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Sir John Soane Reflector of Space. Soane is the first architect of his time to engage in a radical reworking of tradition to respond to new circumstances and sensibilities. From banking halls to picture galleries, Soane was challenged to invent new types and forms of building to meet the changing social realities of the industrial age, reports Bhaswati Das. His real name was Swan, which he changed, initially to Soan, and later to Soane.
He also studied at the Royal Academy Schools in At 42, Glenn was the oldest member of the astronaut corps and would likely be close to 50 by the time the lunar landings took place.
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During Glenn's training, NASA psychologists determined that he was the astronaut best suited for public life. Kennedy suggested to Glenn and his wife in December that he run for the U. Senate for Ohio in , challenging aging incumbent Stephen M. Young — in the Democratic primary election. Senate from his home state of Ohio the following day. He elected to use it while he waited for his retirement papers to go through. In late February he was hospitalized for a concussion sustained in a fall against a bathtub while attempting to fix a mirror in a hotel room;  an inner-ear injury from the accident left him unable to campaign.
Glenn did not want to win solely due to his astronaut fame, so he dropped out of the race on March Glenn was still on leave from the Marine Corps, and he withdrew his papers to retire so he could keep a salary and health benefits. President Johnson later decided to promote Glenn to full colonel status, without taking someone else's spot.
He retired as a colonel on January 1, Glenn was approached by RC Cola to join their public relations department, but Glenn declined it because he wanted to be involved with a business, and not just the face of it. The company revised their offer, and offered Glenn a vice president of corporate development position, as well as a place on the board of directors. He said he had no current plan, and "Let's talk about it one of these days. In , he and a friend bought a Holiday Inn near Disney World.
It was years before he spoke about it with me and then only because of an accident. We were down in Florida during the space program. Everyone was wearing short-sleeved Ban-Lon shirts—everyone but Henri. Then one day I saw Henri at the pool and noticed the number on his arm. I told Henri that if it were me I'd wear that number like a medal with a spotlight on it. Glenn remained close to the Kennedy family, and campaigned for Robert F. Kennedy during his presidential campaign. Glenn was supposed to go with him to celebrate, but decided not to as there would be many people there.
Kennedy went downstairs to make his victory speech and was assassinated. Glenn and Annie went with them to the hospital, and the next morning took Kennedy's children home to Virginia. In , Young did not seek reelection and the seat was open. Businessman Howard Metzenbaum , Young's former campaign manager, was backed by the Ohio Democratic party and major labor unions, which provided him a significant funding advantage over Glenn.
Glenn's camp persuaded him to be thrifty during the primary so he could save money for the general election. By the end of the primary campaign, Metzenbaum was spending four times as much as Glenn. Some prominent Democrats said Glenn was a "hapless political rube",  and one newspaper called him "the ultimate square". Metzenbaum lost the general election to Robert Taft Jr.
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The task force was created to survey environmental problems in the state and released a report in detailing the issues. The meetings and the final report of the task force were major contributors to the formation of Ohio's Environmental Protection Agency. Richardson refused and resigned in protest, triggering the Saturday Night Massacre.
Gilligan was planning on a presidential or vice-presidential run in the near future, and offered Glenn the lieutenant governor position, with the thought that Glenn would ascend to governor when Gilligan was elected to a higher position. The Ohio Democratic party backed this solution to avoid what was expected to be a divisive primary battle between Metzenbaum and Glenn. He declined, denouncing their attempts as "bossism" and "blackmail".
Metzenbaum's campaign agreed to back Gilligan in his governor re-election campaign, and Metzenbaum was subsequently appointed in January to the vacated seat. Glenn's campaign changed their strategy after the election. In , Glenn won most of the counties in Ohio but lost in those with larger populations.
The campaign changed its focus, and worked primarily in the large counties. Glenn's reply became known as the " Gold Star Mothers " speech. He told Metzenbaum to go to a veterans' hospital and "look those men with mangled bodies in the eyes and tell them they didn't hold a job. You go with me to any Gold Star mother and you look her in the eye and tell her that her son did not hold a job".
In the presidential election , Jimmy Carter was the presumptive Democratic nominee for president. Glenn was reported to be in consideration for the vice-presidential nomination because he was a senator in a pivotal state and for his fame and straightforwardness. Her speech electrified the crowd, and was filled with applause and standing ovations.
Biography–A peek into the early years
Glenn's keynote address immediately followed Jordan's, and he failed to impress the delegates. Walter Cronkite described it as "dull", and other delegates complained that he was hard to hear. It was also reported that Carter's wife thought Annie Glenn, who had a stutter, would hurt the campaign. In his first reelection campaign, Glenn ran opposed in the primary for the Senate election.
His opponents, engineer Francis Hunstiger and ex-teacher Frances Waterman, were not well-known and poorly funded. His chief strategist responded to the remarks saying, "It's the way he does things. He takes nothing for granted. Jim Betts , who ran unopposed in the Republican primary, challenged Glenn for his seat.
Betts publicly stated that Glenn's policies were part of the reason for inflation increases and a lower standard of living. Glenn's campaign's response was that he has been a part of over 3, roll calls and "any one of them could be taken out of context".
Sir John Soane Reflector of Space
Glenn was unhappy with how divided the country was, and thought labels like conservative and liberal increased the divide. He considered himself a centrist. Glenn thought a more centrist president would help unite the country. Glenn believed his experience as a senator from Ohio was ideal, due to the state's diversity. He hired a media consultant to help him with his speaking style.
Glenn announced his candidacy for president on April 21, in the John Glenn High School gymnasium. He also polled the highest of any Democrat against Reagan. Reviewers saw Ed Harris ' portrayal of Glenn as heroic and his staff began to publicize the film to the press. Glenn's campaign decided to forgo the traditional campaigning in early caucuses and primaries, and focus on building campaign offices across the country.
He opened offices in 43 states by January Glenn's campaign spent a significant amount of money on television advertising in Iowa, and Glenn chose not to attend an Iowan debate on farm issues. He finished fifth in the Iowa caucus, and went on to lose New Hampshire. Glenn's campaign continued into Super Tuesday , and he lost there as well. He announced his withdrawal from the race on March 16, Glenn's Senate seat was challenged by Thomas Kindness.
LaRouche supporters had been recently elected in Illinois, but the Ohio Democratic Party chairman did not think it was likely they would see the same success in Ohio. He issued a statement telling voters to reject LaRouche candidates in both Republican and Democrat primaries. With the primary complete, Glenn began his campaign against Kindness. Glenn believed he and other Democrats were the targets of a negative campaign thought up by the GOP strategists in Washington.
Kindness focused on Glenn's campaign debts for his failed presidential run, and the fact he stopped payments on it while campaigning for the Senate seat. Glenn ran unopposed in the primary. This would be Glenn's fourth term as senator.
DeWine responded that he would if Glenn would disclose how he spent the money he received from Charles Keating , fallout from Glenn being named one of the Keating Five. DeWine later worked on the intelligence committee with Glenn and watched his second launch into space. Glenn requested to be assigned to two committees during his first year as senator: He was immediately assigned to the Government Operations Committee, and waited for a seat on the Foreign Relations Committee.
Abraham Ribicoff , chair of the Governmental Affairs Committee, said he could chair the subcommittee if he also chaired the less popular Federal Services Subcommittee , which was in charge of the U. Previous chairs of the Federal Services Subcommittee lost elections due in part to negative campaigns that tied in the poorly regarded mail service with the chairmen, but Glenn accepted the offer and became the chair of both subcommittees.
Glenn also introduced legislation promoting nuclear non-proliferation, and was the chief author of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of ,  the first of six major pieces of legislation that he produced on the subject. Glenn chaired the Committee on Governmental Affairs from to Glenn was made aware of the problem at the Fernald Feed Materials Production Center near Cincinnati, and soon found that it affected sites across the nation.
Glenn requested investigations from the General Accounting Office of Congress and held several hearings on the issue. He also released a report on the potential costs of hazardous waste cleanup at former nuclear weapons manufacturing facilities, known as the Glenn Report. Glenn also focused on reducing government waste.
He created legislation to mandate CFOs for large governmental agencies. He also created legislation intended to prevent the federal government from imposing regulations on local governments without funding. In Glenn became the ranking minority member of the Committee on Governmental Affairs. Glenn disputed the focus of illegal Chinese donations to the Democrats, and asserted that Republicans also had egregious fundraising issues. The committee chair, Fred Thompson of Tennessee , disagreed and continued the investigation.
Thompson would only give Glenn information he was legally required to. Glenn would not authorize a larger budget and tried to expand the scope of the investigation to include members of the GOP. Glenn was the vice chairman of the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations , a subcommittee of the Committee on Governmental Affairs. During this time, the committee investigated issue such as fraud on the Internet, mortgage fraud, and day trading of securities. Glenn's father spent his retirement money battling cancer, and would have lost his house if Glenn had not intervened.
His father-in-law also had expensive treatments for Parkinson's disease. These health and financial issues motivated him to request a seat on the Special Committee on Aging. Glenn was considered an expert in matters of science and technology due to his background. He was a supporter of continuing the B-1 bomber program, which he considered successful. This conflicted with President Carter's desire to fund the B-2 bomber program.
Glenn did not fully support development of the B-2 because he had doubts about the feasibility of the stealth technology. He drafted a proposal to slow down the development of the B-2, which could have potentially saved money, but the measure was rejected. Glenn joined the Foreign Relations Committee in Glenn helped to pass the Taiwan Enabling Act of Due to the loss of radar listening posts in Iran, Glenn did not believe that the U.
First Lady Rosalynn Carter also spoke at the event, during which she criticized Glenn for speaking publicly about the issue. The Senate never ratified the treaty, in part because of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Glenn was one of the Keating Five —the U. The combination of perceived political pressure and Keating's monetary contributions to the senators led to an investigation.
The Democrats did not want to exclude McCain, as he was the only Republican being investigated, which means they could not excuse Glenn from the investigation either. I didn't do anything wrong. On February 20, , which was the 35th anniversary of his Friendship 7 flight, Glenn announced that his retirement from the Senate would occur at the end of his term in January He realized that many changes that occur to physical attributes during space flight, such as loss of bone and muscle mass and blood plasma,  are the same as changes that occur due to aging.
Glenn thought NASA should send an older person on a shuttle mission, and thought that it should be him. Glenn performed research on the subject, and passed the physical examination. Some experiments in circadian rhythms , for example compared him with the younger crew members. In addition to these tests, he was in charge of the flight's photography and videography. This is often cited as the first email sent by a sitting US President, but records exist of emails being sent by President Clinton several years earlier.
His participation in the nine-day mission was criticized by some members of the space community as a favor granted by Clinton; John Pike, director of the Federation of American Scientists ' space-policy project, said: He's too modest for that, and so he's got to have this medical research reason. It's got nothing to do with medicine". In a interview, Glenn said he regretted that NASA did not continue its research on aging by sending additional elderly people into space. Glenn and Annie had two children—John David and Carolyn Ann—and two grandchildren,  and remained married for 73 years until his death.
Glenn was an ordained elder of the Presbyterian Church. It doesn't mean it's less wondrous and it doesn't mean that there can't be some power greater than any of us that has been behind and is behind whatever is going on. In he guest-starred as himself on the American television sitcom Frasier. On September 5, , John and Annie Glenn dotted the "i" in Ohio State University's Script Ohio marching band performance during the Ohio State — Navy football-game halftime show, which is normally reserved for veteran band members.
He used the occasion to criticize the "unfortunate" decision to end the Space Shuttle program , saying that grounding the shuttles delayed research. Glenn was in good health for most of his life. He retained a private pilot's license well into his 80s, eventually quitting flying when he and his wife found it too difficult to get into the cockpit due to knee problems. In June , Glenn underwent successful heart valve replacement surgery at the Cleveland Clinic. After his death, his body lay in state at the Ohio Statehouse. The Military Times reported that William Zwicharowski, a senior mortuary official at Dover Air Force Base , had offered to let visiting inspectors view Glenn's remains, sparking an official investigation.
No administrative action was taken as he had retired. President Barack Obama said that John Glenn, "the first American to orbit the Earth, reminded us that with courage and a spirit of discovery there's no limit to the heights we can reach together". The phrase "Godspeed, John Glenn", which fellow Mercury astronaut Scott Carpenter used to hail Glenn's launch into space, became his social-media hashtag: Glenn was awarded the John J.
Montgomery Award in Glenn was the seventh astronaut to receive this distinction. The Congressional Gold Medal and the Presidential Medal of Freedom are considered the two most prestigious awards that can be bestowed on a civilian. Astronaut Hall of Fame in Senator John Heinz Award for public service by an elected or appointed official, one of the annual Jefferson Awards.
In , Glenn received an honorary LL. He held an adjunct professorship at the school. Navy on March 12, Glenn and his family attended the ceremony, during which he spoke about how visiting the airport as a child had kindled his interest in flying. John Glenn " in his honor.
The mission successfully lifted off on April 16, Glenn's public life and legacy began when he received his first ticker tape parade for breaking the transcontinental airspeed record. He also focused on reducing government waste. John spent his life breaking barriers, from defending our freedom as a decorated Marine Corps fighter pilot in World War II and Korea, to setting a transcontinental speed record, to becoming, at age 77, the oldest human to touch the stars.
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