- Photographie/Thèmes/Le sport
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Le Tour de France cycliste: Set up a giveaway. There's a problem loading this menu right now. Learn more about Amazon Prime. It is an attempt to explain what tree thinking or analog thought is about linear or sequential thinking. The gifted and love 1This fear will stop him. But his desire for love, his idealistic side will often push him beyond. It is a very great strength. Because if we have our weaknesses, we also have strengths. The pleasure of nipples in menNipple Gay Mark is a young Gay that the pleasure of nipples puts in a trance.
Click here to learn how to experience endless orgasm with your nipples? In France the first initiative took place in Grenoble.
The Urban council promoted cycle sharing It built protected areas on the streets for riding safely. In a great number of town in France had taken the same way. This evolution was backed by associations which developed a new political and moral discourse. They denounced the aggressiveness of car drivers; the pollution of the air; the fact that car traffic was endangering the life of other road-users.
The promotion of urban cycling was clearly associated with values such as sharing the collective space, and respecting other users. It was also linked to another body culture not focused on performance, speed, individuality, but on self affirmation, slowness, sense of solidarity.
Something like the shift from modern toward post-modern individuality.
In Paris, the town council backed on associations in order to develop its system of shared-use bicycle Velib. She shows that they were addressing a specific public: Using a bicycle in such a urban environment was for them the affirmation of a lifestyle with ideological connotations.
Photographie/Thèmes/Le sport — Wikilivres
These choices are however not stranger to classical political conflicts. For example, in Santiago de Chile, there is, at the moment, an interesting debate between a great association of cyclist and the mayor of the town. The city is a megalopolis, filled with cars and lorries. It has a poor public transportation system mainly based on buses. The mayor passed a law forbidding the cyclists to ride on the street. They would have to ride on the side-walks. This arrangement makes riding bicycle on long distances and commuting practically impossible. The reasons behind the mayor's decision are the taxi and lorry drivers who demanded it because they didn't want to share the street with cyclists.
Cyclists, who are mostly young, students or young professional but who are also connected with the old workers party, represent a new force in the political debate. They are organised in a great association but don't have enough political leverage to achieve the abolition of the law. The evolution of the situation be be interesting to observe The case of sport and especially professional sport let us enter a different dimension of the bicycle as a medium.
Around this object a enormous media system was built. Go back to the beginning of the Xxth century. Sport around the bicycle took different forms: Outdoors, there were local courses organised on roads and big races such as the Tour de France established in or the Tour of Italy since ? These big races still exist. They can be considered as institutions which have transmitted representations and values along the century. These races are at the root of what would be called spectator sport.
They were initially organised in order to sell newspaper during the summertime, when there were few other sport events. Since the s they are broadcasted and since the they are also on TV. With their growing popularity, these events gained particular characteristics. Collective tempo First of all they organised the tempo of the collective life; every member of the national community was exposed to the experience of the same emotions at the same moment.
They also organised a shared memory: The special memory of the outcome who was champion when was shared by the specialists and supporters. This was common to small groups, part of the masculine culture, common also to a generation. Gramsci when in jail wrote to a friend in the Italian communist party that the heads of the party should understand that the interest for sports was common to members of different groups of the Italian people, that were otherwise divided: Secondly, these great races have to do with national identity.
Roland Barthes Mythologies explained that the Tour de France was a way of touring the country. It let the people discover places that were neglected such as the great Alpine passes.
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One must note that it was the car that made going to these passes possible. The geography of the race was understood as a symbolic issue. During the s the race went to England, Belgium, Germany in order to signify the new collective interest for a European identity. The cyclists racers were also associated with symbolic issues. At the beginning of the century the association between the body of the racer and the bicycle as a mechanical device mirrored what was asked from the good industrial worker.
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The human body had to fit with the bicycle in order to produce the more energy possible in a specified interval of time or on a specified distance. Both time and distance were measured. The racer also was associated to symbolic issues as a person.
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At the beginning of the century he had to show the qualities of the good peasant or the good worker: This explains what happens when the events reveal gaps between the idealised representation and the reality. He denounced the condition created for the cyclists by their bosses and the fact that they were obliged to use performance-enhancing drugs.
The question of doping reappeared at the end of the 20 th century. It had something to do with the very meaning of the race. All the participants are to be equal at the beginning of the race and the winner is supposed to be the best one, the most gifted and courageous. Doping ruined this fiction. What changes when broadcasting or TV. I will have not enough time for entering this question in detail. One of the conclusions of the studies quoted above was that the TV network especially intensified the previous narrative.
As we have seen above the Tour de France was elaborated as a narrative by specialized newspaper during the first decades of the 20 th century. The characteristics of the narratives were the presence of heros, the confrontation between the man and the nature mountain, wind, immensity Some of transformations allowed the spectator to go inside the group of racers and to be identified to one of them when considering the whole race from his point of view. Then the TV- cameramen sitting in the same position offered to the tv-spectators pictures taken from the point of view of the racers too.
At the same moment, during the s, images taken from helicopters emphasised the greatness of the mountain and the wild aspect of the passes. But in main cases these pictures and these point of views were the one that had been chosen by the picture press in the first half of the century. The new mediatisation intensified emotions and reinforced the feeling of a common experience but did'nt altered significantly the narrative. It is time now to go to a conclusion. I hope to have demonstrated that the bicycle could be considered from a mediological point of view.
One find in it technology, bodily experience, mediatisation of the experience of the world. One find, and that was the second part of my demonstration, institutions such as association, that carries representations and values. One find also classic media in the restricted sense of the word, that elaborate narratives and pictures. I hope to have demonstrated too, that every set of experience and representation quoted above has to be contextualised.
It has to be replaced in its time and its place. It open it to new enquiries. It doesnt bring only answers but question. Her lies its interest.
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One could make a last remark. As you perhaps have seen it the Cahier de mediologie of bicycle was one of those which had no multy entry table. The reason, I suppose, is that the bicycle had not been a technology strong enough for organising the world around it as did in their time the railway or the car. It was not central enough for characterising an epoch. The is no bicyclesphere as there is a videosphere or a graphospshere …. Thompson , The Tour de France. A Cultural History , University of.
California Press, , p. Updated with a New Preface … p. In this highly original history of the world's most famous bicycle race, Christopher S.