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  1. Siege of Calais () - Wikipedia
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Siege of Calais () - Wikipedia

Be the first to ask a question about Victory in Europe, Lists with This Book. This book is not yet featured on Listopia. Aubrey Overstreet rated it it was amazing May 04, Garrett Olinde rated it liked it Feb 22, Gerald Lapre rated it really liked it Dec 30, Karolinde Kari marked it as to-read Feb 19, Fields marked it as to-read May 11, Paul Macari marked it as to-read Feb 02, David marked it as to-read May 04, Don LaFountaine marked it as to-read Dec 13, Pamela marked it as to-read Sep 03, Ryan added it Oct 19, GraceH added it Oct 23, Roger added it Jan 10, Since the Allies needed the port facilities to supply their advance, they could not be sealed off and left to wither on the vine.

The Germans had established artillery positions capable of shelling Dover , threatening allied shipping and there were launch sites for the V-1 flying bombs bombarding London. After Normandy, the Polish and Czech formations were augmented by countrymen who had been conscripted into the German Army and changed sides. The First Canadian Army had fought several battles in Normandy, resulting in depleted commanders and manpower at all levels.

This was particularly serious in the infantry rifle companies. The infantry divisions had not performed satisfactorily in Normandy and had been relegated to defensive positions on the eastern flank of the bridgehead. The 6th Airborne Division had landed in Operation Tonga on D-Day and despite its lack of heavy weapons, remained defending the area. It had suffered many casualties and Major-General Richard Gale , had been ordered to harry the German retreat yet conserve its manpower for the rebuilding that was due.

The 6th Airborne Division was reinforced by the 1st Belgian Infantry Brigade and the Royal Netherlands Brigade Prinses Irene , which were to gain "operational experience in quieter sections of the line in the hope that ultimately they would return to their own countries and form nuclei around which larger national forces might be organized".

Much of Army Group B Heeresgruppe B had been destroyed or shattered in Normandy and the Falaise Pocket but divisions deployed east of the Allied bridgehead were largely intact. German troops within the "fortress cities" were generally second-rate and included some Austrian and other nationalities, that were not trusted enough to carry arms. It had been hoped by the Allied commanders that a defeat comparable with the Falaise Pocket could be inflicted on the Germans by trapping them against the Seine and the sea.

The American Third Army advanced northwards to Elbeuf , across the Second Army line of advance, to cut off the route towards Paris and was a partial success. Although much of its remaining transport and the bulk of its armour was lost west of the Seine, Army Group B held up the Canadians, protecting improvised river crossings and significant quantities of men and materiel were saved.

How the War Was Won Air Sea Power and Allied Victory in World War II Cambridge Military Histories

The 6th Airlanding Brigade of the 6th Airborne Division took Honfleur on the Seine estuary but progress along the coast was slower than inland, rivers being wider and more difficult to cross. The 6th Airborne Division occupied the west bank of the Risle from Pont Audemer downstream to the Seine on 26 August, completing its tasks in France and the division returned to Britain on 3 September. Clearance of the last German units west of the Seine was completed on 30 August. I British Corps put patrols across the Seine on 31 August.

The advance to the Seine had outstripped the preparations of the Royal Canadian Engineers for bridging equipment and assault boats but newly assembled assault boats carried the 3rd Canadian Infantry Division across the Seine at Elbeuf on 27 August.


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Ferries for wheeled and armoured vehicles were in operation in the afternoon. Dieppe had been abandoned by the Germans before the order Hitler sent for it to be defended as a "fortress" had been received and it was captured by the 2nd Canadian Infantry Division on 1 September, which had last been in the port during the Dieppe Raid in A ceremonial parade was held on 5 September and despite demolitions, the port was cleared and in use on 7 September, a delivery of oil and petrol being shipped to Brussels on 9 September.

Le Havre was attacked by the I British Corps, supported by Hobart's Funnies , specialized armoured vehicles of the 79th Armoured Division and bombardment from land, sea and air. It was taken on 12 September after 48 hours but the port needed lengthy clearance and repair.

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Boulogne was reached on 5 September but the garrison had received the Hitler "fortress" order. The city was protected by high ground and was attacked by the 3rd Canadian Division with extensive air and artillery support from 17—22 September. On 1 September, the last V-1 was launched against London as the Canadians were moving through the launch areas. Calais was sealed off in early September and Wissant was quickly captured, though an early attack on Cap Gris Nez failed.


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