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Lianor de Sa, his wife and children, coming from India to this kingdom in the large Galley called S. Joao which was lost off the Cape of Good Hope, in Natal. Also the journey which they had made, in passing around more than leagues of lands of Kaffirs until their death. A copy of this edition is in the Biblioteca Nacional, Lisbon. This poem is composed of seventeen cantos.

The death of D. Lianor and the bitter grief of her husband are delineated with a master hand. Camoes has treated of the same subject in his Lusiadas, in Canto V. Corte-Real, nobleman and soldier, has much value as a poet and a painter of Indian scenes, yet he cannot rank with Camoes. He never had to pass through the trials of the less fortunate but more brilliant poet, for his life was always spent in pleasant surroundings, in the company of admiring friends.

Librarian of the Torre do Tombo Francisco de Andrade. It is a poem divided into twenty cantos, well written in an elegant style. It contains a vivid description of the manner in which Sultan Bahadur Shah of Cambay met his death and this work is considered by critics to be among the best poems of the second class. There is only one copy of it which is in the Biblioteca Nacional, Lisbon. A dramatist and play-wright of the period who showed Indian influence in one of cen e.

He had quite early in life a place at Court. For more than thirty years he continued to write plays at the Court of Dom Manoel and of Dom Joao III where he was a noble figure, declaiming against all that was base in the ruling classes of the kingdom. This play is composed of two parts; it was written to celebrate Christmas and was played before the King D. Joao III, in Payo Vaz judged by this that it was best to dismiss the shepherdess, Mofina Mendes, and in payment of what he owed her gave her a pot of oil.

These when sold would bring more than a million reis and thus she would be able to marry a rich and honourable man. On the day of the marriage she would come out richly dressed to meet her fiance and sing a song: And the day I am married I shall come out arrayed In a scarlet shawl. And before the bridegroom Who will be making love to me 1 shall come from inside the house dancing Thus, dancing this way And singing this song.

Mofina Mendes then left Payo Vaz and the other shepherds who were present and went away singing a song which said that she was jilted by fortune, and she requested the shepherds not to be angry with her, because human pleasures are dissipated in the same way as the dreams of prosperity conceived at the bo ttom of a pot of oil, were shattered: Will end, as it did, in the ground. It should be noted that the dialogue of Payo Vaz with Mofina Mendes has no relation to the principal subject of the play and so it appears to have been inserted only to capture the attention of the hearers and to inculcate a moral lesson.

The original Sanscrit text of the Panchatantra and its Pehlvi translation are lost, but two ancient notable tmnslations, have been preserved — one in Syriac and the other in Arabic. The Arabic translation was written in the 8th. From it, a Hebrew translation was written in and another in Castillian about Joao Manuel —1 , the father of Queen D. Constanta, wife of D. Johannes Hertel, Cambridge, Mass. However, this similarity cannot be considered as a direct influence of the Sanscrit text of the Pancha- tantra, for this work was known in Europe only after its first impression in Joao Manuel; but it is more than likely that it was the last one.

The hero goes to India, leaving in Lisbon his wife, who in fidelity, does not appear to resemble Penelope. At the end of three years, he returns and recounts the hardships of his journey: Quasi, quasi a quartelar: Fomos ao rio da Meca, Pelejamos e roubamos, E muito risco passamos, A vela e arvore secca. We went to the river of Meca, We fought and we pillaged, And we ran much risk With sails flying, and furled. His wife puts him the typical question: Be quiet and you will see How elegantly you will turn out.

It was the first of his productions and was received with great enthusiasm by all his contemporaries. It really shows great dramatic talent. Our distinguished writer, Aubrey F. Bell, reprinted it in Lisbon in The letter is remarkably well written and with such naturalness that it seems authentic. The brother of Silvia recounts the troubles of his journey, refers with a sneer to Indian girls, promises her to make a fortune to support her and bring her honour, and in the end sends her news for her to give to his acquaintances — to a supposed aunt, Briolanja Soares, he sends the message that her son went to the Maidive Islands, where he made money; to an imaginary Constanta Dornellas, he says that her husband had left for China and sold at great profit in Malacca the merchandise that he took with him.

The entire letter is very valuable, and very much more significant than if it were a bona-fide letter, for it presupposes hundreds of similar letters, whose existence authorised the artist — and Jorge Ferreira was a real artist — to introduce it as a feature of the epoch in a comedy of manners and customs. We do not know the date of his birth or death, but we do know that he lived in It is an account of the countries bordering on the Indian Ocean and their inhabitants.

He gives an interesting description of the kingdom of Guzerate in which he tells us about the Baneanes. At the time Barbosa wrote, the Portuguese had discovered that the Hindus were not Christians as they had thought but still Barbosa seemed to suspect some connection between them as he describes the Hindu Trimurti as the Trinity and shows that the Hindus wished to worship in the Portuguese churches.

In his information about Muslim marriages and divorce, he is inaccurate. He agrees with the anonymous Chronicle of Guzerate in his description of Sultan Mahmud. He describes the city of Andava, Ahmedabad which after the sack by Humayun in , recovered its dignity as capital of Guzerate. This story is confirmed by Barros. The sea fight off Diu in between Francisco de Almeida and Mir Hosain, Captain-in-Chief of the Egyptians and Guzeratis where the latter was defeated, is graphically depicted.

The trade of Diu and Surat with the India and African coastal towns is described. The account given by Barros of the raid in in Surat and Reiner Rander agrees with that of Barbosa. According to Barbosa, the women of Reiner were not in purdah. Barbosa says that the king of Cambay ordered Melique Gupi, who was a great friend of the Portuguese, to be killed on account of evil reports heard against him. Therein is contained the earliest known description of the hook-swinging ceremony and a very accurate account of Brahmin Sati, as well as that of the Lingayats, who had the burial instead of the burning of widows.

Besides geographical and historical details about Dely Delhi we find a good account of North Indian Jogis. He tells us about the kingdom of Malabar, the extent of Muslim influence and the language, religion and customs of its inhabitants. He describes the eighteen castes and the trades in the kingdom of Cannanor.

Cochim Cochin and the island of Ceilam Ceylon are treated of. He says that two languages were spoken there. In speaking of Mailapur, he refers to the legend of St. He gives a clear description of the kingdom of Bengal and its relations with the Portuguese. He speaks of its fertility, and refers to its trade in sugar, slaves and eunuchs. Duarte Barbosa did not mean his book to be a chronicle or history, as he himself says, but it is valu- able because he had first-hand knowledge of the places and events described. Some observations of Barbosa show that he under- stood well certain facts which were difficult of com- prehension.

Thus, he says that along the coast of Malabar only one language was spoken which was called Malayalam, and he knew that in other parts of the coast of Coromandel, they spoke a different language from this one, though resembling it, but differing from it as Portuguese differs from Castillian. This observation on the existence of Malayalam and its relations with Tamil is perfectly correct and denotes how much attention he paid to linguistic questions usually disparaged.

It is merely one example among many. Another author of note who left the world some interesting studies on India, is Caspar Correa, He made a second voyage to India and there amidst the complications of military duties and the cares of public service, he found time and means to write a most interesting and detailed history of India and its conquests, which embraced a period of fifty-three years, from the time of the discovery of the route to India by sea till the governorship of Jorge Cabral. He made long and exhaustive journeys to the different parts of the dominions about which he was writing, in order to gain first-hand information and to verify for himself the correctness of the facts, localities, and all that he considered indispensable for his work.

Though it was written in the rude style of a soldier who had not frequented a University, it bore the hall-mark of truth and impartiality. The main portion of the work describing the period from till , has all the advantages of contemporary history written by the pen of an intelligent writer. It is a gossipy account founded on a record compiled by a priest, named Joao Figueira, who accompanied Vasco da Gama.

The work is illustrated with paintings and photographs of the Viceroys taken from the pen and ink sketches made by Correa himself. In he occupied himself in re-writing and perfecting his work but death overtook him before he was able to give it the last few touches. These four volumes are: Lenda de treze annos, desde o primeiro descobrimento da India at6 o anno de Parte i, Lisboa, Story of thirteen years from the first dis- covery of India till the year , Part I, Lisbon, Lenda de dezesepte annos acabados no anno de , Parte i, i Story of 17 years ending the year Part I, , pages Containing the deeds of the years of In the opinion of A.

Diogo de Couto tells us that he was there almost ten years, or till about , the year in which he finished his Book VIII. During the time he was in India, he was making investigations both by examining all records and by making zealous enquiries from the captains and noblemen whom he met, in order to write a faithful account of the discoveries and conquests of the Portuguese in India.

He had little time left to polish his work and imitate the ancient classic models, for he became tired and ill with continued research and night work and the reading of many papers that he had brought from India. He died on the 23rd. The history was twice only given in complete form to the Press, the first time in , and the second time in The first book was printed twice, once in the lifetime of the author in and the second time in There is no doubt that Fernao Lopes wrote ten books and that the last two were ready for the press' in But in spite of these declarations, copies of the books IX and X are today not to be found.

It is quite possible that one day they may re-appear, just as the thirty-one chapters of Book IX have come to light now, being published by Father Wessels. It must therefore have happened in the Regency of Dom Sebastiao and took place after the death of Castanheda. At the end of the first book there are the following words: The elegance of his style is subordinate to the sincerity of his narrative.

Though Castanheda does not possess the majesty of the style or the erudition of Joao de Barros, he must be regarded as a greater author- ity as he had first-hand knowledge of what he wrote. Like other famous authors and poets of his time, he was a soldier as well as a writer, and was able to describe the battles and methods employed in war- fare with scientific accuracy of facts as well as with the gifted pen of a natural historian. More impartial than Barros, he points out the errors and even the crimes of his countrymen and disapproves of the wrongs done to India.

Joao de Barros, , was the first State chronicler to write about India.

Meditas Estas Coisas: Conselhos para uma Conversão Segura (Portuguese Edition)

His choice expressions and his pure style have made his writings classic ; he has justly been called the Portuguese Livy. Text in Portuguese, notes in Dutch, edited by Father C. Although he never went to India, he had special facilities for the study of India, for in he became Treasurer of the House of India, Mina and Ceuta, in Lisbon, where he served till In spite of the various official appointments which he received from time to time he never desisted from his literary work, his days being given up to his official duties and his nights to his books.

About , the King accepted his offer to write about India, but before the first Decada was published, he gave to the world some of his minor works. Asia by Joam de Barros. Of the deeds which the Portu- guese did in the discovery of the seas and lands of the Orient. The second Decada was published in , under the title of: The second Decada of Joam de Barros. Of the deeds which the Portuguese did in the discovery and conquest of the seas and lands of the Orient. The third Decada was published in It was known as: The third Decada of Joam de Barros.

There is a copy of this edition of the third Decada in the Bibliotheca Nacional of Lisbon. The fourth Decada was not published till Quarta Decada da Asia de Joam de Barros. Dedicada a el Rei D. Filippe II Nosso Senhor. Reformada, accres- centada e illustrada com notas e taboas geographicas por Joao Baptista Lavanha. The fourth Decada of Asia of Joam de Barros. Dedicated to the King D. Filippe II Our Lord. Revised, added to and illustrated with notes and geographical tables by Joao Baptista Lavanha.

Ultimately all four Decadas were reprinted in Lisbon in eight volumes in and The first Decada tells us how the Portuguese kingdom was formed, and how the Portuguese set out to make discoveries. The discovery of Africa was due mainly to the enterprise of the Infante Dom Henrique, who sent out expeditions for exploration. Dom Henrique continued making discoveries, while Dom Affonso took charge of the kingdom. During the reign of Dom Joao, and his son, Dom Affonso, Guinea, the Congo territory and the Cape of Good Hope were discovered, an expedition was fitted out to find the route to India, and missionaries were sent to the Congo.

About the same time Christopher Columbus discovered the New World. Here begins a description of the wars which were waged between the various Indian potentates and the Portuguese ; the different cities of the west coast of India, as well as the various kings and princes with whom the Portuguese came into contact through trade or conquest, are described.

José Estevão by Jaime de Magalhães Lima

The Decada closes in , with a picture of the kingdom of Sofala, its gold mines, its people, and the relations established between this kingdom and Portu- gal. The second Decada deals with the early history of the Portuguese in India under Portuguese Governors, the voyage of Tristao de Cunha and Affonso de Albu- querque on their way to India, and the wars which were carried on by Albuquerque and the Viceroy, Dom Francisco de Almeida.

The happenings in India, when the King of Cochin was at war with the Zamorin of Calicut, are dealt with ; and we are told how Burhan Nizam Shah gave per- mission for the erection of a Fortress at Chaul, and of the continuation of the troubles with Adil Shah and the Moors. This Decada ends with a description of the work of one of the Governors Dom Henrique in India, till his death in the fortress of Cannanore. The taking of the city of Diu in the time of the Govern- or Nuno de Cunha is described. There is a historical description of the Moghuls, the causes which brought them to India and their relations with Bahadur Shah, of the reasons which made Bahadur Shah give up Diu to the Portuguese and how he repented his action.

It is also shown how the King of Calicut, seeing that the Portuguese at this time were harassed on alt sides, took advantage of this and attacked the Portuguese but was defeated. It mentions the details of a conspiracy of the King of Cambay to retake Diu, and contains a description of the Kingdom of Bengal, the customs of its people and its history.

The Decada ends with the attempt made by Sulaiman, Emperor of the Turks, to overthrow the Portuguese in India, and tells us how his ships came to Diu, where Antonio de Silveira was in the fortress which was badly damaged and how the Portuguese suffered great loss, until the siege was raised and a treaty signed. At this time Dom Garcia de Noronha arrived in India, where he insulted Nuno de Cunha who left for Portu- gal, dying on the way in The general style and subject matter may be judged from the following selection which incidentally is alsa an admirable specimen of his method and manner as a historian: Joao de Nova, having been despatched from the coast of India with so many victories and the good luck which God had given him, proceeded on his way to Portugal ; and even during this journey another good fortune befell him beyond the Cape of Good Hope.

For God showed him a very small island to which he gave the name of St. Leaving that place, Joao de Nova arrived at the Kingdom of Portugal on the nth. E ainda para o mais contentar, mandou-lhe dizer que nao cuidasse que tinha feito pouco dano ao Samorim: Despedido Joao da Nova da costa da India com tantas vitorias e boas Venturas que Ihe Deus deu, fez sua viagem caminho deste Eeino ; e ainda neste caminho, passado o Cabo de Boa Esperanga, teve outra boa fortuna: A qual ilha parece que a criou Deus naquele lugar para dar vida a quantos homens veem da India ; porque, depois que foi achada ate hoje, todos trabalham de a tomar, por terem a melhor aguada de toda esta carreira — ao menos a mais necessaria que se toma, quando veem da India.

E tanto, que as naus que ali veem ter se hao por salvas e navegadas pela necessidade que elas trazem, pelo muito refresco que nela acham, como diante veremos, dando razao de quern foi causa disso. For this reason, if for no other, they deserve to be registered with affection in the memory of all Portuguese. But the Asia of Barros is, apart from the purity and elegance of its lan- guage, an excellent repository of ethnographical information about India.

The deeds of the Portuguese had on the other hand, a true singer and apologist in Joao de Barros.

Jornal Kolping em Família nº 31 | PDF to Flipbook

He might even be accused of having erred on the side of partiality, but as Sismondi wrote: S6 por isso mereciam elas ser registadas com amorna memdria de todos os portugueses. Mas a Asia de Barros d, aparte a pureza e lougania da linguagem, um repositorio excelente de noticias etnograficas da India.

Os feitos dos portugueses tiveram, por outro lado, em Joao de Barros um verdadeiro cantor e apologista. He showed, long before Adam Smith, some familiarity with the subject and ex- pressed new ideas about the future of Asiatic commerce. Many times they drink from the original sources, other times they have recourse to interpreters. They have a thirst for knowledge which is all the more admirable, when we realise how few were the materials on whicli they could lay their hands.

THE CLASSIC EPOCH 85 purpose; for having to treat of three things — the deeds of the Portuguese, information about the kings and nations of the Orient, and the true geographical situa- tion of their provinces, — all the papers which dealt with Portuguese history, were given over to him, those of the Royal Armies as well as the accounts and letters of the Viceroys which were comprehensive, as they dealt with everything which belonged to their rule.

He has given us graphic descriptions of personages like Ibrahim Adil Shah and his minister, Asad Khan, and he speaks of the relations of the Portu- guese with other States in India. Regarding informa- tion about the kings of the Orient and their peoples, he obtained documents to verify all his statements.

He was not content with letters only, but sent for the chronicles of those kingdoms written in their respective languages, as we see in the First Decada, Book IX, Chapter III, in which he relates information about the Malabaris taken from one of their religious books and from their history. He had also with him the chronicles of the Kings of Gujerat, Vijianagar and the Deccan. Coutinho was an eye-witness of the siege in Further on he says: A manuscript of the 18th. The part which goes- up to page 80, seems to be by Fernao Nunes, and that from page 80 to page , by Domingo Paes.

The first must have been written about Both the Chronicles, of which the originals exist in the National Library of Paris, were sent from Goa prcbably to the celebrated historian, Barros. He lived till the 20th. October, , and was interred in the Hermitage of St. Diogo do Couto continued the account so ably begun by Joao de Barros. Born in Lisbon in , he received a good classical educa- tion ; but owing to the death of the Infante D.

Quebrantamento: Espírito de Humilhação (Portuguese Edition)

Luiz in whose service his father was, and the subsequent death of his father, Couto was constrained to give up his university course and take up arms, like most of the noblemen of that time, for which purpose he went to India at the age of fourteen. There he acquired the personal experiences which Joao de Barros did not have. He discharged his military duties so well that he was recalled to Portugal some ten years later to receive the reward for his services. He then left the Army and returned to Goa where, as a peaceful civilian, he continued his classical studies which had been interrupted in his youth by his military service.

Couto was the personal friend of Camoes who con - suited him very often and took his advice with regard to several places in his poem. He once accompanied Camoes on his return to Lisbon in And there were not lacking those who gave him food. And 1 could never hear of it in Portugal, in spite of my many enquiries, and it was a notable theft ; and in Portugal this excellent poet died in abject poverty.

After the coronation of the King D. February, , he founded the Archives in Goa, and he was nominated the first Keeper which gave him facilities for writing and becoming acquainted with original documents and original sources. He was indefatigable in his research and Manoel Severim de Faria says of him: Being the Deeds that the Portuguese did in the Conquest and Discovery of the Lands and Seas of the Orient , consists of nine Decadas and ninety books — a number which few Por- tuguese chroniclers have ever reached.

The Tenth Decada was written first in order that the work should begin with the day when the King was crowned. These precious volumes were stolen from him by some one who, know- ing their value, wished to reap the benefit of them after his death. According to Innocencio da Silva, these Decadas were stolen before this date. God our Lord permitted me to be led in sucli a way that I again began to compile these two Decadas after the manner of an epilogue in which I have a resume of the most notable and substantial events which happened, and thus I repaired the loss caused by the theft which they made me, as best I could.

And when in some future time, these books will appear, infmediately they will be recognised thus by my style as well as by the subject matter. Dos feitos que os Portuguezes ftzeram na conquista e descobrimento das terras e mares do Oriente, quando governaram a India, Lopo Vaz de Sampaio e parte de Nuno da Cunha. Decada IV of Asia. Of the deeds accomplished by the Portuguese in the conquest and discovery of the lands and seas of the Orient, during the governorship of Lopo Vaz dc Sampaio and part of the rule of Nuno da Cunha.

By Pedro Craesbeck, fol. The first Governor, Lopo Vaz de Sampaio, , occupied himself with the various States lying adjacent to the Portuguese territory in India, viz. Cambay, Cochin and Cannanore. He also laid the foundation for the kingdom of Malacca and had several The next Governor, Nuno da Cunha, , followed the programme laid down by his predecessor: Decada V is called: Dos feitos que os Portuguezes iizeratn na conquista e descobrimento das terras e mares do Oriente em quanto governaram a India Nuno da Cunha, D.

Garcia de Norenha, D. Estevam da Gama, e Martira Afonso de Sousa. Decada V of Asia. Of the deeds accomplished by the Portuguese in the conquest and discovery of the lands and seas of the Orient, while Nuno da Cunha, D. Garcia de Noronha, D. In Decada V, Part I, thare is a curious bit of information about the voyage which a pilot, Dioga Botelho, made to Portugal in a small ship, causing wonder and admiration amongst the most daring mari- ners of his time.

The second part of this Decada is a treatise on the principal religious systems of India, written with such detail, clearness and precision that no writer on India of our time, would disdain to acknowledge the work as his own 1. He tells us about ihc books which the theologians used to teach in their schools. He wrote this description being in the place itself and in close contact with Hindu theolo- gians. Depois de comermos, tornavamos os pratos a seu lugar, que eles vinham arrecadar e traziam vasos cheios de agua, que deitavam por cima primeiro que os tocassem ; e depois que nos iamos faziam grandes purifica9oes, lavando- se com muitas cerimonias e embostando as varandas, como se foramos feridos de algum mal contagioso.

And after when we would go away, they would make great purifications, washing themselves with great ceremonies and plastering the verandahs with cow- dung as though we were suffering from some contagious disease. And they are so fixed in this, that many of them have arrived at the extremity of life, near death , only on account of not touching the food or anything belonging to another person, through the fear of losing caste and be- coming polluted.

There is no translation of this book into Portu- guese, but the Reverend G. Pope, forty years ago, made a translation of it into English, and, since then, another and better translation has been made by V. It recognises Diogo de Couto as the first historian to identify the legend. Confirmed afterwards in July by M.

Laboulayet in by Dr. Liebricht and in by Prof. Josaphat, para o recolher e crear nela, como diz a sua lenda. E como nos lemos dela, que fora lilho de um grande Rey da India, bem pode ser, como ja dissemos que fosse este o Budao, de que elles cantam tantas mara- vilhas. To this name have the Gentios dedicated large and imposing pagodas all over India.

Hearing the story we wondered if the ancient quafirs had in any part of their scriptures shown a knowledge of St. Josaphat who was converted by Barlaam, which in the legend we have, is said to be the son of a great King of India, and which story had the same origin as all the rest which we have retailed of the life of this Buddha.

And as the story must have been written by the natives who left nothing unwritten , it seems that in times back many fables came to be added, as they have done in the life of Buddha, which we rejected because our story does not end in the way theirs does. Josaphat, it seemed good to us to translate it.

Asking the old man, of whom we spoke, by whom did he think this work was done, he told us that without doubt it was done at the order of the father of St. Josaphat in order to shelter him, as the legend says. And up we have in our story that he was the son of a great King of India, it can well be, as we already said, that this was the Buddha of whom they recount so many marvellous tales. Dos feitos que os Portuguezes iizeram na conquista e descobrimento das terras e mares do Oriente, em quanto governaram a India D. Of the deeds accomplished by the Portuguese in the conquest and discovery of the lands and seas of the Orient, while D.

Affonso de Noronha governed India. Printed by Pedro Craesbeck, It deals with the work of three Governors of Goa.. During the first half of the 16 th. During his rule, Diu was taken by the Portuguese. He was succeeded by Jorge Cabral , as Governor, who carried on incessant wars with the different Indian Rulers. This Decada also tells of the advent in and the preaching of St. Francis Xavier and later about 1 Lendas de Barlaam e Josaphat.

Dos feitos que os Portuguezcs fizeram na conquista e descobrimento das terras e mares do Oriente, em quanto governaram a India D, Pedro Mas- carenhas, Francisco Barreto, D. Constantino de Braganga, o Conde de Redondo, D. Francisco Coutinho, e Jo2io Men- don9a. Francisco Cotfinho and Joao de Mendonga governed India. Printed by Pedro Craesbeck, i6i6. It describes the relations between Portugal and Abyssinia, Ethiopia and India, and the influence of Christianity on these territories. The cathedral of St.

Catherine of Goa was made a seat of an Archbishop and the churches of St. But from all these encounters the Portuguese returned successful, and their fleet was ever busy with the Turks. Dos feitos que os Portuguezcs fizeram na conquista e descobrimento das terras e mares dc Orientc, em quanto governaram a India D.

AntSode Noronhj e D. AntSo de Noronha and D. Luiz de Ataide governed India. This Decada, printed in , treats, among other things, of the league of the Mohammadan Princes of the Deccan against the kingdom of Vijayanagar , and also the doings of the Portuguese in connection with Ceylon, Pegu and Cochin in the war of Cannanore during the Viceroyalty of Dom Antao de Noronha, Dos feitos que os Portuguezes fize- ram na conquista e descobrimento das terras e mares do Ori- ente, emquanto a India governaram D.

Francisco de Mascarenhas e D. Of the deeds accomplished by the Portuguese in the conquest and discovery of the lands and seas of the Orient, while Fernao Telles, D. Francisco de Mascarenhas and D. Duarte de Menezes governed India. This period is most interesting for it gives copious accounts of the relations between the Turks and the Persians.

At the beginning of this period there were troubles with Daman, Diu and Malacca, and towards the end we see the growing power of the Rajah of Ceylon who became the enemy of the Portuguese and made alliances with the neighbouring powers. The Viceroys of this period all recognized Philip as King and made the people of the countries, over which they ruled, take an oath of allegiance to him. Decada XI ; Dos feitos que os Portu- guezes fizeram na conquista e descobrimento das terras e mares do Oriente, emquanto governaram Manuel de Sousa Coutinho e Mathias de Albuquerque.

Of the deeds accomplished by the Portuguese in the conquest and discovery of the lands and seas of the Orient, while Manuel de Sousa and Mathias de Albuquerque governed India, During the period embraced by Decada XI, the Portuguese under Manuel de Sousa Coutinho were contending with the Mussalman powers of the Deccan. They were busy exploring the coasts of Africa ; at the same time war was carried on against the Sinhalese and the King of Melindc and in India the Zamorin and the Malabaris had to be held in check. Dos feitos quc os Portu- gaezes fizeram na conquista e descobrimento das terras e mares do Oriente.

Of the deeds accomplished by the Portuguese in the conquest and discovery of the lands and seas of the Orient. Decada XII deals with the period between and Diogo de Couto was unable to complete his work as death intervened. This Decada describes the political condition of the Gangetic basin, as well as the relations of the Portuguese with Pegu, China and even Japan.

The Portuguese were still having trouble with Ceylon and the many battles fought are described. The style which Diogo de Couto maintained throughout his Decadas, is very clear and plain but sententious, as of one who judges the actions of each person and shows the causes of the adverse or prosperous events which the Portuguese experienced in those parts. Escriptas em forma de dialogo, com o titulo de Soldado Pratico. Moved by his zeal for the public good, he wrote this book, in which he treated of the abuses and evils, which, during his time, were introduced into the Government of India.

Diogo de Couto died in Goa at the age of seventy- four on the loth December, Among the numerous writers who have chronicled the fascinating story of the discovery of this land of romance by the hero of Portugal, Alvaro Veiho. It was published for the first time by Diogo Kopke and Doctor Antonio de Costa Paiva, Oporto, — three hundred and forty years after the work was written. It has a picture of Vasco da Gama, a letter about the voyage and a facsimile of the manuscript from which the edition was printed. It is preceded by an erudite Introduction by the editors in which they give their arguments why Alvaro Velho is to be considered the author of this work.

In this book, just as any modern traveller would do, he gives us most interesting information about the drugs and the trading commodities of the Orient, and the book is a vocabulary of the language of Calicut. He was educated in the palace of King Dom Afonso V. He took part in many successful engage- ments, both in Europe and in Africa, which was the auspicious prelude to his victories in Asia, where he went on the 5th.

Twice he was victorious in Goa, the second conquest weakening the power of the proud Adil Shah of Bijapur so much that for a long time he lamented the loss of the place which was destined to become the capital of the Portuguese Empire in India. Albuquerque died on the i6th. During his government he wrote many letters which reveal a most complete comprehension of the political state of India.

Among these, the most interesting are the following: Two answers which he sent to two letters from Cogeatar. An answer to a letter from Lourengo de Brito, Captain of Cannanore. Letter written to Sheik Ismael.

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Instruction given to Ruy Gomes for Sheikh Ismael. Letter to the King of Ormuz. Letter to Sheikh Ismael. Informs him that he has done all honour to his Ambassador. He sends him Fernao Gomes de Lemos to give him information which he desires with respect to the Portuguese. Gives him an account of the taking of Ormuz, where he hopes to return. He explains to him the advantage of an alliance against the Sultan about which it would be convenient to send messengers to the King of Portugal. Letter to the King. Intimates his intention to take Goa; shows the advantage which will result from this deed for the holding of India secure.

Letter to the King: He says he sent the letter about taking Goa the same evening: He gives an account of the message which he sent to the King of Vijayanagar, of the securities given to the incon- sequent heathen officials who remained in the city and of those concessions to the Portuguese who had married captive Arabs. Gives an account of having found in ruin the fleet which he left in India when he went ta Malacca ; of the malpractices of the Vicar of Goa who was going back to Portugal; about other disorders in Goa; he dwells on the necessity of holding India fast.

Letter to the King in which he tells how he set free the Ambassador of Prester John from Chaul where he was captive ; and of the reception of the same Ambassador in Goa. Message to Sabaio, etc. Letter to the King states that already dying, he has accomplished his mission leaving India secure. He asks for favour for his son. In this last letter, Albuquerque says: I feel already the agony and hiccough of death.

Senhor, I leave a son to continue my memory. To him I leave all my possessions which are few ; but I leave him the duty of continu- ing to serve my own and his King as I did, which is much. Things pertaining to India will themselves speak for him and for me. I leave India with its principal States taken, and in your power without having anything else to worry about except guarding them and closing very well the gate of the Strait. It was this that Your Majesty gave me to do.

I, Senhor, always counselled you and still to-day I do the same that you secure your hold on India in order that you may realise from it the revenues and take from it its expenses. I ask Your Majesty that, by your kindness, you will remember, all this and that you will make my son great and that you will show him all your satisfaction with my work. I put his future in the hands of Your Majesty and of Her Majesty. To you I look that you will make my deeds appear great since I die while in your service, and for the pension, to which I am entitled and which Your Majesty knows I gained for the most part, I ask that it may be given to my son and he will for me kiss Your Royal hands.

At Sea, December 6th. This letter defines the proud, noble, warlike and affectionate character of the great Portuguese hero who was called Afonso de Albuquerque. Dom Afonso known as Bras de de Albuquerque, , better Albuquerque, the natural son of the great Afonso de Albuquerque, was born in a villa on the margin of the river Tagus. The first edition of his great work was published in 1 , with the title: Dom Afonso de Albuquerque.

The letters are divided into four parts according to the time of his work. The Commentaries are dedicated to Dom Sebastiao. Two reasons the author gives for printing the work ; to remind the King of the obligation to the des- cendants of the man who gave important service to his great grandfather, and the slight attention paid by the historians of India to the work of his good father. The fourth edition was prefaced and revised by Antonio Baiao, the learned Director of the Torre do Tombo.

The attentive reader of the Commentaries could clear up many points of history, for, besides coming to know the life of Albuquerque, he would find important elements for the history of Bijapur, Vijianagar, Calicut, Cochim. Goa on the 5th, of June Autographo Publicado por Diogo Kopke, Porto According to autographed manuscripts published by Diogo Kopke, Porto, It has pages, and a preface which is explanatory and descriptive of the subject treated, an index and a facsimile of Joao de Castro.

Lasitan, Histoire des decouverts et conquStes des Portuguais. To this log-book, Dom Joao de Castro added some notes relating to the second voyage which he made to India in the year Joaquim Heliodoro da Cunha Rivara wrote about them in Nos. Luiz ; Having often thought how I could serve you in the art of Cosmography in which I am at present occupied, and convinced that by means of our instruments we could not find anything which would be new for your Highness and knowing the weakness of the arguments set up against the unfortunate pilots and sailors, I resolved to undertake a new voyage by sea and from it to gather notes from which the less experienced sailors could derive some benefit.

All know that in navigation matters, the principal points are these: In summer, the greatest tide rises to 24 hands and the least to 22 , being however different in the other seasons. December , is in the Biblioteca of Ajuda. It gives an account of the work going on in the State of India, particularly about the rebuilding of the fortress of Diu. This last work has been highly praised.

Born in India probably at the beginning of the i6th. He was respected and liked so much by the people that he was actually offered the throne of Ternat, a small island belonging to the archipelago of the Moluccas. He went back to Portugal and tried to find some employment there.

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During the following seventeen years, he depended on the charity of his friends, during which time he was occupied in writing his work which is now published entitled: A dissertation which the noble and notable Captain Antonio Galvao wrote about the different and various ways by which in past times the pepper and spices came from India to our parts and also of all the discoveries, ancient and modern, which were made in the era of , with the particular names of the persons who made them in those times and at those stages, i Galvao died in a hospital in Lisbon on the nth.

December, , this curious work which is a valuable contribution to the literature of the sixteenth century, and copies of which the writer found in the Bibliotheca Nacional of Lisbon. Trancoso, has left US: Impresso por Pedro Craesbeck em Lisboa. Anno de Senhor Printed fey Pedro Craesbeck, Lisbon, It is one of the best Portuguese classics.

There is a fine copy of the edition in the Bibliotheca Nacional, Lisbon. The work consists of ten books and nine hundred and eight pages. It deals with the places and peoples with whom Francisco Xavier came in contact during his mission in the East. His description of the India of his time and the people, is most interesting. Da mesma maneira tern currais deputados pera. In another part, he says: Das cousas do ceo, e eternas ha entre dies muy pouca, ou nenhua noticia, nas temporals, e da terra sam espertos, e tarn entendidos, que nam dam ventagem nas futi- lezas dos tratos, e contratos aos mercadores de Europa.

About things pertaining to Heaven and eternal things, they have among them little or no accounts ; in the temporal and earthly matters, they are clever and so well-versed, that the merchants of Europe do not get the advantage over them through the cunning of their deals and contracts. The book also contains many references to D. Archives of the Torre do Tombo. Lisboa Occidental, na ofBcina Joaquiniana da Musica. Lisbon Occidental, in the Office of Joaquiniana da Musica. It was printed in Lisbon in and again in This second impression is rare, for to-day there is only one copy of it in the National Library of Lisbon.

The work consists of two books of sixteen pages each. The style and subject matter may be judged by the following extracts: Nao ficou muitos dias na praya por vingar o sangue de D. Fernando, e de sens companheiros porque Antonio Cabral andava ao mesmo tempo no rio de Chapora, com quatro sustas darmada tolhia os mantimentos, que da terra firme acodiao ao campo dos Mouros, e a entrada delles em Bardez: He inter- cepted the supplies going from the land to help the Moorish camp, and their entrance into Bardez ; he was warned that there were cargo ships in front up the river and that they were making narrow boats, sloops and other ships for which Adil Shah waited, to march to Goa ; he determined to take the land in this part and advancing from it with 50 soldiers set fire to the villages and ships and put to the sword all the people who defended themselves, with such wild destruction that on the whole of this coast nothing remained but the trail of his victory.

He sent to be- placed behind the city 32 pieces of artillery and bombarded around on all sides without ceasing the torment day or night. Chaul was moved by a fury so wild that no other defence remained to the warriors except the mounds of earth of those parapets against some shots which by the efforts of the Moors also had fallen in direct line. The date of his Antonio Tenrreyro. This journey gave him the opportunity of becoming acquainted with the countries through which he passed, and as he made himself proficient in Turkish and Persian, another more difficult task was given to him by the Captain of Ormuz.

After a long and adventurous journey, he arrived safely in Portugal in May King Joao III received him with great demonstration of joy and affection, praising the valour which he had shown in braving such a perilous journey. He wrote a description of it entitled: The dates of his birth and death are not known, but it is calculated that he died somewhere about We know, however, that in he embarked for India with the fleet, the Admiral of which was Martim Aflonso de Sousa. He wrote a book which was printed in Goa in , with the title of: It was at once translated into the principal European languages and a translation of it exists even in English.

In the journey that he made to meet Nizam Shah and while travelling in his company, he had the opportunity of visiting the principal cities of his state. He tells us that he visited Ahmednagar, Dau- latabad and Chakan, At the Court he was able to observe closely the habits and the daily life of the Asiatics and had occasion to meet and have discussions with the Doctors of Persia, Arabia and of India itself.

It was there, as he tells us clearly, that he learned the nature of certain drugs and their names in the various languages then spoken in India. Garcia da Orta was a true man of science, an ante- cedent of the old Geoffroy, of the zealous Guibourt, of the humble Dr. Pereira, of the investigator Daniel Hanbury, and of the learned Dr. All this is simple, rational, well-observed, expounded with clearness sufficient to establish on a secure base the medical reputation of our compatriot.

Fluckiger wrote in a study on Indian Drugs: In four parts and four volumes, Coimbra, The author relates facts in a truthful manner. India, e dos mais Fidalgos daquella familia, que militarao na India. He was a highly cul- tured man, erudite and artistic,, having travelled much in Europe. In , he was- nominated Treasurer of the House of India, but he did not accept the place. Joao de Barros was assigned the duty of writing the; Chronicles of Dorn Manuel but he could not for certain reasons do so, and therefore Damiao de Goes was given the task.

Viceroy, governed Portuguese India till His book was called: The Chronicle was printed for the first time in The first part of the Chronicle of Dom Manuel contains a narrative of the great events of the Portuguese of the fifteenth century, and of the first years of the sixteenth. In it the deeds in Africa and the wonderful Asiatic voyages are spoken of. The second part speaks of the work of Dom Francisco dc Almeida in India. In the third part, we read about Diogo de Lopes de Sequeira and Afonso de Albuquerque in Goa, and about the execution of the vast political and economic plan of Albuquerque.

In the fourth part is described the episode of the fight of the elephants with rhinoceroses, animals which had been sent them from India. Damiao de Goes says: He says that Timoja informed Albuquerque who immediately destroyed the fleet and took Goa. The tolerance of Adil Shah, a Shiah, towards Hindus, who in Goa occupied high positions, is mentioned. The book of Damiao de Goes also throws light on the civil administration of the first Adil Shah.

Thus in Chapter III, he tells us that every person who entered Goa was registered as an immigrant with all the marks of one. For this they had officials in Panjim, Agacim, Benestarim, Gondalim, and Duagasim, which are only a short distance from where one enters the island. Mannel, Third part, Chap. Lopo de Sousa Coutinho was born between and He was eighteen years old when he went to India leaving for that place in or He distinguished himself greatly by his bravery in in , and published his book Lopo de Coutinho.

In proof of his being a man of great knowledge and austere truthfulness, it is enough to say that Joao de Barros accepted and made use of what he wrote. He wrote a letter to commemorate the heroic deed of Duarte Pacheco Pereira, which he performed against the King of Calicut, defeating his formidable fleets which were sent against the State.

We searched in Lisbon in all the libraries for a trace of this treatise of which Barros speaks and which is mentioned in the Bibliotheca Lusitana of Barbosa. He became a member of the Mission in India, and was so enthusiastic in making converts in the Kingdom of Cambay and the island of Solor, that he became Prior of the Convent of Goa, and the Vicar- General of the Congregation of India, which place he held with exemplary dignity and prudence.

He died in September , being 70 years of age.

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Belchior de Moraes was a native of Tavira in the kingdom of Algarve. He was most experienced in nautical affairs owing to the number Belchior de Moraes. In order to facilitate the work of pilots, he wrote: Fabiam da Motta was born in Bombarral near Lisbon. He was a noble by birth being the son of the poet Henrique de Motta who Pabiam da Motta. During his long stay of twenty years in India, holding the office of the Commissioner of Customs in Goa and filling various military posts where he gained immortal glory, he wrote: Diogo Botelho Pereira was born in India.

Almeida was Governor, i As a boy he showed great ability especially for Science, and applied himself with great diligence to Mathematics, Geography, and the- study of all nautical things in which he became expert. For some time he was a distinguished soldier in India,, and, wishing the reward for his service, went to Portugal, where the King, Dom Joto III, made him a. As soon as Diogo Botelho Pereira arrived in India, he tried to find some way of proving his fidelity, as her had been falsely accused in the eyes of the Sovereign.

No words can describe the dangers to which he was exposed on the journey, which, besides being so prolonged, threatened to have a tragic end, owing to the vessel being so small. It was many times covered by waves and very nearly overturned. Ultimately he was deserted by his companions who, tormented with hunger and thirst, resolved to kill him and, in the tumult which followed, he received a wound on his head.

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