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Thus, one needs to familiarize oneself with the literary devices of Persian literature, and in particular with those cherished by Hafez, in order to discover the full meaning of his verses. Arberry, Fifty Poems 18 The English translation of ihaam is indicative of the function of such a device: Under these circumstances, the meanings are said to be both deep and superficial, which makes the reader uncertain about what is right. Ihaam provides safe textual hiding places for a liberal-hearted poet like Hafez to conceal his real thoughts from the critics. The longer we read Hafiz [sic] and the better we know him and the literary tradition on which he plays, the more we feel this ambiguity.

We even arrive at the conclusion that perhaps this very ambiguity is his message. With respect to ihaam, there are instances in which he used his scientific knowledge to convey a deeper meaning to supplement and make complex the preliminary, superficial one. In this regard, the Divan resembles a drama revealing its one-dimensional and multi-dimensional protagonists and antagonists to his reader through the poems.

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To comprehend the one- dimensional characters, the reader must think beyond the usual connotative values of each of them. Hafez 25 Hafez surely succeeded in incorporating the existing societal values of his time and place into the spirit of the mythical characters of his Divan. Meisami, Medieval Persian Poetry Some of the multi-dimensional characters include: Pire Moghan14 a combination of the old wine seller and Pire Tarighat , Deyre Moghan a combination of tavern and Kharabat15 , Wine with the combined faces of literal, mystical , rend a combination of the Complete Man and a beggar16 and the characters Shahed, cup-bearer, Zahed17, Sufi, 14 Zoroastrian Magian wine seller, who symbolized Zoroastrianism.

To Khorramshahi, even the cup of wine and the goblet have mythological dimensions. Hafez writes himself as a member of his imagined society, and takes the role of rend18, the liberal-minded freethinker. He shows his hatred of Zahed and portrays his affection for his physical and spiritual beloved. Zahed embodies the sanctimonious hypocrite, who upbraids Hafez, a rend, for his pagan belief. He hated and was hated by the hypocrites, who criticized others for sinful deeds without paying attention to their false and deceptive deeds. Two solutions are deemed by Arberry as means conveyed in the poems for dealing with this situation.

Hafez succeeds in disguising his thoughts and, therefore, perpetuates them through the passing of time until they are discovered by his future readers. This quality of the ghazals functions as a further obstacle in understanding them and makes their interpretation a matter of debate. A look at studies on Hafez since the very first translation of some of his ghazals into Latin by Thomas Hyde in the late seventeenth century shows that the West has generally preferred to ignore the mystical aspect of the ghazals, whereas the East has tended to explore and enjoy aspects of mysticism in them.

Since Sufism is the mystical focus of Islam, the subject matter of mystical implications of the ghazals has brought up the subject of whether their composer belonged to a Sufi order or not. Some scholars believe that Hafez longed for his ancestral Zoroastrian religion before the advent of Islam Caton The famous Turkish mufti Abu Suud d. The former focused on the physical or grammatical nature of the poems and the latter two on their spiritual essence Dynes and Donaldson By virtue of that couplet verse, Hafez earned burial with the full ritual of a Persian funeral.

Hammer translates it for his readers as follows: Khorramshahi mentions rend and Pire Moghan as the representatives of mysticism and uses six couplets of the Divan to support his argument. Translatability of Hafez One vital factor for the success of any translation process is clearly the flexibility of the target language. Otherwise stated, the process of translation does not fail until it faces a lack of parallelism of function between the two languages involved. The blame for this lack may be put on the limits caused by either the source language or the target language.

Nevertheless, it is the source language that is the commander and its linguistic principles the rules; the target language, conversely, is resigned to follow the rules of this one-way interaction. Based on comparative studies, the lack of parallelism between Persian and either English or German in the case of Hafez is rooted to a great extent in the linguistic individuality of the source language.

In this regard, Arjomand-Fathi gives her reader a thorough list of the linguistic peculiarities of the Persian language which cause difficulties for German translators despite a certain affinity based on their mutual Indo-German origin. There are 32 letters in Persian, a few of which do not have equivalents in German.

This disharmony, Arjomand-Fathi believes, damages the rhythm and musicality of nouns to be transcribed and translated. The non-gendered nature of Persian allows for further ambiguity, which is eliminated by the gender-specificity of German. Most Persian nouns have more than one meaning while retaining their pronunciation and spelling. The manifold interpretative possibilities of such homonyms can hardly be reflected in other languages. The vowels of Persian words are not written. In sum, the peculiarities of Persian provide Persian-speaking authors of prose or poetry with many tools with which to embellish their texts with ambiguity.

They were transcribed into Roman characters and translated into Latin by the Bodleian librarian Thomas Hyde in Oxford at a date approximated at Notwithstanding the sporadic translations of the ghazals by the turn of the eighteenth century, the most significant translation was completed by the Graz-born orientalist and diplomat Joseph Freiherr von Hammer Purgstall. It is possible that Hyde had access to this source. During the course of his studies, Hammer founded and published eight volumes of the first European oriental periodical, Fundgruben des Orients, the first four volumes of which were read enthusiastically by Goethe.

II , when several failed schedules left his wish to visit Persia unfulfilled. This period covers a major part of the Old or Asiatic School of Ottoman poetry, wherein Persian influence reached and maintained its highest level of prestige, as Elias John Wilkinson Gibb , the British orientalist, reports in the first volume of six in his book on the history of Ottoman poetry.

Therefore, reflection on works by classical Persian poets by means of writing commentaries and imitations during the time of the Old School became the fashion among Ottomanians and other peoples under the power of the Ottoman Empire. IV compared to the other two by Schemii and Sururi d. Yet, the implications that this mode of reading might have had for the semantics of the translation must be considered. He spent three years refining the renderings and enriching the footnotes, and the production of his ten-year effort was published in two volumes after three years in and by the distinguished Cotta publishing house in Stuttgart.


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For instance, he categorized ninety ghazals ending in the literally-transcribed Persian letter Dal in the group Dal. Mina 20 In the three separate forewords to his translation, Hammer identified his first goal as familiarizing his readers with the Persian poet and the nature of his poems by associating them with recognized Latin and Greek paradigms, calling Hafez a lyrical sibling of Horace.

He then led his readers as a friendly outsider through the poems of the Divan via the medium of his renderings. Yet, as we have seen, most critics disagreed with him on this point as time passed, and even those favourably disposed to his renditions were aware that the complexity of translating Persian poetry, as I described in the previous chapter, made precision impossible. So they have praised him in different terms, as a great contributor to world literature. Hammer too summarized these Hafezian elements in the foreword to his translation. Oft so ernst wie diese hochfliegende Sprache der Sofis und begeisterter Scheiche, aber oft gerade das Gegentheil, scheint Hafis dieser Lehren zu spotten, The figure functions as an antithesis to hypocrites named throughout as Sufi, Darwisch or Zahed [zealot], whose approach Hafez considers to be ascetic.

Furthermore, it is one of very few ghazals in which the repetition of the word rend throughout the poem indicates the focal role of this figure for the overall message. Hammer's translation of the poem has eight distichs. Die [sic] Fasten ist vorbei!

In this poem his translation succeeds in achieving the metrics of the original by rendering the distichs in two hemistichs. Hafez, well-known as a master of rhythm, creates this musicality through word play, a quality that was lost in both of the translations. The musicality of this distich lies mostly in the use of consonance, i.

Rooze yeksoo shod-o eyd amad-o delha barkhast Mey ze meykhane be joosh amad-o mi bayad khast As was the custom among pre-modern Persian poets, Hafez was fond of creating a melody as part of the metrical structure of his distichs.

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This he achieved further by splitting up his hemistichs into shorter metrical units, mostly into rhyming halves. In the first hemistich above, Rooze yeksoo shod-o, the rhyming pattern of amad [came] creates a melody in its second emergence in the second hemistich. The two different possible pronunciations of the transliterated word mi in the second hemistich have an influence on the meaning of the word. It can be pronounced mey [wine], which would create the device of repetition with its other two occurrences. The next distich reads: Despite the semantic accuracy of these hemistichs, the translations do not preserve the original atmospheric effects.

As a result, the rhetorical device of contrast is lost in the translation. Moreover, the consonance of n nun in the first and second hemistichs and the consonance of r re in the second hemistichs are lost in the translation. By contrast, Sudi provides a sufficient summary of the context of the distich in his comments, wherein he mentions the term rend twice.

A literal translation of his interpretation reads: It should be mentioned that Hafez uses different words equivalent to wine and wine-drinking in his poems. In this poem, for instance, depending on the rhythm of the hemistich, he plays with three different forms of wine: His selection of baadeh in the first hemistich of this distich creates the sound patterning of -aa- or the long vowel a, which is repeated by three other words in this hemistich examples highlighted: Khorramshahi, whose two-volume commentary covers two hundred ghazals, lists about thirty- five words, phrases, metaphors, verbs, and adjectives which refer to wine in the Hafez corpus.

As this literal translation shows, the second clause is repeated exactly in the second hemistich of the line in the original, which is an example of the rhetorical device of repetition. A literal translation of this distich displays a noticeable deviation from the original: Hafez created an internal rhyme between the rhyming halves of both of the lines, enhancing their prosodic quality further through the use of consonance examples highlighted: In the second hemistich, he also uses the phono-semantic play of eshteghag, paronomasia, between the third-person plural and first-person plural of the verb goftan [to say].

Der Wein kommt von dem Blut der Rebe, nicht von Eurem. The original internal rhyme of the first hemistich is also lost in the translation. Dies ist nicht tadelnswerth, denn Keinem hat's geschadet, Und ist es tadelnswerth, wo ist der Tadelfreye? A second use of repetition in the original through the word bovad has no equivalent in the translation.

The last distich reads: He deviates from the original text by omitting that name at the beginning of the first hemistich. Hammer could still create this internal rhyming pattern if his translation for the original choono chera [Wie und Warum] had not deviated from the original. The interconnectedness of spiritual and earthly worlds within some Hafezian 31 This is a form of pun between two words, in which one word has one more letters than the other. Elsewhere in his foreword, Hammer renounces any spiritual or mystical aspect of the poems, perhaps in part because of the influence of Sudi, and in part because of the lack of German semantic equivalence.

Die Geschichten der zartesten, innigsten, reinsten, heftigsten Liebe, welche der Perser in Chosru und Schirin, und der Araber in Leila und Medschnun darstellt, sind nur Fabeln in Vergleich mit Hafisens treuer, brennender, geduldig ausharrender, leidenschaftlicher Liebe. In this view, and in the face of a transient world, he appreciates every moment of being with his beloved physically or imaginatively and thus bends the moment to his enjoyment. Ghazal sixty-seven of the group Ta is one of many poems in which the poet sings praise to the beauty of his beloved and expresses his desperate yearning for a reunion after days of separation.

Hammer breaks the two-line distich of the original into four lines in his rendering without preserving the rhyming pattern, as evidenced in the first distich: The concept Kharab belongs to the lexical corpus of the Divan, different forms of which Hafez used to refer to drinking and drunkenness. Furthermore, the translation does not recreate the original consonance- based sound patterning of the prosodic qualities of the original, examples highlighted: The first part of the word modaam-am is of special semantic interest due to the crafted rhetorical figure of ihaam, amphibology.

Nach so vieler bestandner Geduld, o Herr! Both renderings, however, singularize the plural subject of the original, lessening its ambiguous quality. Khorramshahi believes that the device of ihaam is crafted in these two expressions. He explains that in an altar candles can be lit for the purpose of providing light or for immolation. Hafez addresses both God and his beloved in this distich, while Hammer addresses only the former.

There is no equivalence for the paronomasia in the words didan [to see] and dide [eye] in the rendering. There is some minor flexibility in this rendering with respect to the semantic features of the original. By employing words that communicated multiple meanings, Hafez added to the complexity of this distich in ways that a translator, lacking vocabulary for such subtle complexities, could not. The figurative phrase Khale hendoo is another instance of the specific terminology used in the Divan.


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Khorramshahi, the Persian Hafez-expert, sees no deep meaning in this phrase and thus provides no interpretation for this distich in his discussion of the poem. It is one of the most active poetical images of the Divan, which is addressed by Hafez almost as many times as the cup-bearer and the beloved. Each hemistich of the original is also divided into clauses. His version, for comparison, reads: As Persian grammar makes no gender distinction, the gender of the beloved is often linguistically unspecified, which puts to debate whether homosexuality or spirituality is implied.

The translation does not represent the original prosodic quality of consonance examples highlighted: Hoher Geist ward Hafisen! This is one of the frequent themes which can be interpreted secularly or spiritually in the setting of various poems. Conclusion As opposed to the antinomian function of rend in the previous poem, this poem reveals the humble and slavish side of this character, whose boundless love to his beloved contrasts with reason. Based on this examination, the translation of the poem does convey the main thematics of the original poem as there was no direct mention of rend.

To grant the reader insight into other dimensions of this multi-functional character, a literal adoption of the term into the target language is necessary, particularly because the reader is already familiar with other personified entities and elements such as Kalender, Huris, Derwisch, etc. Indeed, semantic features appear more frequently preserved than acoustic qualities as well as rhetorical devices derived from them in translations. In part, this is an inevitable consequence of the transformation of the original letters and trying to preserve their sounds.

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So habe ich mich die Zeit her meist im Orient aufgehalten, wo denn freylich eine reiche Erndte zu finden ist The journey of the former through the poems resembles a developing acquaintance with a new poetical horizon, while for the latter it mirrors ceaselessly familiar poetical constellations of his or her national poetry. Amazon Music Stream millions of songs. Amazon Advertising Find, attract, and engage customers. Amazon Drive Cloud storage from Amazon. Alexa Actionable Analytics for the Web. AmazonGlobal Ship Orders Internationally. Amazon Inspire Digital Educational Resources. Amazon Rapids Fun stories for kids on the go.

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