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  1. Zayas y Sotomayor, María de 1590-1650
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  5. Words for Sale: Early Modern Spanish Women’s Literary Economy

The first researcher to discover and explain the cycle of violence in battering relationships, Walker also identifies the three phases in the abuse cycle. The Tension Building Phase, constituted by minor incidents of battering and general psychological abuse, is followed by the Acute Battering Phase in which an uncontrollable discharge of the residual tensions occurs in the form of violence.

Finally, the third phase, that of Kindness and Contrite Behavior, involves a kind attitude on the part of the batterer in an attempt to gain back the favor of the woman he abused The sons in these two novellas blindly follow their fathers's orders, attempting to please the paternal at the expense of women's lives. The father's law is firmly ingrained here, as are misogynist and proprietary attitudes towards women which result in a violent erasure of the feminine from the texts, thereby exemplifying the dangers of allowing paternal law to go unchecked.

Implicit, then, in these juxtaposed tales, is a wake-up call for the frame tale listeners and the reader: Zayas's claims for political and attitudinal reform are manifested through the deaths of these female characters. The annihilation of Blanca and her sisters by foreign royalty presumably posits a safe distance between the reader and the atrocities by locating the violence in other countries, attributing such brutality to political tensions in the Spanish Empire.

Yet the perverse creativity and precise execution of the femicides of the women in the novella transcend the political framework, particularly since the murder of a Flemish woman by her father leaves no doubt as to the blatant misogyny behind the violence. While the Portuguese husband goes to great lengths to fake a love [] letter in his wife's handwriting in order to justifiably stab her to death, an Italian husband actually uses his wife's body against her, using her hair to strangle her because she praised a Spanish man.

Significantly, both of these uxoricides are framed in terms of falsified sexual impropriety, with the blatantly misogynist husbands seeking out this culturally sanctioned excuse to kill their wives. After all, the legal justification for uxoricide appears in the Spanish law code of the time: Implicit in the murders of these wives, then, is an attack on the freedom given to men with regard to control of female sexuality and subjectivity.

Thus cast in terms of the empire and the father, this matrimony is conceived, contracted, and conceded to with the paternal lurking as a major force. With the ire of the father-in-law directed toward her, Blanca receives a vicious anti-Spanish tongue lashing upon her arrival in Flanders, and here begins the psychological abuse and tension-building that characterizes the first phase of the cycle of violence. In spite of her initial resistance to her new husband, Blanca is surprised by the treatment she encounters.

The acute battering of the second phase of violence occurs when the prince and his father interrupt Blanca's lament. In spite of the painful memory of the beating that surges every time she sees him, Blanca, like many modern-day victims of wife-abuse, is said to still love her husband.

Shortly thereafter, the sister-in-law is garroted by her own husband and father. Blanca's husband enters the phase of kindness now, for when Blanca asks him about his father's malevolence, the prince distances himself from his father, justifying his father's actions by saying that he must have had reason to kill Marieta. Terrorized and helpless, Blanca hereafter is aware of the possibility of her own death and makes the proper arrangements.

Blanca's practical behavior here indicates that she perceives the danger of living in a house where the father's wish is the sons command. Phase One begins again as the tensions build, with Blanca ordering that the bed be burned. This time, however, Blanca will not survive: So ends the life of this protagonist, whose marriage and victimization are motivated by the desire to please the paternal. Masked in international political tensions, the abuse and femicide of this novella transcend national concerns and demonstrate a deep-rooted misogyny that knows no borders of time or place.

Here the feminine perspective is diminished and the phases of violence and the characteristics of abusive relationships no longer play a significant role.

Zayas y Sotomayor, María de 1590-1650

Instead, the novella concerns the blatant misogyny of a father and his son which leaves two women's cadavers as evidence of their proprietary attitudes. Perceiving his daughter as a financial liability akin to a bad investment, avarice motivates Pedro to wish for her a religious life, potentially enabling [] him to leave his entire fortune to his only son, Alonso Importantly, the act of vengeance occurs with the father's consent and assistance.

Another father enters into this femicide as well: Alonso informs a priest, appropriately addressing him as Padre, of his murderous intentions. Proceeding to Naples with his father's financial backing, Alonso defies his father's wishes by marrying a woman of modest station. Eventually disowned for his actions, he blames his resultant poverty on his wife and turns against her in hatred when his father expresses displeasure with the match.

In an effort to regain his father's favor, Alonso enlists a male friend to assist him in decapitating his wife, an action accomplished in a dinner table scene similar to the murder of Marieta in the previous tale. With these words, the father yet again condones femicide, applauding his son's efforts to please him. In these two novellas, Zayas exploits the dangers that paternal rule poses for women. These male characters, killing to please their fathers and to thereby sustain the male line of power, exhibit dehumanized, proprietary attitudes toward their female relatives, and freely abuse the female body whenever the rule of the father is violated or threatened.

The portrayal of the fathers in these Zayasian novellas as causing and condoning abusive behavior in their sons also coincides with theories on the intergenerational effects of violent behavior: With aggressive fathers who encourage and applaud violence against women, the sons in these novellas obediently respond by carrying out the violent acts, seeking to please their fathers and maintain male power by shedding female blood.

Zayas's literary representation of violence as it is inscribed on the female body registers vehement protest against the treatment of women. Zayas's texts register the voice of resistance to the tolerated oppression and abuse of women under patriarchal rule. Through these stories of violence and victimization the frame characters turn the personal into the political: Ranging in scope and severity, the violence proliferated throughout Zayas's novellas exposes the culturally configured attitudes toward the female body as the receptacle for masculine aggression and fear.

These parallels indicate that Zayas wrote with a knowledge of the dynamics of violence against women and an understanding of the oppressive patriarchal value system. As Zayas transfers to the female body the Foucauldian cultural paradigm of the body as truth and spectacle, female blood speaks for the imperiled state of women under patriarchal rule. Her words harken back to the beginning when she helped women carve out a space for their stories to be heard in the feminine voice.

Yet now the tone has become threatening. After enumerating the long list of female suffering as told in the ten novellas, Lisis announces her decision to enter a convent. She demands that women stop deceiving themselves about men's behavior, and that men improve their treatment of women or face the consequences,. Promised to be the greatest disenchantment of all, Lisis's retreat to the safety of the convent figures her self as resistance par excellence: Through the violent inscription of the father's law on the woman's body, Lisis has read women's truth, seeing the powerlessness of women.

Having heard about women being caught, put in a chamber, a house, a room, being leashed and locked and chained, she decides that, rather than let someone else settle her down, she will take charge of her body by removing it to the sanctity of the convent. Parte segunda del sarao y entretenimiento honesto. Michigan Quarterly Review Fall The Enchantments of Love. U of California P, Voces a ti debidas. In Honor of Ruth El Saffar. Marie Cort Daniels et al.

Colorado College Studies, South Central Review 5. Contemporary Review 32 April Emerson, and Russell Dobash. A Case against the Patriarchy. The Free Press, Fisher, Sheila, and Janet E. U of Tennessee P, Sixteenth Century Journal The Presence of the Past. Male Violence in the Family. Women in the Renaissance. U of Chicago P, A Study of the Mujer varonil. The Female Body in Western Culture. Crime and Society in Early Modern Seville. UP of New England, Gender and Disorder in Early Modern Seville. Journal of Homosexuality The Politics of Woman Killing.

Jill Radford and Diana E. Radford, Jill, and Diana E. Mary Elizabeth Perry and Anne J. Domestic Violence in Context: An Assessment of Community Attitudes. Romance Language Annual 3. Wilson, Margo, and Martin Daly. Family Violence in Life and Literature.

Hispania publishes reviews of selected books in the following categories: We do not review journal numbers or publish book notices. Publishers and authors should submit books for possible selection to the Book Review Editor, Dr. Hispania cannot accept unsolicited reviews nor honor requests to review specific books. Those assigned books for review will receive a stylesheet and a statement of editorial policy. Ello es evidente cuando son incluidas fichas de Siestas con viento sur y El loco.

The Reichenberger series of critical editions of Spanish Golden Age plays has recently added two new titles, both offering plays that have received little critical attention in the past. The first section deals with Ana Caro, analyzing her place among the writers of her time and presenting the information known about her life.

There follow a history of the play, and an analysis of its plot and the roles of the characters, including two semiotic schemata. This section also compares the play with other Golden Age dramas and situates it in the context of the theater of its day. She applies this thesis to the play in question, showing how its action takes place in contemporary Spain, although that of the fable is supposedly situated in a mythic time and place. Furthermore, the course of events takes the hero on a path that alternates between an open and dangerous exterior space and a closed and amorous interior one, once again demonstrating the primacy of action over the unities of time and space.

The last sections of the introduction comprise a study of the versification of the text illustrating the relationship between verse form and dramatic material, as well as an explanation of the criteria used in preparing the edition. A bibliography lists the editions of the works attributed to Caro, studies and references relating to her work, and a select general bibliography of the comedia.

The text itself is well presented, carefully footnoted, and followed by a listing of variants. The format is attractive and easy to read, particularly because the spelling has been modernized. This volume is impressive in the amount of documentation that accompanies both the introductory material and the text. It is gratifying to see that this heretofore unjustly ignored work by an outstanding woman playwright of the Golden Age is receiving the critical attention that it so well deserves.

The next section is devoted to a study of the play itself. Also included here is a bibliography of this particular play. These two plays are presented in handsome volumes and provide easy access to texts that previously were difficult to find in scholarly editions. They are excellent contributions to the growing number of well edited Golden Age comedias.

In her excellent introduction, Susan Kirkpatrick says that Rosa Chacel presents, a la James Joyce, a portrait of artists as young women. In the formation of one of the creative young girls, Chacel combines three representations of Ariadne, Elena's mother, the opera written by Ariadne's father, and a statue of that mythic figure. In fact, Chacel believes that all artistic impulse originates in the erotic xi. Later, Kirkpatrick shows that, while women's activity e. On a few occasions, the translation changes the meaning considerably. The reader infers incorrectly that Isabel expected to work for Elena's grandmother: On at least one occasion 67 , this confuses the reader: Is Juan Morano the scribe of the Ministry of Public Education or the person walking to meet that ministry employee?

In another example, Isabel uses the metaphor of a revolving door to explain art's overwhelming effect: At times grammar errors are included: Manuel blames only his wife or rather her death for his own spiritual demise. Such errors are rare, however. The translator often adds welcome clarifications, identifying authors alluded to: Every adaptation of a literary text offers both a reading of the text and a dialectics of sorts between the original context and the time and place of the rewriting. When the adapter chooses a new medium of expression, the distance from the original and the intervention of a second hand become even more apparent.

In this study, Barbara P. Esquival-Heinemann looks at opera libretti based on Don Quixote and written between and Her work shows the episodes and the modes that the librettists chose to emphasize, along with the interplay of imitation and invention that marks the creative process. Esquival-Heinemann opens with a brief consideration of opera as genre and then surveys the operatic adaptations of Don Quixote in Italy, Germany and Austria, France, England, and the Hispanic world. Three appendices provide a chronology of the Don Quixote operas, a chart of frequency in the use of specific episodes, and illustrations and pages from selected texts.

German librettists produce the Singspiel, considered to be a counterpart of the opera buffa. Esquival-Heinemann notes that in the eighteenth century German critics saw Don Quixote as satire, while viewing Don Quixote himself in a somewhat more personal and serious vein. The symbolic view of the protagonist led to the transformation wrought by nineteenth-century Romanticism, as chronicled by Anthony Close and others.

Opera composition in Germany reflects the movement toward a tragic vision of Don Quixote, but librettists also find room for comic treatment of the text. In contrast to the German libretti, interpretations of Don Quixote in France remain much the same in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, according to Esquival-Heinemann. French compositions during this period, which on occasion combine opera and ballet, tend to focus on the grotesque and the ridiculous qualities of the novel. An exception -significant for its place in the contemporary repertoire- is Massenet's Don Quichotte, which Esquival-Heinemann believes to be based on a poem by Henri Cain and a play by Jacques Le Lorrain the librettist rather than on Cervantes's novel.

This opera attributes to Don Quixote the noble character that other French versions forsake in favor of humor. In England, as well, librettists generally emphasize the comic aspects of Don Quixote , and, fittingly, the role of Sancho Panza. Esquival sees in the operatic productions of the four centuries a mirror of the stages elaborated by Edwin B. As in the case of other European countries, Don Quixote serves to inspire a new form of opera, namely, the ballad opera. Ironically, but understandably, Spain has produced few operatic versions of Don Quixote, due most likely to the reverence in which Cervantes's masterpiece is held in the Hispanic world.

This particular sally should be of interest to Quixote scholars, notably with regard to generic diversity and to writing as rewriting. Questions of tone and frequency -the most popular episodes are Camacho's wedding, Sancho's governorship, and the stay at the ducal palace- affect not only the domain of opera but reception of the novel in comprehensive terms. One could argue a bit about balance, about missed opportunities to deal with theories of genre, or about the exclusion of the United States and its own unique form, the musical comedy, which gave us perhaps the most commercially successful of all adaptations of the Quixote.

Nonetheless, it is important to recognize the tremendous amount of research that went into this project and the usefulness of the data collected. The commentary is clearly written, well organized, and enjoyable to read. Riley's contention that Don Quixote as icon often supersedes Don Quixote as literary figure helps to explain the multiple variations on quixotic themes that enrich and expand upon Cervantes's novel.

Hildner's new book, but it is also sensual, imaginative, and sometimes self-contradictory. In this informative, well-written study, [] Hildner analyzes the most salient characteristics of Leonine writing -among them, the cleric's use of semifigurative language, his philological precision, his admission of multiple meanings, his recourse to logic and the senses. Hildner examines Leonine concepts of truth and fiction, poetic and logical language, and shows that, although Fray Luis believed that doctrine should be transmitted through creative forms and beautiful words, he set limits to the poetic function.

Fray Luis distrusted the purely aesthetic, holding that God and the divine were the only proper subjects for imaginative writing. A significant part of the study is devoted to De los nombres de Cristo , which, in Hildner's view, illustrates some of the contradictions inherent in Fray Luis' thought. For Fray Luis writing was a moral activity. Heavily influenced by Neo-Platonism, he conceived of works such as Nombres as part of his search for truth.

Yet, De los nombres de Cristo does not constitute an authentic probe because there is no real dialogue. Fray Luis maintains a monolithic view; all of the nombres are different ways of saying the same thing. Hildner believes that Fray Luis was afraid of genuine diversity of opinion because he thought it would lead to a loss of unity in the Church. Hildner points out that Fray Luis often sacrifices authenticity to unity in his writing, so that his descriptions of human society -including married life, government, etc.

The descriptive elements in his writing are not mere ornaments, but means by which the passage comes alive, thereby conveying truth to the reader. Hildner believes that in spite of the apparent remoteness of Fray Luis' subject matter, the sixteenth-century cleric speaks to the modern reader. These notions, Hildner notes, were self-evident to Fray Luis. David Hildner makes use of an impressive number of classical, Christian, and Renaissance sources to elucidate Fray Luis' thought.

He shows that in terms of his aesthetics and Weltgeist , Fray Luis was both a man of his times and a remarkable individualist. Hildner explodes some of the myths about Fray Luis -often depicted as the austere formalist in comparison with San Juan, the exuberant sensualist- by exploring the dramatic and erotic elements of some of his writing.

However, the most notable feature of this source book is its use of feminist criticism to study the authors in question. However, the criteria for selection of authors are both broad and inclusive: Each study is comprised of four sections: The bibliographies are thorough, painstaking, and in some cases, dazzling: Although all of the studies are undertaken from a feminist perspective, the versatility of these fifty specialists ensures a wide variety of approaches -linguistic, stylistic, structuralist, materialist, psychoanalytical, etc.

At the risk of slighting the many outstanding contributors to Spanish Women Writers, I would like to highlight four analyses, which in my opinion, are ground-breaking: The volume ends with a selected bibliography, which contains, surprisingly, the most complete listing of studies of peninsular women writers to date, and two appendixes: In conclusion, Spanish Women Writers offers the monolingual reader in English, the teacher and student of peninsular letters, the specialist in women writers, the feminist literary critic, and the general reader an indispensable research guide. Feminist scholars, in particular, are greatly in debt to Levine, Marson and Waldman, and to the contributors to their source book.

Spanish Women Writers constitutes a watershed in peninsular studies. Within a short time, feminist literary historians will characterize the state of the held as before or after its publication. Recently I added a proviso: Henceforth I will be obliged to respond: This last work, under review, is situated midway between the abstract and the concrete, grounded in the abstract and itself the ground of the concrete. Thus, not everything in the world is, strictly speaking, personal. Furthermore, not everything about a human is, strictly speaking, personal.

A human is constituted by the physical, the psychic and the personal. If the name of this orientation is not familiar, it is because very few philosophers refer to their positions as such. On occasions such thinkers as Jacques Maritain, the neo-Thomist inspired by Bergson, called himself a personalist, but -at least in the United States- only a few philosophers academically connected with Boston University and the University of Southern California consistently applied the designation to themselves.

What all personalists have in common is an emphasis on the person as what is distinctively human, and the conviction that the person is the highest form of reality. Thirteen chapters form the book, commencing with the context of the study as seen in the first two chapters. They are related disjunctively, i.

Together they constitute humanity. Because I found no explicit distinction between the individual and the person in Ortega, I supplemented his treatment with Maritain's distinction, as found in The Person and the Common Good. Taking into consideration Ortega and Maritain's fundamental differences in metaphysics, I was able to draw parallels between their respective critiques of political systems in the twentieth century that have tried to dehumanize by depersonalizing. Themes covered in the study include: Because of this reduction of the desire between the sexes to sexual desire we are at the lowest level in centuries in understanding love.

Tanner traces the history of the idea of the Roman emperor and its manifestation in imagery. The image, she believes, developed seamlessly from its origins in antiquity through the early Christian period, the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. Her study culminates with the Hapsburgs' use of the image in the sixteenth century. The myth was changed and adapted to concur with major historic events and the location of the imperial seat. It originated in antiquity with the vision of Rome's divine destiny; in the early Christian period it synthesized gentile and Jewish divine history and was consolidated by the Hapsburgs in the sixteenth century.

Several elements -chronicles, visual imagery, mythical genealogy, among others- helped to form the image. Vergil accommodated the Trojan myth to Roman history producing the vision of Rome's divine destiny. During the Byzantine period the myth was christianized by amalgamating Judeo-Christian topoi with their pagan parallels. In the Middle Ages and the Renaissance epic narrative and mythic genealogy advanced the image.

Mythical genealogy, providing a fictive ancestry for the emperor, was the most important element in the formation of the image. Biblical figures had already been interpolated during the early Christian period. The genealogical pretensions of the emperors were advocated in monuments and in pictorial and literary works having biblical, historical and mythological subjects. Prophecy, unlike genealogy, focused on the eschatological to designate the Holy Roman emperor as the last descendant of Aeneas. In the sixteenth century, the Spanish monarch had become the last world emperor and Spain the last world monarchy, ideas put forth by the philosopher Tommaso Campanella who took into account Spain's role in the discovery of the new world, the expansion of its domains and the signs of the political and religious union of humankind.

The concluding chapters of Tanner's book dealing with the Hapsburgs in Spain should be of special interest to hispanists who can apply the material to their own research. Among the topics discussed in the context of Hapsburg rule are the mystical and dynastic significance of the Order of the Golden Fleece, the title to Jerusalem, Columbus's discovery of the Americas, and the monarch's solar identity. In Hapsburg mythology the Escorial is viewed as Solomon's Temple, the heavenly Jerusalem and the fulfillment of Rome's imperial legacy.

Philip II supported the arts to spread the message of Hapsburg piety which was based on devotion to the Eucharist and the Holy Cross. By casting the light of religion on the unknown half of the globe Philip was seen as Christ-Apollo. Philip identified the Eucharist with the sun to the extent that within Hapsburg realms the Eucharist was displayed in a monstrance having the form of a radiating sun. By identifying himself with Apollo, the sun, and then the sun with the Eucharist, Philip drew to himself as emperor the adulation given the Eucharist.

Tanner's research is impressive. In contrast to previous studies, Tanner concentrates on the mythical bias and the political motivations of the Renaissance epic narratives. In her treatment of mythic genealogy her special contribution to scholarship [] goes beyond local issues. The book's notes, select bibliography and copious illustrations add to the scholarly value of the text. Hispanists, in particular those in Golden Age studies, certainly have much to contribute.

To succeed, such a book could only be the result of many years of research, thought, and love of its subject, which is the case here. Integrating modern theoretical concerns and the traditional scholar's broad familiarity with the poets and their works, Terry has accomplished the two goals he set forth in the preface: Limiting his topic to the years plus Sor Juana , Terry divides the book into nine chapters.

The first sets the historical context for the poetry, tracing the Castilian, Italian and classical traditions, and is followed by a discussion of the poetics of the period. He explains Quevedo's poetics in terms of a serious rhetorical conservatism: Sor Juana retains her place in the peninsular canon as the last of the period's major figures in Terry's treatment, which draws heavily on Octavio Paz's work. The poets and poems discussed here are, for the most part, the same ones found in Terry's Anthology of Spanish Poetry Part II , where they appeared with little commentary.

Women poets other than Sor Juana except for brief mention of Santa Teresa are notably absent in this treatment, which otherwise admirably attempts to bring the discipline up to date. There is also a welcome chapter on epic poetry, highly valued by the poets of the period but relatively neglected now. More than readable, the text is interesting, with good illustrations of Terry's analysis and translated quotations. The thorough notes, index and selected bibliography will be appreciated by the serious student.

For what it sets out to do, this will be a useful text for years to come. In connection with the Symposium a musical festival was held in which popular decimista groups performed. The introductory remarks of the Actas promise a forthcoming recording of the musical performances. The volume is divided into three principal sections. The third section includes fourteen papers read during the meeting. In a brief overview of our present knowledge of Hispanic oral poetry, Armistead notes that Hispanic popular poetry is the product of two legacies -Islamic and Romanic.

Armistead's remarks also point to another topic treated by other speakers at the symposium -the link between the oral poetry of the Canaries and the Americas.

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He gives a brief, country-by-country overview of orally-composed poetry in the Americas, emphasizing its varied, but also universally enduring legacy. He also includes an extensive bibliography. Judging from the essays included in this volume, the Symposium achieved its goal of studying this mode of traditional poetry from a transcultural perspective.

Willem, are a useful addition to the ever-growing corpus of Galdosian scholarship. They cover nearly every facet of the field, utilizing diverse critical methologies, with authors representative of various generations of Galdosistas. As is to be expected in so large a collection of studies, quality and level of interest vary considerably.

Below is an account of some of the most significant essays. Stephanie Sieburth's study of La desheredada examines the novel from a sociological perspective, demonstrating how the working class through Mariano and the petty bourgeois class through Isidora come to threaten the status quo of the Madrid of the s and s. She also argues that Miquis, usually taken by critics to be a benevolent figure, has a dark side: James Whiston's essay on Lo prohibido illustrates the importance of the reader's perspective in this novel with a notoriously unreliable narrator.

The synecdoche of the dismembered body applies to novelistic characters and to the nation as a whole in the period covered in the novel Geoffrey Ribbans's analysis of Fortunata y Jacinta is a carefully reasoned study of narrative point of view. Store:Kindle eBooks:eBooks in Foreign Languages:Portuguese

Turner's study of Fortunata y Jacinta provides some convincing definitions of the Realism of this novel. Networks of image and motif surround novelistic elements with a metonymic force, leading to dialectical signifiers Tropes are grounded in physical and chemical processes, nature or the economic phenomena of the times Another analysis of the same novel by Chad C. Wright focuses on bodily metaphors and the symbolism of dismemberment, malfunctioning, and disarticulation Round's study of Misericordia offers some original ideas regarding the relation of this final work of the Contemporary Novels series to both Realism and Spiritualism.

His final conclusion is, however, questionable. Eamonn Rodgers examines the writer's political thought as expressed in essays and newspapers articles in the three principal periods of his life The constants of his thought were his disappointment with the politics of the Restoration and his rejection of caciquismo A weakness of this approach is that it only considers the political thought expressed in the writer's newspaper articles , ignoring the ideas present in his fictional works.

Galdosistas of varied interests will find many critical insights in this commemorative collection.

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Drawing numerous parallels between Argentina and Nazi Germany, Bouvard spotlights the prevalent antisemitism in Argentina. The atmosphere of terror and fear in Argentina recalls the Nazi policy of Night and Fog -people disappear without a trace, there is an absence of law and due process. In spite of eyewitness accounts of abductions, the government denies all knowledge of political disappearances.

Opposing this maelstrom of madness is a group of poor, uneducated women, searching for their missing children. At first apolitical and unsophisticated, they learn to take matters into their own hands. Bravely, they stage weekly marches in the symbolic Plaza de Mayo, locus of government and the site of proclaimed Argentine independence from Spain. Advocating human rights and justice, these Mothers seize political power for themselves and all Argentines, demanding the release of all disappeared, punishment for the guilty parties, and the elimination of military control.

Maternal solidarity puts a feminine stamp on the protest movement. Through their courageous response to tyranny, the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo evolve into heroes. Bouvard's unflinching and well-researched portrayal includes an introduction, ten chapters, an extensive bibliography based on newspaper articles and interviews with the Mothers, and an index. The style is simple and direct, making the work eminently readable. In each chapter, she juxtaposes intimate poems with a straightforward narration of factual information, reflecting both emotional and rational qualities of the Mothers.

Eloquent black-and-white photographs of the Mothers' vigils reveal simple women who cry out in anger and sadness. The combination of fury and courage in their faces is unforgettable as they celebrate Mother's Day [] holding a single rose in their arms. Over the past ten years there have been considerable efforts to recover the works of colonial women writers from the archives of convents in Spanish America. The result of these investigations has not quite yielded the anticipated information but has instead offered an equally fascinating and imaginative portrait of women in colonial society and a view of historical circumstances in the viceroyalties through the study of their letters, journals and notebooks.

An excellent example of this scholarly approach, in which a woman writer has been restored to literary history, is Kathleen Myers' critical edition, Word from New Spain: Even her contemporaries recognized her extraordinary religious devotion and her talent for mystical expression. Over the course of three decades she wrote and rewrote some twelve volumes of her visions and ecstasies, which include unions with Christ, interventions of the Virgin, and encounters with the devil, and she seemed to be a model nun, the perfecta religiosa so celebrated by the Church.

In she was chosen to be a founder of the Augustinian Recollect convent in Oaxaca, and a petition for her beatification was sent to Pope Benedict XIII shortly after her death. She summarizes her findings clearly in the introduction of Word from New Spain and offers insights into the expression of the baroque in Mexico and the influence of the Counter-Reformation there.

Words for Sale: Early Modern Spanish Women’s Literary Economy

The introduction to Word from New Spain provides the key to interpreting the carefully selected passages of this critical edition. Confessional autobiography is therefore placed within the colonial Spanish American context as Myers defines the vida and notes its importance for religious women writers in the New World.

References to it throughout the remainder of the series elaborate and clarify her family situation and describe the patriarchal structure of the household, the disruption of power caused by the death of her father, the influence her mother had on her life, her relationship with the Indian servants, and the difficulties she endured with her siblings.

In Word from New Spain Myers has developed a cohesive and comprehensive pattern for investigation into the life and works of religious women writers of the colonial period. The fine introduction, accuracy of the textual transcription, a process described in detail by the editor, and the accompanying bibliographical essay on early autobiographical writings in Spanish American convents assure the success of this volume and make it a valuable tool for both students and scholars of colonial studies that focus on women in the New World.

Lindstrom focuses on the feminine qualities attributed to Ana Teresa Parra Sanojo's writing, despite shifts from the more frivolous journalistic pieces to the proto-feminist stance of the novel. After alluding to the impact of serialization -the chapters appeared simultaneously in Spanish and French-language literary magazines- Lindstrom dwells on a common misperception, the slippage between author and protagonist, which often arises from the choice of a first person narrator.

The discrepancies among the numerous editions published over seventy years lead the translator to ponder over the question of authenticity in light of the missing original manuscript Acker xv-xvi. Among other factors, the continued success of Iphigenia may be due to the generic conventions of the novel of development. Given the ambiguity of the protagonist's ironic stance, however, de la Parra's [failed?

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This hermeneutic approach may focus on the depiction of Venezuelan mores, race relations, social stratification, etc. It may also revolve around the question of feminism, particularly in regard to the adaptation of European concepts in Spanish America. The ongoing debate certainly proves the power of de la Parra's ambiguously ironic narrator.

Bertie Acker took on the formidable challenge of recreating periodization, characterization and local color. The fact that we get a feel for de la Parra's style is a measure of the translator's success. Bertie Acker's fine translation is timely in that it significantly broadens de la Parra's audience, allowing for renewed interest in the debates that Iphigenia continues to spawn. She literally opens-up with the initial pages by sharing her personal dream about monks stealing a mural with the image of Our Lady of Guadalupe.

Oneiric images invoke the sensation of some powerful institution -the Catholic Church perhaps- who wants to appropriate Guadalupe's icon, and yet, this becomes impossible, because there is certain truth that Our Lady of Guadalupe incarnates and that cannot be suppressed. On the contrary, she is the maternal divine figure who empowers and nourishes those who believe in her. The alleged appearance of Our Lady of Guadalupe is looked at through the prism of race, class, and gender oppression.

She offers both Christian and Nahuatl interpretations in order to facilitate the understanding of the importance of the event for their future, transculturated descendants. Importantly, the influence of Anglo-American culture over mestizos is never underestimated nor neglected. In those terms, it seems counterproductive to choose such a small number of participants, especially considering the fairly simple and short questionnaire.

The Mexican-American women selected for the study had to be young years of age , married mothers for whom Our Lady of Guadalupe was part of their religious experience. They also had to speak English. Each of the participants in the study filled out a demographic questionnaire which established their economic, social, and cultural status.

The results of this section show that none of the participants have higher education, and that the [] average education was Only one of the participants identified Our Lady of Guadalupe as a priority in comparison to other religious beliefs, such as Christ and God. Participants also wrote a personal reflection inspired by observing the provided image of Guadalupe. Most of the group identified her as a mother type or someone to be prayed to, but significantly only four women mentioned the strength that the image of Guadalupe offers them. Later, the women were given a list of adjectives from which they were supposed to choose those that, according to their opinion, described Our Lady of Guadalupe.

The two highest rated qualities show that they see her as the ideal self and as the nurturing parent. The final part of the research is related to the taped interviews in which the women explained their written accounts. A long pastoral experience of the author along with her study of psychology complement the small number of the participants in the group. This study definitely deepens our knowledge of acculturation of Mexican-American women. In Entre lo uno y lo diverso: In his native Portugal, however, his paintings, illustrations, and sculpture have always taken precedence over his writing.

Lip service is often paid to his handful of modernist titles, but adequate critical study and interpretation has gone largely elsewhere. Ellen Sapega's studies are a welcome step in the attempt to establish the basis for a more equitable reckoning. A Engomadeira and K4 O Quadrado Azul are most intelligibly read within the intelligence offered by the sensacionista ideas formulated by Almada's coeval and fellow-collaborator in Orpheu and Portugal Futurista, Fernando Pessoa.

Put another way, these parables demonstrate the strong Almadean idea, if they do so obliquely, that modern man must or had best recognize the sanity of pre-logical apprehension of things. Nome de Guerra is approached as a culminating retrospective summary of Almada's major fictional interests in the ten or so years of his significant literary activity , one which results in a new but constructive literary impasse marking the end of the author's career as fiction writer.

This nuanced, attentive reading of Almada's always engaging fiction in the context of the modernism he did so much to shape and define should attract further serious attention to the writings of an artist-writer whose place in literature must be defined both within twentieth-century Portuguese culture and well beyond that culture.

Whether he had talent not genius , as the puckish Fernando Pessoa once said, Almada must be given his due as one of the great multiple artists of the modern era. Latino Theatre, is important because it clarifies the actual significance of those influences, drama troupes and dramatists which took part in the formation of the modern theatre in Mexico. During the course of his study, Schmidhuber convincingly dispels misconceptions that were perpetrated by some of the key players in this drama of drama and that, for more than half a century, have concealed the reality of this theatre's personal and group dynamics.

As the author aptly proves, the sixteen years from to are the formative years of the nation's modern theatre: The study, which is essentially chronological in its development, discusses the three principal dramatic currents prominent in Mexico during the s and s: One of the more useful results of the analysis, itself a product of the author's years of study of the plays written during this period, is his conclusion that, throughout its development, there are three dramatic constants that changed only as experimentation brought new ways of making theatre: The reader should not be tempted to make light of the foregoing because only one who has actually read the works written and produced in Mexico during this time could justify this claim, and only after having verified that all other dramatic elements are useless for a consistent, meaningful analysis of the evolution of this drama during the years in question.

From the beginning of his work, Schmidhuber resorts to a clever formulaic representation of these constants in order to aid the reader's comprehension of the changes in the plays under discussion. Some of the most revealing portions of the study are documents and commentary that prove that the Comedia Mexicana and the Grupo de los Siete Autores essentially worked for the same end -that, despite disparaging criticism of the former group by dramatists such as Villaurrutia, Novo and C. Gorostiza, there was little difference in the number and types of works these two groups actually staged.

The latter and its significance also have not been mentioned in previous studies of this theatre. After pages devoted to individuals and groups, the author devotes the remaining fifty-eight pages of text to Usigli, his work in general, and in particular to El gesticulador in which previously existing influences and traditions meld into the work that, more than any other, is the pioneer drama of the modern Mexican theatre. The reader's own conclusion will surely be favorable. Since its inception, the organization has devoted itself to examining the cultural production of women in Spain, the Americas and Portugal.

Martine van Elk

Our biennial conference has taken place in numerous locations in the U. In , we will meet in Reno, NV and welcome scholars whose work dovetails with ours. Caryl Emerson and Michael Holquist. University of Texas Press, Women, Myth, Power, and Popular Culture. University of Wisonsin Press, Cohen, Jeffery Jerome, ed. University of Minnesota Press, Roots of the Fantastic in the Age of Curiosities. University of Michigan Press, Film, Feminism, and Psychoanalysis.

Arenal, Electa and Amanda Powell. The Feminist Press, Special issue of Writing Monsters: The Monster in the Machine: Duke University Press, Columbia University Press, A Perverse God or Theological Kitsch? Platt, Peter G, ed. University of Delaware Press, University Press of the South, University of North Carolina Press, The Dynamics of Discourse. Fairleigh Dickinson University Press, State University of New York Press, The Enchantments of Love: Amorous and Exemplary Novels. University of California Press, She is co-editor of Crosscurrents: