gruyter, Berlin Swiss Federal Statistical Office.
Archived from the original on 14 January Retrieved 13 January Archived from the original on 15 May The "Duden" and Its History". The Publisher as Teacher: Retrieved 5 December It is wrong to regard or to describe the so-called Gothic script as a German script. In reality, the so-called Gothic script consists of Schwabach Jew letters. Just as they later took control of the newspapers, upon the introduction of printing the Jews residing in Germany took control of the printing presses and thus in Germany the Schwabach Jew letters were forcefully introduced.
All printed materials are to be gradually converted to this normal script. As soon as is feasible in terms of textbooks, only the normal script will be taught in village and state schools. The use of the Schwabach Jew letters by officials will in future cease; appointment certifications for functionaries, street signs, and so forth will in future be produced only in normal script.
Form und Geschichte der gebrochenen Schriften. Retrieved 24 January Retrieved 14 June The Consonants of German: The German Language in a Changing Europe. Retrieved 6 February Lay summary 6 February The Structure of German. Retrieved 26 February Routledge Language Family Descriptions. Lay summary 26 February The survey of the Germanic branch languages includes chapters by Winfred P. The Advanced Learner's Guide. Biography of a Language.
Combines linguistic, anthropological, and historical perspectives in a "biography" of German in terms of six "signal events" over millennia, including the Battle of Kalkriese, which blocked the spread of Latin-based language north. Find more about German language at Wikipedia's sister projects. Austrian German see also German. Minority languages of Austria. Limited edition of numbered copies in the original format as presented by Alma Mahler to Mengelberg, 3 volumes, housed in a beautiful box covered with black paper.
Oblong, 29 x 23 cm, 15, 17 pp. It represents a relatively early stage of the composition and reveals many aspects of how the movement took shape. Handsomely bound in wrappers with period decoration and oriental landscape. The manuscript and its survival has an amazing story. Limited bibliophile edition of copies, only for the trade.
Riduzione per pianoforte e canto. Line-cut of the autograph fair copy of the piano-reduction score. Line-cut of 7 autograph manuscripts in possession of the Fondazione Pagliara, together with new critical editions: Capriccio per pianoforte op. French Opera in the 17th and 18th Centuries, 72b. Line-cut of the printed score. Oblong, 21 x 15 cm, vi, 1 , v pp.
Laid paper, with wrappers in marbled paper with silk string. Mit einem Nachwort von Thomas Schmidt-Beste. Edited with Commentary by Hiromi Hoshino. Full-color facsimile edition of the recently rediscovered autograph score, a fair copy with numerous revisions and corrections on almost every page. Critical commentary in Eng-Jap. Facsimile of letter from Albert Lortzing to Mendelssohn, dated 12 Nov. Beautiful halftone of the composition based on the famous Lutheran chorale of Scored for chorus and orchestra.
Wrappers with special hand-made marbled paper. Oblong, 21 x 13 cm, ix, 4, ix pp. Marbled endpapers, green cover with gold seal. Ein Spott-Heldengedicht von Felix Mendelssohn. Mit einem Vorwort von Max F. Eingeleitet und herausgegeben von Ursula Galley. Line-cut of third stanza of poem. Edition of complete poem with introduction. Half-tone frontispiece of Mendelssohn as child playing piano. Introduction in It-Eng by Paola Pisa. Complete program of exercises for the voice. Line-cut of the Milan, edition. Herausgegeben von Fritz Bose. Haltone of the autograph, together with transcription, comprehensive analysis and historical introduction.
Introduction by Jaap van Benthem. Dutch Music Facsimiles, 6. Line-cut of the autograph fair copy. Contains 5 settings on German texts, 3 on French texts and 2 on Dutch. All the songs were composed in the first decade of the 20th c. Ulozony z powodu obchodu letniej rocznicy odsieczy Wiednia 12 wrzesnia Facsimile druku z r. Line-cut of the printed edition.
Historical commentary in Pol by Alina Nowak Romanowicz. Oblong, 17 x 12 cm, 32 pp. Line-cut of the Stuttgart, edition. Faksimile-Ausgabe zur Geschichte des Librettos. Bearbeitung durch Stephanie d. Wort und Musik, 16 Libretti, 2. Line-cut of four important sources of the libretto: Geleitwort von Christoph Wolff. Oblong, 31 x 23 cm, 12, 1 pp. Oblong, 33 x 24 cm, 32, xiii pp. Halftone of the autograph score. This popular concert aria is believed to have been first performed in a concert organized by Mozart himself in Although the author of the text is unknown, it seems that it may have formed part of an opera seria.
Coverboards in laid paper. Worte Franz Heinrich Ziegenhagen. Oblong, 34 x 27 cm, 50, 12 pp. Color halftone of the autograph Upsala Universitets Bibliothek and line-cut reproduction of the 1st edition, along with modern edition. On December 14, Franz Heinrich Ziegenhagen, a fellow Mason and merchant from Hamburg, commissioned this setting of a "Little German Cantata", using his own text, for use at meetings of the Regensburg Lodge. The work consists of 6 short movements without break set in both arioso and recitative style.
Wort und Musik, 14 Libretti, 1. Prepared for the premiere of Don Giovanni in New York, the libretto is an important document for the history of the reception of the opera and opera in general in America. With facsimiles and transcriptions of two Da Ponte essays in ms written on the theater c. Oblong, 35 x 27 cm, xi, 89 pp. Preface by Charles Ryskamp; introduction by Rigbie Turner. Beta-radiographs of 4 watermarks. Special bibliophile edition with orange cloth boards and matching slipcase.
Oblong, 35 x 26 cm, xi, 89 pp. Wrappers, in heavy textured blue paper with beautifully printed title block. Nachwort mit Bemerkungen zur Textgestalt. Oblong, 30 x 21 cm, , x pp. Hardbound, with decorative paper boards. Beautiful halftone in the original folio format. Text von Gabriele von Baumberg - Salzburg, Oblong, 34 x 27 cm, 14 pp. Color halftone of the autograph composed on 26 May, , together with modern edition. Written in friendship for his pupil Nikolaus Joseph von Jacquin Oblong, 27 x 22 cm, 16 pp. Line-cut of the first edition issued in Vienna by Ignaz Alberti.
The facsimile includes a reprint of a charming vigette of a mother at the piano with six musician children A. Kohl , the full song texts, and an afterword in Ger by Otto Deutsch. Beautiful coverboards with decorative paper and pasted title block. Faksimiledruck des Librettos von G. Nachwort von Silke Leopold. Together with modern edition in vocal score format. The opera owes its success in no small part to the role of Papageno, a mixture of buffoon and harlequin, of mythical beast and child of nature, uniting many theatrical traditions: Schikaneder actually wrote the part of the Bird-Catcher to showcase his own talents.
Mozart captures a humorous account of a performance of the work at the Freihaus-Theater in a letter to Constanze, dated 9 Oct. Well, just for fun, at the point where Schikaneder has a pause, I played an arpeggio. He was startled, looked into the wings and saw me.
When he had his next pause, I played no arpeggio. This time he stopped and refused to go on. I guessed what he was thinking and again played a chord. I am inclined to think that this joke taught many of the audience for the first time that Papageno does not play the instrument himself.
With attractive binding red linen. Die Musik ist von Apollo Mozzart. Archiv der Gesellschaft der Musikfreunde in Wien. Special private printing of copies. With attractive folder with pasted label. Faksimile der autographen Partitur. Oblong, 33 x 25 cm, , xvi booklet pp. Slipcase in marbled paper. Oblong, 31 x 23 cm, 16, 2 pp. Full-color halftone of the autograph, reproduced in the exact size and format of the original. Deluxe edition, hardbound, with blue boards. It combines the aria and recitative style of opera seria with the 3-part form of the Italian symphony.
Handsome binding that replicates the original. Reprint des Lichtdrucks von —herausgegeben von Alfred Schnerich. Neu herausgegeben von Franz Beyer. Oblong, 35 x 25 cm, 23, 85 pp. Oblong, 35 x 26 cm, 3 vols, , 40 pp. Superb 4-color halftone in the original format. Wrappers in period design with slipcase in decorative paper.
Oblong, 35 x 26 cm, 40, pp. Hardbound with handsome red Efalin paper boards with gold lettering. Facsimile of the autograph score held in the Austrian National Library. Limited bibliophile edition produced on natural paper with individually trimmed pages. Quarter leather with decorative paper boards.
Herausgegeben und mit einem Nachwort von Markus Eberhardt. Oblong, 35 x 26 cm, , vi pp. Line-cut of the first edition, Leipzig, Hardbound in decorative paper which reproduces the original binding. Virtually every sketch and draft that has survived— pages—has been assembled and collated in chronological order for this superb facsimile edition reproduced in full color. Like Band 44 of the Bachgesellschaft edition which contained only reproductions of Bach manuscripts, this publication marks the culmination of the Neue Mozart Edition. The facsimiles are accompanied by careful transcriptions and critical commentary Ger , making them accessible to both layman and specialist.
Deluxe edition with clamshell case covered in burgundy linen and titles in gold lettering. An indispensable resource for any Mozart enthusiast. Das Geheimnis des grauen Hauses von Nestroy. Line-cut of the Diabelli edition. Intrduction in Ger by Ernst Hilmar. Wrappers, in hand-made paper. Lyrisk tragedi i tre akter. Monumenta Musicae Svecicae, Oblong, 30 x 22 cm, 4 vols, , 63 pp. Cantiones profanae cantoribus et choris cantandae comitantibus instrumentis atque imaginibus magicis. Full-color facsimile, in the original folio format, of the autograph fair copy.
Beautiful line-cut of the autograph score in the original format. Composed in the aftermath of the war, Orff used whatever materials were available to him—thin yellow paper and red ink—and ruled his own staff lines. Color facsimile in the original format of 1 sketch page from Utrenja, Kosmogonia and Die schwarze Maske. Introduction by Julian Rushston. Introduction in It by Marina Calore. Catalogo cronologico degli spettacoli a Venezia A cura di Maria Giovanna Miggiani. Drammaturgia Musicale Veneta, Oblong, 30 x 23 cm, 2 vols, ccclxiii, xxiii, pp.
Line-cut of a contemporary ms full score. The huge, long-lasting success of this work is known to all, but what's less known is the fact that the La Fenice Theatre and the new Napoleonic Ferrara Theatre jointly produced a second setting to music of Sografi's libretto for the same singers, but with the music of a promising young composer, Marco Portogallo, whose style foreshadowed evolution in the so-called pre-Rossini style of serious vocal dramatic composition.
The success of Cimarosa's Orazi was also thanks to many grafted sections with Portogallo's intonation, favoured and preferred by the singers. The aim of this facsimile of Portogallo's work is to provide a glimpse into the evolution of the Italian pre-Romantic opera drawing on original materials showing the dynamics of its birth. Miel de Narbonne; II. Enfant de troupe Beautiful color reproduction of the autograph.
Quarter leather with golden lettering and ornaments after the original , in handsome clamshell case covered in brown cloth. Bibliophile edition of numbered copies. Musica di Giacomo Puccini. Edizione e commento a cura di Gabriella Biagi Ravenni. Centro Studi Giacomo Puccini - Testi e documenti, 2. The complete text of the libretto of Tosca, with additions, corrections, glosses, page proof fragments, musical sketches, and sketches of stage settings. Illica, Giacosa, Ricordi and Puccini worked together on Tosca and established an intense professional relationship, which is brilliantly reconstructed in this well-documented volume.
A fascinating insight into the creative process and a detailed description of the genesis of Tosca. Nachdruck der ersten Ausgabe von Oblong, 34 x 24 cm, 31, v pp. Quarter linen with coverboard in decorativepaper. Oblong, 32 x 24 cm, 3 vols, , pp. Includes definitive study It-Eng of the ms by a leading Rossini scholar.
Limited numbered edition of copies. Bibliophile edition with handsome linen case. Con introduzione di Philip Gossett. Oblong, 31 x 22 cm, 2 vols, ; ix, pp. A cura di Emilio Sala. I Libretti di Rossini, 2. With introduction and color plates of early stage sets and documents. Full-color reproduction of the original autograph including the separate parts for harmonium and second piano. The Petite Messe solennelle was dedicated to the Contessa Louise Pillet-Will the count and countess were close friends of Rossini , and the first performance inaugurated the splendid new residence that the count had commissioned in Paris.
The use of two pianos and harmonium may at first seem odd but given its context as a salon piece is appropriate. Rossini composed hardly at all in the period to but after returning to Paris in wrote quite a few works for private audiences. Thou knowest well, I was born for comic opera. A little science, a little heart, that is all. So bless Thee and grant me Paradise! Limited edition of copies bound in dark brown linen, with matching slipcase with embossed signature of Rossini.
I Libretti di Rossini, 4. Line-cut reproductions of all states of the libretto. With introduction and documents. Azione Tragico-Sacra in Three Acts. Edited with an Introduction by Philip Gossett [Ms. Early Romantic Opera, 9. Line-cut and halftone reproduction. A cura di Renato Raffaelli. I Libretti di Rossini, 3. I Libretti di Rossini, 5. Line-cut reproductions of all states of the libretti. Melodramma Tragico in Two Acts. Teatro La Fenice, Venice]. Early Romantic Opera, Oblong, 31 x 24 cm, 2 vols, c. I Libretti di Rossini, 1.
Line-cut reproductions of seven printed libretti, including those by Voltaire , Silvio Balbis , Alessandro Pepoli , Luigi Romanelli , and three by Gaetano Rossi Venice, Ferrara, Milan. The ballets for this opera were based on earlier choreography by Noverre, first conceived in the s. Includes short summaries of the staging and complete lists of singers and dancers. Afterword in It by Silvio Montaguti. Introduzione di Laura Callegari. Line-cut of the Artaria edition Vienna, Oblong, 32 x 22 cm, pp. Line-cut of the Vienna, edition.
Note introduttive di Alessandro Borin. Oblong, 32 x 22 cm, 6, pp. Line-cut of the manuscript. Beautiful line-cut of the autograph. Published on the occasion of a special issue in tribute of Sauguet by La Revue Musicale. Limited edition of numbered copies signed by the author. Reproduktion des Autographs nach der Faksimileausgabe von Beautiful line-cut reproduction in slightly reduced format of the facsimile issued by Universal. Gurre-Lieder is a large cantata for five vocal soloists, narrator, chorus and large orchestra, based on poems by the Danish novelist Jens Peter Jacobsenwith.
Begun in as a song cycle for soprano, tenor and piano, and written in lush late-romantic Wagnerian style, the work was repeatedly put aside for other projects and not completed until Its premiere took place in Vienna under the baton of Franz Schreker, and the performance received positive reviews.
In "Des Sommerwindes wilde Jagd" Schoenberg introduced for the first time the vocal technique "Sprechgesang", later explored in Pierrot Lunaire. Die Skizzen zum ersten Psalm. Partitur nach den hinterlassenen Skizzen Schoenbergs herausgegeben von Rudolf Kolisch. Halftone of all the autograph sketches as well as the full texts of the poems, together with full transcriptions.
Wrappers, with handsome protective folder in quarter linen. Score, Facsimile and Parts. Introduction by Leonard Stein. Edited by Therese Muxeneder. Oblong, 41 x 27 cm, xxx, 30 pp. Full color reproduction of the autograph short score preserved in the Koussevitzky Collection at the Library of Congress. Oblong, 34 x 25 cm, 4, 8 pp. Together with an afterword in Ger-Hung-Eng and new practical edition.
Hardbound with paper coverboards. Im memoriam Hans P. Oblong, 32 x 24 cm, 8, 6 pp. The autograph—long considered lost and only resurfacing in —varies from the printed version in a number of ways. Stiff wrappers, with photographic reproduction of the 19th c. Zur Namesfeier des Vaters, D.
Stadt- und Landesbibliothek Wien]. Line-cut of the autograph score, together with practical edition and parts. Edited by Karl Scheit. Full-color facsimile of the fair copy autograph, third version. This version differs markedly from the first printed edition of chiefly in respect of its performance markings and thus documents an interesting stage in the genesis of Schubert's best known and most widely disseminated song.
Hardbound with decorative paper boards. Edited and with an Introduction by Elisabeth Schmierer. Oblong, 32 x 24 cm, 25, 2 pp. Full-color facsimile of the final version of the autograph dating from , with moralistic warning of a trout being caught by a fisherman, metaphor for young women being chased by men. This particular autograph, the "fifth version" of the piece, was long unknown and it was not until that it appeared in the Schubert Complete Edition. Not generally the most performed version, it features a number of "earlier" melodic variants in a handful of passages and is the only version with a piano introduction.
Introduction in Ger-Eng provides a detailed analysis of the five versions and the central problems relating to the compositional and performing practices of Schubert's day. Hardbound in decorative paper. A beautiful gift for any Schubert enthusiast. Oblong, 33 x 25 cm, 57, 32 pp. Introduction in Ger with numerous halftone illustrations. Extremely rare war-time publication. Oblong, 32 x 24 cm, 43, 36 pp.
On the suggestion of his friends the 19 year-old Schubert specially prepared this manuscript for Goethe, sending it to him in April —with the intent of making the settings known to the poet and possibly enlisting his help in promoting them. Handsome binding with beige linen boards and titles in red lettering.
Oper in zwei Akten D Text von Eduard von Bauernfeld. Oblong, 35 x 25 cm, xix, 72, i pp. Particell-sketch of Acts I-II, written on staves with the voice parts, and in general, most of the instrumental parts.
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It has baffled scholars that Schubert took up the composition of this opera despite the fact that the libretto by a close friend of the composer was banned by the court censor, making its ultimate public performance highly unlikely. With reproductions of the watermarks. Mit einer Einleitung von Walther Durr. Oblong, 32 x 24 cm, xviii, pp.
Includes all extant drafts. Herausgegeben von Robert O. Reproduction of the first edition with autograph revisions. Wissenschaftliche Kommentar von Franz Grasberger. Oblong, 30 x 22 cm, 4, 16 pp. Introduction in Ger with reproduction of the title page of the first edition. Unopened copy with loose facsimile bifolo, in art paper folder. Edited by Martin Chusid. Notes on the provenance of the manuscript by J. History, Poets, Analysis, Performance. Contains commentaries on each of the fourteen songs as well as essays on performing the song cycle, the three poets who wrote the lyrics Rellstab, Heine, and Seidl , and issues surrounding the formal structure of the cycle and reordering of the Heine songs.
Also included is the complete original German poetry with a new English translation and a critical examination of the existing literature about each song. Oblong, 31 x 23 cm, 4 pp. Beautiful halftone of the autograph fair copy of D. Dated August 19, Edited by Stefan Hackl. Oblong, 44 x 32 cm, pp. Facsimile, with commentaries, of a historic document of the highest importance: Oblong, 33 x 26 cm, 10, 12, ii pp.
Halftone of the autograph, together with a new pratical edition and afterword Jap-Ger edited by Yoshio Ito. Full-color facsimile of the autograph—a treasure of the Pierpont Morgan Library—consisting of a mixture of fair copies and heavily emended first versions. Hardbound text adapted from B. Oblong, 30 x 25 cm, vii, 56 pp. With Critical Appreciation by Michael Musgrave. Oblong, 33 x 25 cm, ix, 8, iii pp. Full-color facsimile of the autograph presentation MS of op.
Limited edition, bound in red velvet. Same as above but bound in red linen. Mit dem Faksimile des Autographs. Schriften zur Musik, Halftone in reduced format. Liederkreis aus Heinrich Heines Buch der Liede. Mit einem Geleitwort von Brigitte Fassbaender. Meisterwerke der Musik im Faksimile, 9. Full-color facsimile of the autograph score Mus. The cycle was first performed by Julius Stockhausen with Brahms accompanying at the piano.
Hardbound with boards in decorative paper. Special publication issued on the occasion of the acquisition of the autograph. Reihe der Jahresgaben der Stadt- und Landesbibliothek Dortmund. Consists of the musical setting for voice and piano and 3 strophes of the poem. Halftone of the autograph score for soprano, alto, tenor, bass quartet with piano accompaniment. With new practical edition. This music gem has a wonderful and touching history. On this day Robert sent Clara on an errand in order to prepare a special birthday surprise: The original poem was written to accompany a bridal present to Clara, also a piano, on which there laid a wreath made of orange blossoms and myrtle, traditional bridal symbols in Germany.
Edited by Bernhard R. Mainz, 24 x 31 cm, xviii, pp. Complete transcriptions with notes in Ger-Eng. Line-cut of the London, vocal score. I hope Yevtushenko will now write me the poem I asked for. The work experienced unexpected twists and turns during its emergence and development of its central idea, and by dramatic upheavals in the fate of the finished work.
After its premiere, the performance of this symphony was long banned, and it was never published in the author's homeland in its original and unadulterated form. The introductory article by Manashir Jakubov Rus-Eng gives the first detailed account of the composition and premiere of this symphony. Special edition issued on the occasion of the th birthday of the composer. The large orchestral song Luonnotar is considered one of the boldest works of Jean Sibelius.
This alone would be reason enough to print the autograph sources full score and piano reduction as a color facsimile for the Sibelius Anniversary Year In addition, the autograph score also has a special significance for the transmission: The meticulously elucidated volume is the first complete facsimile edition of an orchestral work by Jean Sibelius — a milestone in Sibelius editorial history that meaningfully supplements the complete edition Jean Sibelius Works as a truly special volume. Komicka zpivohra ve 3 jednanuh.
Oblong, 33 x 25 cm, pp. Line-cut of the autograph vocal score. Quarter cloth with coverboards in antique paper. Oblong, 34 x 27 cm, xviii, 60, 16 pp. Includes a broad selection of numbers from his operas. Limited edition of Afterword in It by Gabriella Tonnarelli. Hardbound, in 2 vols. The work comes from a period of absorption with phonics, acoustics, and information theory. It integrates electronic sounds with the human voice by means of matching voice resonances with pitch and creating sounds of phonemes electronically.