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Games and scenarios involving trying to remember things when there is fear involved, how sound effects and music can make a scene look scary. Silva plays a Russian-roulette type of game where he experiences the powers of dread. Trying to remember objects in a haunted house. Volunteers go into a dark room and encounter creepy things.

How marketers and advertisers manipulate your brain to persuade you. Games and scenarios involving priming , a demonstration involving smashing crates, a guy impersonates a reporter, a game where the viewer chooses the winners of an election based solely on their headshots, and an interview scenario about first impressions. Topics on how the brain tricks you into thinking you know more than you do. Silva asks a class to try to figure out how a zipper works, and to draw a bicycle, later showing what those designs would actually look like.

A series of questions where the viewer is asked to give a range for their answer and how confident they would be in it. How the brain discards information when focusing on a certain task or assumes words were there when they were not. Men and women compete in a series of tasks to see whether their gender makes a difference.

Games involving color swatches, putting together pieces to make a shape, following directions on a list, matching faces of people, and packing a trunk. Illusions highlight how your visual perceptions can be surprisingly off. Scenarios and games involving perspective such as the cube of fire, a distorted chair, the Ames room , and a dining table. Basketball players put on goggles that distort their perspective. Puzzles involving the spinning ballerina , Einstein's mask, and how resizing a picture can make it look like two different people.

Using anamorphic art to place a cube in a room. The subject of decisions. A demonstration of the paradox of choice in choosing ice cream.

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A game where the person chooses one of two people, but ends up talking about the other. Trick questions that can be answered if the person slows down to think about it. A marketing trick where placing an intermediate item in a comparison can trick the person into favoring a certain choice. An experiment where folks end up finding differences among identical items. The brain can be exercised like muscle.

Games and puzzles such as connecting nine dots with three lines, using thinking like a child to come up with creative ideas, another sleight-of-hand trick with Robbins, trick questions, using mnemonics to remember people's names, and solving a puzzle using ordinary items in a way they were not originally designed. Optical illusions highlight how powerful our minds can really be. Learn how to determine if someone is lying.

How can things as simple as color fool you? It shows how attractions come down to basic math. It shows how can you find out who to trust. The mental differences between kids, teens, and adults. Explains how much stress you can handle before you "collapse" under pressure. How things aren't like you think they are. Explains how to make your brain healthier. Who wins in your life, your body or your brain? How does competition affect your brain? Everyone likes to think they're unique, but like it or not, much of your behavior is influenced by copying other people. We're going to mess with your mind as we put you through a series of games and experiments designed to show you why a yawn is so contagious, how imitation leads to flattery and how to discover whether your brain is a born leader ' or a born follower.

Discover if you're compassionate or psychopathic in a series of games and experiments. Discover how addiction affects your brain, and whether addictions are necessary.

The Coriolis Effect - Geography for Kids

Discover how your brain handles language, and why words mean what they do. Are you risk-taking or cautious? Put your betting skills to the test. Discover how your brain is designed to believe in various superstitions. Find out that restaurants trick you, and how the looks of food can turn you away. Find out what happens in your brain that causes you to get angry.

The Coriolis Effect

Find out how many patterns are in the world, and the pros and cons of patterns. What happens when you make "on-the-fly" decisions in life? That's the key of intuition. Do you think half-full or half-empty? He saw navy as a basis of Colombian era empire roughly from to the 19th century , and predicted the 20th century to be domain of land power.

The Heartland theory hypothesized a huge empire being brought into existence in the Heartland—which wouldn't need to use coastal or transoceanic transport to remain coherent. The basic notions of Mackinder's doctrine involve considering the geography of the Earth as being divided into two sections: Not only was the Periphery noticeably smaller than the World Island, it necessarily required much sea transport to function at the technological level of the World Island—which contained sufficient natural resources for a developed economy.

Mackinder posited that the industrial centers of the Periphery were necessarily located in widely separated locations. The World Island could send its navy to destroy each one of them in turn, and could locate its own industries in a region further inland than the Periphery so they would have a longer struggle reaching them, and would face a well-stocked industrial bastion. Mackinder called this region the Heartland.

It essentially comprised Central and Eastern Europe: Ukraine , Western Russia , and Mitteleuropa. Mackinder's notion of geopolitics was summed up when he said:. Who rules Central and Eastern Europe commands the Heartland. Who rules the Heartland commands the World-Island. Who rules the World-Island commands the World.

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Spykman is both a follower and critic of geostrategists Alfred Mahan , and Halford Mackinder. His work is based on assumptions similar to Mackinder's, [21] including the unity of world politics and the world sea. He extends this to include the unity of the air.

Spykman adopts Mackinder's divisions of the world, renaming some:. Under Spykman's theory, a Rimland separates the Heartland from ports that are usable throughout the year that is, not frozen up during winter. Spykman suggested this required that attempts by Heartland nations particularly Russia to conquer ports in the Rimland must be prevented.

Spykman modified Mackinder's formula on the relationship between the Heartland and the Rimland or the inner crescent , claiming that "Who controls the rimland rules Eurasia. Who rules Eurasia controls the destinies of the world. Another famous follower of Mackinder was Karl Haushofer who called Mackinder's Geographical Pivot of History a "genius' scientific tractate. Following Mackinder he suggested an alliance with the Soviet Union and, advancing a step beyond Mackinder, added Japan to his design of the Eurasian Bloc. Both continued their influence on geopolitics after the end of the Cold War, [28] writing books on the subject in the s— Diplomacy Kissinger and The Grand Chessboard: American Primacy and Its Geostrategic Imperatives.

Kissinger argued against the approach that with the dissolution of the USSR hostile intentions had disappeared and traditional foreign policy considerations no longer applied. After Russia, the second geopolitical threat remained Germany and, as Mackinder had feared ninety years ago, its partnership with Russia. During the Cold War, Kissinger argues, both sides of the Atlantic recognized that, "unless America is organically involved in Europe, it would be obliged to involve itself later under circumstances far less favorable to both sides of the Atlantic.

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That is even more true today. Germany has become so strong that existing European institutions cannot by themselves strike a balance between Germany and its European partners. Nor can Europe, even with Germany, manage by itself […] Russia. They would raise fears of condominium. Spykman's vision of Eurasia was strongly confirmed: The domination by a single power of either of Eurasia's two principal spheres—Europe and Asia—remains a good definition of strategic danger for America. Cold War or no Cold War. For such a grouping would have the capacity to outstrip America economically and, in the end, militarily.

That danger would have to be resisted even were the dominant power apparently benevolent, for if the intentions ever changed, America would find itself with a grossly diminished capacity for effective resistance and a growing inability to shape events.

Having converted from ideologist into geopolitician, Kissinger in retrospect interpreted the Cold War in geopolitical terms—an approach not characteristic for his works during the Cold War. Now, however, he stressed on the beginning of the Cold War: Living with China, Europe, and Russia.

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In classical Spykman terms, Brzezinski formulized his geostrategic "chessboard" doctrine of Eurasia, which aims to prevent the unification of this megacontinent. It follows that… American foreign policy must…employ its influence in Eurasia in a manner that creates a stable continental equilibrium, with the United States as the political arbiter.

But in the meantime it is imperative that no Eurasian challenger emerges, capable of dominating Eurasia and thus also of challenging America… For America the chief geopolitical prize is Eurasia…and America's global primacy is directly dependent on how long and how effectively its preponderance on the Eurasian continent is sustained. German Geopolitik is characterized by the belief that life of States—being similar to those of human beings and animals—is shaped by scientific determinism and social Darwinism. German geopolitics develops the concept of Lebensraum living space that is thought to be necessary to the development of a nation like a favorable natural environment would be for animals.

Friedrich Ratzel — , influenced by thinkers such as Darwin and zoologist Ernst Heinrich Haeckel , contributed to 'Geopolitik' by the expansion on the biological conception of geography, without a static conception of borders. Positing that states are organic and growing, with borders representing only a temporary stop in their movement, he held that the expanse of a state's borders is a reflection of the health of the nation—meaning that static countries are in decline.

Ratzel published several papers, among which was the essay "Lebensraum" concerning biogeography. Ratzel created a foundation for the German variant of geopolitics, geopolitik. Influenced by the American geostrategist Alfred Thayer Mahan , Ratzel wrote of aspirations for German naval reach, agreeing that sea power was self-sustaining, as the profit from trade would pay for the merchant marine, unlike land power.

The geopolitical theory of Ratzel has been criticized as being too sweeping, and his interpretation of human history and geography being too simple and mechanistic. Critically, he also underestimated the importance of social organization in the development of power. The key concepts of Haushofer's Geopolitik were Lebensraum, autarky , pan-regions , and organic borders. States have, Haushofer argued, an undeniable right to seek natural borders which would guarantee autarky. Haushofer's influence within the Nazi Party has recently been challenged, [41] given that Haushofer failed to incorporate the Nazis' racial ideology into his work.

Popular views of the role of geopolitics in the Nazi Third Reich suggest a fundamental significance on the part of the geo-politicians in the ideological orientation of the Nazi state. Bassin reveals that these popular views are in important ways misleading and incorrect. Despite the numerous similarities and affinities between the two doctrines, geopolitics was always held suspect by the National Socialist ideologists. This was understandable, for the underlying philosophical orientation of geopolitics did not comply with that of National Socialism. Geopolitics shared Ratzel's scientific materialism and geographic determinism , and held that human society was determined by external influences—in the face of which qualities held innately by individuals or groups were of reduced or no significance.

National Socialism rejected in principle both materialism and determinism and also elevated innate human qualities, in the form of a hypothesized 'racial character,' to the factor of greatest significance in the constitution of human society. These differences led after to friction and ultimately to open denunciation of geopolitics by Nazi ideologues.

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The resultant negative association, particularly in U. This has been observed in particular by critics of contemporary academic geography, and proponents of a "neo"-classical geopolitics in particular. These include Haverluk et al. Negative associations with the term "geopolitics" and its practical application stemming from its association with World War II and pre-World War II German scholars and students of Geopolitics are largely specific to the field of academic Geography , and especially sub-disciplines of Human Geography such as Political Geography.

However, this negative association is not as strong in disciplines such as History or Political Science , which make use of geopolitical concepts. Classical Geopolitics forms an important element of analysis for Military History as well as for subdisciplines of Political Science such as International Relations and Security Studies. This difference in disciplinary perspectives is addressed by Bert Chapman in Geopolitics: A Guide To the Issues , in which Chapman makes note that academic and professional International Relations journals are more amenable to the study and analysis of Geopolitics, and in particular Classical Geopolitics, than contemporary academic journals in the field of Political Geography.

In disciplines outside Geography , Geopolitics is not negatively viewed as it often is among academic geographers such as Carolyn Gallaher or Klaus Dodds as a tool of Imperialism or associated with Nazism , but rather viewed as a valid and consistent manner of assessing major international geopolitical circumstances and events, not necessarily related to armed conflict or military operations. French geopolitical doctrines broadly opposed to German Geopolitik and reject the idea of a fixed geography. French geography is focused on the evolution of polymorphic territories being the result of mankind's actions.

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It also relies on the consideration of long time periods through a refusal to take specific events into account. This method has been theorized by Professor Lacoste according to three principles: Representation ; Diachronie ; and Diatopie. In The Spirit of the Laws , Montesquieu outlined the view that man and societies are influenced by climate.