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Absolute errors are estimated by comparison of paired measurements from collocated instruments. The magnitude of error for calcium, magnesium, ammonium, nitrate, and sulfate concentrations, specific conductance, and sample volume is of minor environmental significance to data users.
Data collected after a sample-handling protocol change are prone to less absolute error than data collected prior to Absolute errors are smaller during non-winter months than during winter months for selected constituents at sites where frozen precipitation is common. Minimum resolvable differences are estimated for different regions of the USA to aid spatial and temporal watershed analyses.
Volunteer map data collection at the USGS. Since , citizen volunteers have helped the U. Through the Earth Science Corps program , citizens were able to "adopt a quad" and collect new information and update existing map features. Until its conclusion in , as many as volunteers annotated paper maps which were incorporated into the USGS topographic-map revision process. Every day, emergency responders are confronted with worldwide natural and manmade disasters, including earthquakes, floods, hurricanes, landslides, tsunami, volcanoes, wildfires, terrorist attacks, and accidental oil spills.
Geological Survey USGS is ready to coordinate the provisioning and deployment of USGS staff, equipment, geospatial data, products, and services in support of national emergency response requirements. Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields. Coincidentally, as I sat down in late October to read and review the second edition of Wallace H. Campbell's text, Introduction to Geomagnetic Fields, we received warnings from the news media of a massive solar flare and its possible effect on power supply systems and satellite communications. News programs briefly explained the source of Sun-Earth interactions.
If you are interested in learning more about the physics of the connection between sun spots and power supply systems and their impact on orbiting satellites, I urge you to become acquainted with Campbell's book. It presents an interesting and informative explanation of the geomagnetic field and its applications to a wide variety of topics, including oil exploration, climate change, and fraudulent claims of the utility of magnetic fields for alleviating human pain. Geomagnetism , the study of the nature and processes of the Earth's magnetic fields and its application to the investigation of the Earth, its processes, and history, is a mature science with a well-developed theoretical foundation and a vast array of observations.
It is discussed in varied detail in Earth physics books and most entry-level geoscience texts. The latter treatments largely are driven by the need to discuss paleomagnetism as an essential tool in studying plate tectonics. A more thorough explanation of geomagnetism is needed by many interested scientists in related fields and by laypersons. This is the objective of Campbell's book.
USGS integrated drought science. Project Need and OverviewDrought poses a serious threat to the resilience of human communities and ecosystems in the United States Easterling and others, Over the past several years, many regions have experienced extreme drought conditions, fueled by prolonged periods of reduced precipitation and exceptionally warm temperatures.
As global temperatures continue to increase, the frequency, severity, extent, and duration of droughts are expected to increase across North America, affecting both humans and natural ecosystems Parry and others, Geological Survey USGS has a long, proven history of delivering science and tools to help decision-makers manage and mitigate effects of drought. That said, there is substantial capacity for improved integration and coordination in the ways that the USGS provides drought science.
This information has been used to initiate the development of an integrated science effort that will bring the full USGS capacity to bear on this national crisis. Equipment including color printers, black-and-white and color scanners, film recorders, video equipment, and DOS, Apple Macintosh, and UNIX platforms with software are available for both technical and nontechnical users. The laboratory staff provides assistance and demonstrations in the use of the hardware and software products. As an organization, the USGS has historically excelled at making its data holdings freely available on its various Web sites i.
Department of Interior in emerging Open Data policies, techniques, and systems. The session will discuss the current successes, challenges, and movement toward meeting these Open Data policies for USGS scientific data holdings. A retrospective look at the last year of implementation of these efforts within USGS will occur to determine whether these Open Data Policies are improving data access or limiting data availability.
USGS invasive species solutions. Land managers must meet the invasive species challenge every day, starting with identification of problem species, then the collection of best practices for their control, and finally the implementation of a plan to remove the problem. At each step of the process, the availability of reliable information is essential to success.
Geological Survey USGS has developed a suite of resources for early detection and rapid response, along with data management and sharing. Notes on the summer study program on dynamo models of geomagnetism in geophysical fluid dynamics at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. This volume contains the manuscripts of research lectures by the eleven fellows of the summer program. Five of the lectures overlap significantly with the central summer theme of geomagnetism.
The other six lectures cover a broad range of current G. Several of these research efforts are quite polished and probably will appear in journals soon. The middle half represent reports of sound progress on studies of thesis calibre. A few of the lectures report on only the very first consequences of a novel idea. The world has recently experienced rapid change to market-driven economies and increasing reliance on petroleum supplies from areas of political instability.
The interplay of unprecedented growth of the global population, increasing worldwide energy demand, and political instability in two major petroleum exporting regions the former Soviet Union and the Middle East requires that the United States maintains a current, reliable, objective assessment of the world's energy resources. The need is compounded by the environmental implications of rapid increases in coal use in the Far East and international pressure on consumption of fossil fuels.
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USGS aerial resolution targets. It is necessary to measure the achievable resolution of any airborne sensor that is to be used for metric purposes. Laboratory calibration facilities may be inadequate or inappropriate for determining the resolution of non-photographic sensors such as optical-mechanical scanners, television imaging tubes, and linear arrays. However, large target arrays imaged in the field can be used in testing such systems.
The USGS has constructed an array of resolution targets in order to permit field testing of a variety of airborne sensing systems. The target array permits any interested organization with an airborne sensing system to accurately determine the operational resolution of its system. The United States is one of eight Arctic nations responsible for the stewardship of a polar region undergoing dramatic environmental, social, and economic changes.
Although warming and cooling cycles have occurred over millennia in the Arctic region, the current warming trend is unlike anything recorded previously and is affecting the region faster than any other place on Earth, bringing dramatic reductions in sea ice extent, altered weather, and thawing permafrost.
Implications of these changes include rapid coastal erosion threatening villages and critical infrastructure, potentially significant effects on subsistence activities and cultural resources, changes to wildlife habitat, increased greenhouse-gas emissions from thawing permafrost, threat of invasive species, and opening of the Arctic Ocean to oil and gas exploration and increased shipping. The Arctic science portfolio of the U. Geological Survey USGS and its response to climate-related changes focuses on landscapescale ecosystem and natural resource issues and provides scientific underpinning for understanding the physical processes that shape the Arctic.
Improved geomagnetic referencing in the Arctic environment. However, fluctuations in the geomagnetic field, especially at high latitudes, make the application of geomagnetic referencing in those areas more challenging. Precise crustal mapping and the monitoring of real-time variations by nearby magnetic observatories is crucial to achieving the required geomagnetic referencing accuracy.
The Deadhorse Magnetic Observatory DED , located at Prudhoe Bay, Alaska, has already played a vital role in the success of several commercial ventures in the area, providing essential, accurate, real-time data to the oilfield drilling industry. Geomagnetic referencing is enhanced with real-time data from DED and other observatories, and has been successfully used for accurate wellbore positioning. The availability of real-time geomagnetic measurements leads to significant cost and time savings in wellbore surveying, improving accuracy and alleviating the need for more expensive surveying techniques.
The correct implementation of geomagnetic referencing is particularly critical as we approach the increased activity associated with the upcoming maximum of the year solar cycle. The DED observatory further provides an important service to scientific communities engaged in studies of ionospheric, magnetospheric and space weather phenomena. This book examines a wide range of subjects in geomagnetism. It presents a brief introduction to physical principles of magnetism, and then focuses on the properties of the geomagnetic field as the sum of four interrelated phenomena: Additional topics, including paleomagnetism and magnetic methods in exploration, and the history of geomagnetism , are also discussed.
During this time, demand for water has evolved from primarily domestic and stock needs to the current complex requirements for public-water supplies, irrigation, power generation, navigation, ecological needs, and numerous other uses. Tsunami related to solar and geomagnetic activity. The authors of this study wanted to verify the existence of a correlation between earthquakes of high intensity capable of generating tsunami and variations of solar and Earth's geomagnetic activity.
To confirming or not the presence of this kind of correlation, the authors analyzed the conditions of Spaceweather "near Earth" and the characteristics of the Earth's geomagnetic field in the hours that preceded the four earthquakes of high intensity that have generated tsunamis: The data on ion density used to realize the correlation study are represented by: To conduct the study, the authors have taken in consideration the variation of the solar wind protons density of three different energy fractions: The results of the study, in agreement with what already.
The geospace, or the space environment near Earth, is constantly subjected to changes in the solar wind flow generated at the Sun. The study of this environment variability is called Space Weather. Examples of effects resulting from this variability are the occurrence of powerful solar disturbances, such as coronal mass ejections CMEs.
The impact of CMEs on the Earth's magnetosphere very often greatly perturbs the geomagnetic field causing the occurrence of geomagnetic storms. Such extremely variable geomagnetic fields trigger geomagnetic effects measurable not only in the geospace but also in the ionosphere, upper atmosphere, and on and in the ground.
For example, during extreme cases, rapidly changing geomagnetic fields generate intense geomagnetically induced currents GICs. These space weather effects can in turn lead to severe economic losses. In this paper, we supply the reader with theoretical concepts related to GICs as well as their general consequences. As an example, we discuss the GIC effects on a North American power grid located in mid-latitude regions during the March extreme geomagnetic storm. That was the most extreme storm that occurred in the space era age. USGS to accept private funds. Geological Survey USGS , the federal government's largest earth science research agency, is now authorized to accept contributions from private sources and to collaborate with such sources in projects that support the agency's scientific research and its development of technology and data systems.
Before the USGS can accept outside contributions, however, the proposed project must be deemed to be in the public interest and must be deemed compatible with the basic USGS mission. Among the responsibilities of the USGS , are assessing the nation's land, water, energy, and mineral resources and developing methods to define and mitigate hazards associated with earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, and landslides.
Details on criteria and procedures for making contributions and entering into collaborative projects are outlined in the June 2 Federal Register. Metrically preserving the USGS aerial film archive. Since , the U. EROS is home to an archive of 12 million frames of analog photography ranging from to the present. USGS 1-min Dst index. This index is based on minute resolution horizontal magnetic field intensity from low-latitude observatories in Honolulu, Kakioka, San Juan and Hermanus, for the years The method used to produce the index uses a combination of time- and frequency-domain techniques, which more clearly identifies and excises solar-quiet variation from the horizontal intensity time series of an individual station than the strictly time-domain method used in the Kyoto Dst index.
In a time series comparison, Sym-H is found to produce more extreme values during both sudden impulses and main phase maximum deviation, possibly due to the latitude of its contributing observatories. Both Kyoto indices are shown to have a peak in their distributions below zero, while the USGS indices have a peak near zero. USGS global change research.
The Earth's global environment--its interrelated climate, land, oceans, fresh water, atmospheric and ecological systems-has changed continually throughout Earth history. Human activities are having ever-increasing effects on these systems. Sustaining our environment as population and demands for resources increase requires a sound understanding of the causes and cycles of natural change and the effects of human activities on the Earth's environmental systems. Global Change Research Program was authorized by Congress in to provide the scientific understanding necessary to develop national and international policies concerning global environmental issues, particularly global climate change.
The program addresses questions such as: Through understanding, we can improve our capability to predict change, reduce the adverse effects of human activities, and plan strategies for adapting to natural and human-induced environmental change. Education and research are always in the public service and therefore are inextricably bound at all levels.
When present, effective integration of research and education infuses the acquisition of knowledge with the spirit of inquiry and assures that the findings and methods of research are quickly and effectively communicated in a broader context and to a larger audience.
It can be shown that the best supported and sustained research programs within government, academia or the corporate sector have developed a projectable identity that allows for ready identification. This identification is especially important in public settings as it works both within the organization and without clarifying what it is about, the importance of the group's activities, and what they are striving to accomplish.
Working from the Survey's mandated role of providing long-term monitoring, research and assessments, the Survey's Strategic Plan reflects the high priority given to meeting partner and customer needs in disseminating reliable and impartial scientific information. The way in which USGS research translates knowledge and makes it available to scientific organizations and to the public is critical to the intrinsic societal value of USGS. Consequently, in a conformable way, both research and education have, as their ultimate goal, providing useful knowledge within a relevant context.
USGS has a long history of integrating its education and research endeavors. Criteria and examples for assessing quality educational contributions, commensurate with bureau's unique role as the nation's principal natural sciences, and information agency will be presented. With an aurorally glowing cast that included an International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy IAGA president, former president, and division chairman, the Oriental Magneto-Banquet which was the center of the meeting , was assured of success. As a cunning ploy to mask the true nature of this gastronomic extravagance from the probings of income tax departments, a presentation of scientific papers on Australian geomagnetism in its global setting was arranged.
The Australian region, including New Zealand, Papua New Guinea, Indonesia, and a large sector of the Antarctic, covers one eighth of the Earth's surface and historically has played an important role in the study of geomagnetism. The region contains both the south magnetic and geomagnetic poles, and two Australian Antarctic stations Casey and Davis are situated in the region of the south polar cusp see Figure 1. The purpose of the infrasound sensor evaluation was to determine a measured sensitivity, self-noise, dynamic range and nominal transfer function. Notable features of the VDP sensors include novel and durable construction and compact size.
Science to understand and forecast change in coastal ecosystems. The multidisciplinary approach of the US Geological Survey USGS , a principal science agency of the US Department of the Interior DOI , to address the complex and cumulative impacts of human activities and natural events on the US coastal ecosystems has been considered remarkable for understanding and forecasting the changes.
The USGS helps explain geologic, hydrologic, and biologic systems and their connectivity across landscapes and seascapes along the coastline. The USGS coastal science programs effectively address science and information to other scientists, managers, policy makers, and the public. The organization is a leader in understanding terrestrial and marine environmental hazards such as earthquakes, tsunamis, floods, and landslides and assessing and forecasting coastal impacts using various specialized visualization techniques.
The mission of U. Each year USGS Chesapeake Bay studies produce published research, monitoring data, and models addressing aspects of bay restoration such as, but not limited to, fish health, water quality, land-cover change, and habitat loss. Historically, the USGS Chesapeake Bay studies have relied on national USGS databases to store only major nationally available sources of data such as streamflow and water-quality data collected through local monitoring programs and projects, leaving a multitude of other important project data out of the data management process.
This practice has led to inefficient methods of finding Chesapeake Bay studies data and underutilization of data resources. In other words, data management is a way to preserve, integrate, and share data to address the needs of the Chesapeake Bay studies to better. Human health so often depends on the health of the environment and wildlife around us. The presence of naturally occurring or human environmental contaminants and the emergence of diseases transferred between animals and humans are growing concerns worldwide.
The USGS is a source of natural science information vital for understanding the quantity and quality of our earth and living resources. This information improves our understanding not only of how human activities affect environmental and ecological health, but also of how the quality of our environment and wildlife in turn affects human health. USGS is taking a leadership role in providing the natural science information needed by health researchers, policy makers, and the public to safeguard public health.
This plan integrates science across multiple USGS disciplines, and provides national and international opportunities for USGS collaboration with state and federal agencies, academic institutions, and non-governmental organizations throughout the Americas. Potential economic impacts on electric utilities. Geomagnetic storms associated with sunspot and solar flare activity can disturb communications and disrupt electric power. A very severe geomagnetic storm could cause a major blackout with an economic impact of several billion dollars. The vulnerability of electric power systems in the northeast United States will likely increase during the s because of the trend of transmitting large amounts of power over long distance to meet the electricity demands of this region.
A comprehensive research program and a warning satellite to monitor the solar wind are needed to enhance the reliability of electric power systems under the influence of geomagnetic storms. Building on leadership in mapping oceans and coasts. The US Geological Survey USGS offers continuously improving technologies for mapping oceans and coasts providing unique opportunity for characterizing the marine environment and to expand the understanding of coastal and ocean processes, resources, and hazards. This plan focuses on innovative and transformational themes that serve key clients and customers, expand partnerships, and have long-term national impact.
USGS has also collaborated with diverse partners to incorporate mapping and monitoring within interdisciplinary research programs , addressing the system-scale response of coastal and marine ecosystems. The latest attempt to summarise the wealth of knowledge now available on geomagnetic phenomena has resulted in this multi-volume treatise, with contributions and reviews from many scientists.
The first volume in the series contains a thorough review of all existing information on measuring the Earth's magnetic field, both on land and at sea, and includes a comparative analysis of the techniques available for this purpose. On regional geomagnetic charts. When regional geomagnetic charts for areas roughly the size of the US were compiled by hand, some large local anomalies were displayed in the isomagnetic lines.
Since the late s, when the compilation of charts using computers and mathematical models was started, most of the details available in the hand drawn regional charts have been lost. One exception to this is the Canadian magnetic declination chart for This chart was constructed using a degrees spherical harmonic model.
A section in USGS research on mineral resources - Two important mineral deposits are located in the Port Moller quadrangle; the Pyramid prospect is the largest copper porphyry system in the Aleutian Arc, and the Apollo Mine is the only gold mine to reach production status in the Aleutian Arc. USGS standard quadrangle maps for emergency response.
This map series includes about 54, map sheets for the conterminous United States, and is the only uniform map series ever produced that covers this area at such a large scale. This map series partially was revised under several programs , starting as early as , but these programs were not adequate to keep the series current.
Through the s the emphasis of the USGS mapping program shifted away from topographic maps and toward more specialized digital data products. Topographic map revision dropped off rapidly after , and stopped completely by Since , emergency-response and homeland security requirement have revived the question of whether a standard national topographic series is needed. Emergencies such as Hurricane Katrina in and California wildfires in demonstrated that familiar maps are important to first responders.
Maps that have a standard scale, extent, and grids help reduce confusion and save time in emergencies. Traditional maps are designed to allow the human brain to quickly process large amounts of information, and depend on artistic layout and design that cannot be fully automated. In spite of technical advances, creating a traditional, general-purpose topographic map is still expensive.
Although the content and layout of traditional topographic maps probably is still desirable, the preferred packaging and delivery of maps has changed. Digital image files are now desired by most users, but to be useful to the emergency-response community, these files must be easy to view and easy to print without specialized geographic information system expertise or software.
The map scale and data specifications were selected based on significant outreach to various map user groups in Alaska. This multi-year mapping initiative will vastly enhance the base topographic maps for Alaska and is possible because of improvements to key digital map datasets in the state. The new maps and data are beneficial in high priority applications such as safety, planning, research and resource management.
New mapping will support science applications throughout the state and provide updated maps for parks, recreation lands and villages. Providing a web-based digital information management system of information for scientists and the public, including a system that supports the work of those officials who must make decisions that affect the state of the bay.
The Tampa Bay Study is in its sixth year and will continue through September This paper presents a non-inclusive summary of key findings associated with the six primary project components listed above. Component 4 above is described in detail in the following chapter More information on the Tampa Bay Study is available from our on-line digital information system for the Tampa Bay Study at http: Geomagnetic Field During a Reversal. It has frequently been suggested that only the geomagnetic dipole, rather than higher order poles, reverse during a geomagnetic field reversal. Under this assumption the geomagnetic field strength has been calculated for the surface of the Earth for various steps of the reversal process.
Even without an eminent a reversal of the field, extrapolation of the present secular change although problematic shows that the field strength may become zero in some geographic areas within a few hundred years. The top of Earth's liquid outer core is nearly km beneath Earth's surface, so we will never be able to observe it directly.
This hot, dense, molten iron-rich body is continuously in motion and is the source of Earth's magnetic field. One of the most dynamic manifestations at Earth's surface of this fluid body is, perhaps, a reversal of the geomagnetic field. Unfortunately, the most recent polarity transition occurred at about ka, so we have never observed a transition directly. It seems that a polarity transition spans many human lifetimes, so no human will ever witness the phenomenon in its entirety. Thus we are left with the tantalizing prospect that paleomagnetic records of polarity transitions may betray some of the secrets of the deep Earth.
Certainly, if there are systematics in the reversal process and they can be documented, then this will reveal substantial information about the nature of the lowermost mantle and of the outer core. Despite their slowness on a human timescale, polarity transitions occur almost instantaneously on a geological timescale. This rapidity, together with limitations in the paleomagnetic recording process, prohibits a comprehensive description of any reversal transition both now and into the foreseeable future, which limits the questions that may at this stage be sensibly asked.
The natural model for the geomagnetic field is a set of spherical harmonic components, and we are not able to obtain a reliable model for even the first few harmonic terms during a transition. Nevertheless, it is possible, in principle, to make statements about the harmonic character of a geomagnetic polarity transition without having a rigorous spherical harmonic description of one. For example, harmonic descriptions of recent geomagnetic polarity transitions that are purely zonal can be ruled out a zonal harmonic does not change along a line of latitude.
Gleaning information about transitions has proven to be difficult, but it does seem. The Global Seismographic Network GSN is a permanent digital network of state-of-the-art seismological and geophysical sensors connected by a global telecommunications network, serving as a multi-use scientific facility used for seismic monitoring for response applications, basic and applied research in solid earthquake geophysics, and earth science education. A joint program of the U. The program faces challenges of aging equipment and increased operating costs at the same time that national and international earthquake and tsunami monitoring agencies place an increased reliance on GSN data.
Data acquisition of the USGS GSN is based on the Quanterra Q datalogger, a workhorse system that is approaching twenty years in the field, often in harsh environments. These new systems will address many of the issues associated with the ageing Q while providing a platform for interoperability across the GSN.. In order to address the challenge of increasing operational costs, the USGS employs several tools. First, the USGS benefits from the contributions of local host institutions. The station operators are the first line of defense when a station experiences problems, changing boards.
An approach that might be used for determining the applicability of NASA management techniques to benefit almost any type of down-to-earth enterprise is presented. A study was made to determine the following: Geological Survey Outer Continental Shelf lease management function; 2 the applicability of failure mode effects analysis to the drilling, production, and delivery systems in use offshore; 3 the impact on industrial offshore operations and onshore management operations required to apply recommended NASA techniques; and 4 the probable changes required in laws or regulations in order to implement recommendations.
Several management activities that have been applied to space programs are identified, and their institution for improved management of offshore and onshore oil and gas operations is recommended. Papers presented to Indian users, at the IAGA fourth scientific assembly, at a symposium on interdisciplinary approaches to geomagnetism , and a paper published in Science Today are included. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center. Extreme storms, sea-level rise, and the health of marine communities are some of the major societal and environmental issues impacting our Nation's marine and coastal realm.
As one of three centers nationwide conducting research within the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program , the center is integral towards developing an understanding of physical processes that will contribute to rational decisions regarding the use and stewardship of national coastal and marine environments.
Making USGS information effective in the electronic age. The workshop was designed to address broad issues of knowledge and communication, and to help develop the mission, vision, and goals of the National Knowledge Bank called for in the NRC review of the CMGP. Presentations led by historians and philosophers yield to a wide-ranging review and discussion of the role of USGS science in society: USGS science is important to government to understand certain complicated public policy issues such as the environment , but we must participate in two-way public dialogs to increase our relevance and usefulness.
Presentations led by USGS communications experts reviewed the principles of audience analysis and effective communications: Presentations by several information technology experts showed the potential - and pitfalls - of current schemes for Web-based information access. Finally, several brainstorming sessions developed action items, vision, and characteristics of a knowledge bank. Based on the workshop discussions and results, the authors developed the National Knowledge Bank Mission, Vision, and Goals statements. Hazards of geomagnetic storms.
Geomagnetic storms are large and sometimes rapid fluctuations in the Earth's magnetic field that are related to disturbances on the Sun's surface. Although it is not widely recognized, these transient magnetic disturbances can be a significant hazard to people and property.
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Many of us know that the intensity of the auroral lights increases during magnetic storms, but few people realize that these storms can also cause massive power outages, interrupt radio communications and satellite operations, increase corrosion in oil and gas pipelines, and lead to spuriously high rejection rates in the manufacture of sensitive electronic equipment. Solar plasma geomagnetism and aurora. Topics considered include geomagnetism and related phenomena, solar plasma in interplanetary space, mutual influence of the solar gas and the geomagnetic field.
Geomagnetic Reversals during the Phanerozoic. An antalysis of worldwide paleomagnetic measurements suggests a periodicity of x 10 6 years in the polarity of the geomagnetic field. During the Mesozoic it is predominantly normal, whereas during the Upper Paleozoic it is predominantly reversed. Although geomagnetic reversals occur at different rates throughout the Phanerozoic, there appeaars to be no clear correlation between biological evolutionary rates and reversal frequency.
The National Geophysical Data Center, Solar and Terrestrial Physics Indices program is a central repository for global indices derived at numerous organizations around the world. These datasets are used by customers to drive models, evaluate the solar and geomagnetic environment, and to understand space climate.
Our goal is to obtain and disseminate this data in a timely and accurate manner, and to provide the short term McNish-Lincoln sunspot number prediction. The large number of available indices and the complexity in how they are derived makes understanding the data one of the biggest challenges for the users of indices. Our data services include expertise in our indices and related datasets to provide feedback and analysis for our global customer base.
Minerals are chemical compounds abundant in the rocks, soil, and water around us and they have a profound impact on the lives of all beings. Naturally occurring minerals define the landscape in which we live. They affect our ecosystems, influence the availability of nutrients that support biota, impact the distribution of vegetation, and may also contribute to contamination of the environment. Minerals are used in fertilizers for farming, in concrete and building materials for construction, in aggregate for roads, in steel for cars and all manner of transportation, and in materials crucial to the communications industry.
The overarching themes of this program have been 1 the critical role that genetic diversity plays in maintaining population viability and 2 how management strategies might incorporate genetic information in preventing the decline of desirable species or in controlling the spread of invasive species. In , the U. In , agreements with the Bureau of Land Management and the State of Nevada established two field study areas: Investigations at the ADRS have provided long-term benchmark information about hydraulic characteristics and soil-water movement for undisturbed conditions and for simulated waste-site conditions in arid environments.
In , as a result of unexpectedly finding high concentrations of tritium and carbon in the unsaturated zone beneath the ADRS, the scope of research was broadened to include the study of processes affecting radionuclide transport. Research at the site is a multidisciplinary, collaborative effort that involves scientists from the USGS , universities, research institutes, and national laboratories.
The overall objective for research at the site is to improve understanding of and methods for characterizing mechanisms that control subsurface migration and fate of contaminants in arid environments.
Eric; Hoefen, Todd M. To facilitate broader access to the library, we produced generic formats of the spectra and metadata in text files. The library is provided on digital media and online at https: Fiscal year begins October 1, As Congress rolls up its shirtsleeves and gets down to business, Eos presents a status report on the two agency budgets.
The Senate Appropriations Committee set its appropriation S. On the scaling features of high-latitude geomagnetic field fluctuations during a large geomagnetic storm. Recently we have investigated the spatial distribution of the scaling features of short-time scale magnetic field fluctuations using measurements from several ground-based geomagnetic observatories distributed in the northern hemisphere. We have found that the scaling features of fluctuations of the horizontal magnetic field component at time scales below minutes are correlated with the geomagnetic activity level and with changes in the currents flowing in the ionosphere.
Here, we present a detailed analysis of the dynamical changes of the magnetic field scaling features as a function of the geomagnetic activity level during the well-known large geomagnetic storm occurred on July, 15, the Bastille event. The observed dynamical changes are discussed in relationship with the changes of the overall ionospheric polar convection and potential structure as reconstructed using SuperDARN data.
Bayesian inference in geomagnetism. The inverse problem in empirical geomagnetic modeling is investigated, with critical examination of recently published studies. Particular attention is given to the use of Bayesian inference BI to select the damping parameter lambda in the uniqueness portion of the inverse problem. The mathematical bases of BI and stochastic inversion are explored, with consideration of bound-softening problems and resolution in linear Gaussian BI. The problem of estimating the radial magnetic field B r at the earth core-mantle boundary from surface and satellite measurements is then analyzed in detail, with specific attention to the selection of lambda in the studies of Gubbins and Gubbins and Bloxham It is argued that the selection method is inappropriate and leads to lambda values much larger than those that would result if a reasonable bound on the heat flow at the CMB were assumed.
Airport geomagnetic surveys in the United States. The USGS Geomagnetism Group has developed specific methods for conducting a magnetic survey so that existing compass roses can be judged in terms of the needed standards and also that new sites can be evaluated for their suitability as potentially new compass roses. First, a preliminary survey is performed with a total-field magnetometer, with differences over the site area of less than 75nT being sufficient to warrant additional, more detailed surveying. Next, a number of survey points are established over the compass rose area and nearby, where declination is to be measured with an instrument capable of measuring declination to within 1 minute of arc, such as a Gurley transit magnetometer, DI Flux theodolite magnetometer, or Wild T The data are corrected for diurnal and irregular effects of the magnetic field and declination is determined for each survey point, as well as declination range and average of the entire compass rose site.
Altogether, a typical survey takes about four days to complete. The hazard maps depict peak horizontal ground acceleration and spectral response at 0. In this paper we outline the methodology used to construct the hazard maps. There are three basic components to the maps.
First, we use spatially smoothed historic seismicity as one portion of the hazard calculation. In this model, we apply the general observation that moderate and large earthquakes tend to occur near areas of previous small or moderate events, with some notable exceptions.
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Second, we consider large background source zones based on broad geologic criteria to quantify hazard in areas with little or no historic seismicity, but with the potential for generating large events. Third, we include the hazard from specific fault sources. We use about faults in the western United States WUS and derive recurrence times from either geologic slip rates or the dating of pre-historic earthquakes from trenching of faults or other paleoseismic methods.
Recurrence estimates for large earthquakes in New Madrid and Charleston, South Carolina, were taken from recent paleoliquefaction studies. We used logic trees to incorporate different seismicity models, fault recurrence models, Cascadia great earthquake scenarios, and ground-motion attenuation relations. We present disaggregation plots showing the contribution to hazard at four cities from potential earthquakes with various magnitudes and. The purpose of this database is to provide the geomagnetic community with a comprehensive and user-friendly method of accessing magnetic petrology data via the Internet for a more realistic interpretation of satellite as well as aeromagnetic and ground lithospheric magnetic anomalies.
The MPDB is designed, managed and presented on the web as a research oriented database. Several database applications have been specifically developed for data manipulation and analysis of the MPDB. This database contains rock-density and rock-magnetic parameters collected for use in gravity and magnetic field modeling, and paleomagnetic studies. Most of these data were taken from surface outcrops and together they span a broad range of rock types. Measurements were made either in-situ at the outcrop, or in the laboratory on hand samples and paleomagnetic cores acquired in the field.
Due to the large number of data and the very large area sampled, the database can yield rock-property statistics on a broad range of rock types; it is thus applicable to study areas beyond the geographic scope of the database. The intent of this effort is to provide incentive for others to further contribute to the database, and a tool with which the geophysical community can entertain studies formerly precluded. USGS response to an urban earthquake, Northridge ' The primary goal of U. Geological Survey USGS Natural Hazards Response is to ensure that the disaster response community has access to timely, accurate, and relevant geospatial products, imagery, and services during and after an emergency event.
Post-event imagery and analysis can provide important and timely information about the extent and severity of an event. USGS Natural Hazards Response will also support the coordination of remotely sensed data acquisitions, image distribution, and authoritative geospatial information production as required for use in disaster preparedness, response, and recovery operations.
Advances through interdisciplinary interaction. BBecause vadose zone research relates to diverse disciplines, applications, and modes of research, collaboration across traditional operational and topical divisions is especially likely to yield major advances in understanding. The Unsaturated Zone Interest Group UZIG is an informal organization sponsored by the USGS to encourage and support interdisciplinary collaboration in vadose or unsaturated zone hydrologic research across organizational boundaries.
Formed in , the UZIG operates to promote communication, especially through periodic meetings with presentations, discussions, and field trips. The acquisition, management, communication, and long-term stewardship of natural science data, information, and knowledge are fundamental mission responsibilities of the U.
USGS scientists collect, maintain, and exchange raw scientific data and interpret and analyze it to produce a wide variety of science-based products. Managers throughout the Bureau access, summarize, and analyze administrative or business-related information to budget, plan, evaluate, and report on programs and projects. Information professionals manage the extensive and growing stores of irreplaceable scientific information and knowledge in numerous databases, archives, libraries, and other digital and nondigital holdings.
Information is the primary currency of the USGS , and it flows to scientists, managers, partners, and a wide base of customers, including local, State, and Federal agencies, private sector organizations, and individual citizens. Supporting these information flows is an infrastructure of computer systems, telecommunications equipment, software applications, digital and nondigital data stores and archives, technical expertise, and information policies and procedures. This infrastructure has evolved over many years and consists of tools and technologies acquired or built to address the specific requirements of particular projects or programs.
Developed independently, the elements of this infrastructure were typically not designed to facilitate the exchange of data and information across programs or disciplines, to allow for sharing of information resources or expertise, or to be combined into a Bureauwide and broader information infrastructure.
The challenge to the Bureau is to wisely and effectively use its information resources to create a more Integrated Information Environment that can reduce costs, enhance the discovery and delivery of scientific products, and improve support for science. This Information Technology Strategic Plan. Extreme geomagnetically induced currents. We expect this framework to be useful for preparing against extreme events. Our analysis is based on a review of various papers, including those presented during Extreme Space Weather Workshops held in Japan in , , , and We set "caution," "warning," and "emergency" alert levels during the main phase of superstorms with the peak Dst index of less than nT once per 10 years , nT once per 60 years , or nT once per years , respectively.
The USGS role in mapping the nation's submerged lands. The seabed provides habitat for a diverse marine life having commercial, recreational, and intrinsic value. The habitat value of the seabed is largely a function of the geological structure and related geological, biological, oceanologic, and geochemical processes. Of equal importance, the nation's submerged lands contain energy and mineral resources and are utilized for the siting of offshore infrastructure and waste disposal.
Seabed character and processes influence the safety and viability of offshore operations. Seabed and subseabed characterization is a prerequisite for the assessment, protection, and utilization of both living and non-living marine resources. A comprehensive program to characterize and understand the nation's submerged lands requires scientific expertise in the fields of geology, biology, hydrography, and oceanography. Geological Survey USGS has long experience as the Federal agency charged with conducting geologic research and mapping in both coastal and offshore regions.
Numerous USGS studies show that sea-floor geology and processes determine the character and distribution of biological habitats, control coastal evolution, influence the coastal response to storm events and human alterations, and determine the occurrence and concentration of natural resources. USGS investigations of water produced during hydrocarbon reservoir development. Significant quantities of water are present in hydrocarbon reservoirs. When brought to the land surface during oil, gas, and coalbed methane production, the water—either naturally occurring or injected as a method to enhance production—is termed produced water.
Produced water is currently managed through processes such as recycling, treatment and discharge, spreading on roads, evaporation or infiltration, and deep well injection. Geological Survey USGS scientists conduct research and publish data related to produced water, thus providing information and insight to scientists, decisionmakers, the energy industry, and the public. The information advances scientific knowledge, informs resource management decisions, and facilitates environmental protection.
The research products help inform decisions pertaining to understanding the nature and management of produced water in the United States. On Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism. A statistical description of Earth's broad scale, core-source magnetic field has been developed and tested. The description features an expected, or mean, spatial magnetic power spectrum that is neither "flat" nor "while" at any depth, but is akin to spectra advanced by Stevenson and McLeod. This multipole spectrum describes the magnetic energy range; it is not steep enough for Gubbins' magnetic dissipation range.
Natural variations of core multipole powers about their mean values are to be expected over geologic time and are described via trial probability distribution functions that neither require nor prohibit magnetic isotropy. The description is thus applicable to core-source dipole and low degree non-dipole fields despite axial dipole anisotropy. The description is combined with main field models of modem satellite and surface geomagnetic measurements to make testable predictions of: The predicted core radius is 0.
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