- Michigan History
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Amazon Advertising Find, attract, and engage customers. Amazon Drive Cloud storage from Amazon. The eastern end of the Straits was controlled by Fort Mackinac on Mackinac Island, a British colonial and early American military base and fur trade center, founded in With the advent of European exploration into the area in the late 17th century, Lake Michigan became part of a line of waterways leading from the Saint Lawrence River to the Mississippi River and thence to the Gulf of Mexico.
In the 19th century, Lake Michigan played a major role in the development of Chicago and the Midwestern United States west of the lake. The first person to reach the deep bottom of Lake Michigan was J. Val Klump , a scientist at the University of Wisconsin—Milwaukee. Klump reached the bottom via submersible as part of a research expedition. In , a row of stones paralleling an ancient shoreline was discovered by Mark Holley , professor of underwater archeology at Northwestern Michigan College.
One of the stones is said to have a carving resembling a mastodon. So far the formation has not been authenticated. The warming of Lake Michigan was the subject of a report by Purdue University in In each decade since , steady increases in average surface temperature have occurred. This is likely to lead to decrease in native habitat and adversely effect native species survival.
HISTORY OF MONROE COUNTY MICHIGAN. - Google Книги
Lake Michigan is the sole Great Lake wholly within the borders of the United States ; the others are shared with Canada. Lake Michigan has a surface area of 22, sq. It is the larger half of Lake Michigan—Huron , which is the largest body of fresh water in the world by surface area. Green Bay in the northwest is its largest bay. Grand Traverse Bay in its northeast is another large bay.
Lake Michigan's deepest region, which lies in its northern-half, is called Chippewa Basin named after prehistoric Lake Chippewa and is separated from South Chippewa Basin, by a relatively shallower area called the Mid Lake Plateau. Twelve million people live along Lake Michigan's shores, mainly in the Chicago and Milwaukee metropolitan areas.
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The economy of many communities in northern Michigan and Door County, Wisconsin is supported by tourism , with large seasonal populations attracted by the beauty and recreational opportunities offered by Lake Michigan. The southern tip of the lake near Gary, Indiana is heavily industrialized.
Cities on the shores of Lake Michigan include:. Wider ocean-going container ships do not fit through the locks on these routes, and thus shipping is limited on the lakes. Despite their vast size, large sections of the Great Lakes freeze in winter, interrupting most shipping. Some icebreakers ply the lakes. An alternate track is via the Illinois River from Chicago , to the Mississippi, up the Ohio, and then through the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway combination of a series of rivers and lakes and canals , to Mobile Bay and the Gulf.
Commercial tug-and-barge traffic on these waterways is heavy. Lake Michigan has many beaches. The sand is often soft and off-white, known as " singing sands " because of the squeaking noise caused by high quartz content it emits when walked upon.
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However, because prevailing westerly winds tend to move the surface water toward the east, there is a flow of warmer water to the Michigan shore in the summer. The sand dunes located on the east shore of Lake Michigan are the largest freshwater dune system in the world. In fact, in multiple locations along the shoreline, the dunes rise several hundred feet above the lake surface. Large dune formations can be seen in many state parks, national forests and national parks along the Indiana and Michigan shoreline.
Lake Michigan beaches in Northern Michigan are the only place in the world, aside from a few inland lakes in that region, where one can find Petoskey stones , the state stone. The beaches of the western coast and the northernmost part of the east coast are often rocky, with some sandy beaches due to local conditions; while the southern and eastern beaches are typically sandy and dune-covered. This is partly because of the prevailing winds from the west which also cause thick layers of ice to build on the eastern shore in winter. The Chicago city waterfront is composed of parks, beaches , harbors and marinas, and residential developments connected by the Chicago Lakefront Trail.
Where there are no beaches or marinas, stone or concrete revetments protect the shoreline from erosion. Two passenger and vehicle ferries operate ferry services on Lake Michigan, both connecting Wisconsin on the western shore with Michigan on the east. Highway 10 between the two cities. The Lake Express , established in , carries passengers and vehicles across the lake between Milwaukee, Wisconsin , and Muskegon, Michigan.
There are numerous state and local parks located on the shores of the lake or on islands within the lake. A partial list follows. The Milwaukee Reef , running under Lake Michigan from a point between Milwaukee and Racine to a point between Grand Haven and Muskegon , divides the lake into northern and southern basins.
Each basin has a clockwise flow of water, deriving from rivers, winds, and the Coriolis effect. Prevailing westerly winds tend to move the surface water toward the east, producing a moderating effect on the climate of western Michigan. There is a mean difference in summer temperatures of 5 to 10 degrees Fahrenheit 2 to 5 degrees Celsius between the Wisconsin and Michigan shores. Hydrologically Michigan and Huron are the same body of water sometimes called Lake Michigan-Huron , but are normally considered distinct.
Counted together, it is the largest body of fresh water in the world by surface area. The Mackinac Bridge is generally considered the dividing line between them. Both lakes are part of the Great Lakes Waterway.
In January , Lake Michigan's monthly mean water levels dipped to an all-time low of Lake Michigan, like the other Great Lakes, supplies drinking water to millions of people in bordering areas. The lakes are collectively administered by the state and provincial governments adjacent to them pursuant to the Great Lakes Compact. Environmental problems can still plague the lake. Steel mills and refineries operate near the Indiana shoreline. The Chicago Tribune reported that BP is a major polluter, dumping thousands of pounds of raw sludge into the lake every day from its Whiting, Indiana , oil refinery.
Lake Michigan is home to a wide variety of fish species and other organisms. It was originally home to lake whitefish , lake trout , yellow perch , panfish , largemouth bass , smallmouth bass and bowfin , as well as some species of catfish. As a result of improvements to the Welland Canal in , an invasion of sea lampreys and overharvesting, there has been a decline in native lake trout populations, ultimately causing an increase in the population of another invasive species, the alewife.