Manual O Tribunal de Contas no Ordenamento Jurídico Brasileiro (Portuguese Edition)

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Get fast, free shipping with Amazon Prime. Your recently viewed items and featured recommendations. View or edit your browsing history. Get to Know Us. English Choose a language for shopping. Would you like to report this content as inappropriate? Do you believe that this item violates a copyright? Amazon Music Stream millions of songs. It has urged the regime to grant immediate, unimpeded and full access of humanitarian organisations in order to allow them to deliver humanitarian assistance and medical care to all those in need.

The EU is committed to the protection and promotion of the rights of the child in its external and internal policies. The EU Heads of Missions monitor and report on children affected by armed conflicts. Rischio di iperinflazione per l'Europa. Per ottenere i prestiti della BCE, esse offrono in collaterale i titoli invendibili che hanno in pancia. The banks have already notified the European Central Bank ECB that they will be requiring a trillion at the next auction of three-year loans, scheduled for late February. To obtain the ECB loans, they will be offering the unsalable securities they hold as collateral.

EU banks have been subject to three successive rounds of stress tests to ensure a very high level of solvency and robustness even under extreme conditions. On top of this, EU banks are undergoing a strict recapitalisation exercise, coordinated by the European Banking Authority, that will raise their solvency ratios significantly above the minimum levels that will be required by future the Basel III regulatory framework, including by requiring banks to hold a temporary capital buffers to withstand market losses on their holdings of sovereign debt.

As regards bank funding, the current lack of market liquidity for EU banks has led the European Central Bank ECB to provide banks with sufficient liquidity in order to meet their funding requirements and avoid a disruptive deleveraging process. This decisive support from the ECB is essential to facilitate the adequate flow of credit to the economy. A mild recession is projected for the euro area with GDP growth at — 0.

Inflation is expected to continue its slow decline over the coming quarters, for as a whole, it is forecast to fall to 2. If not, how will criminal and civil provisions relating to the violation of intellectual property rights IPR be enshrined in US law? Will legal entities in the European Union have recourse to the provisions laid down by ACTA in cases that involve the infringement of intellectual property rights in the United States?

Because of their territorial nature, the violation of intellectual property rights in a given territory will be assessed according to the law of the territory where the infringement is located. Up to now, specific categories of animals are covered by the scope of the Union's rules on animal welfare as detailed in the abovementioned strategy. Therefore, the Commission will work along this direction keeping in mind the limits of the Union's Treaties. The Commission will have to demonstrate in any case that additional rules or an extended scope for the welfare of animals fall within the competences of the Union and respect the principles of subsidiarity and proportionality as laid down in the Treaties.

This dramatically reduces the enjoyment of those who wish to view the night sky. Currently, there are no further plans on this matter and no further assessment is planned.

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Is the EEAS aware of the arrest of Parastoo Dokouhaki, a blogger, human rights activist and journalist, who has been detained by the Iranian authorities on alleged grounds of national security? Will the EEAS lobby the Iranian Government for the release of all political prisoners, especially those standing up for the rights of women? The right to free speech is an internationally enshrined fundamental human right, to which Iran itself has freely signed up.

Is the EEAS aware that in the severely undeveloped state of South Sudan very few young girls take their final primary school exams, and fewer still go on to secondary education? What help can be provided to allow all students the opportunity to continue their education so that they can develop the necessary reading and writing skills? The European Union is acutely aware of the huge challenges South Sudan faces in building an economy and social infrastructure from scratch.

Education is not immune to it, and the country has one of the worst education development indicators in the world, far away from attaining Millennium Development Goals in education and gender equality, and realising Education for All. Girls' education and gender equality have been identified as critical in the Education Sector Strategic Plan The EU is firmly convinced that a basic precondition for a peaceful, viable and prosperous South Sudan is the possibility for children to envision a different future away from war, where they will contribute to a more sustainable economy and a more diverse base for growth.

The EU will continue to be a staunch supporter of South Sudan in its efforts to realise this important development goal. Would the EEAS not agree that different overlapping naval mandates can generate unnecessary duplication of effort, which the Member States can ill afford at a time of severe defence budget cuts? Further, would the EEAS agree that any real solution to the problem of maritime piracy in this region lies in stability and the rule of law on land, so as to deter, disrupt and repress such activities?

As a pre-emptive measure, what land-based anti-piracy programmes has the EEAS put in place to support its maritime strategy? The operations are coordinated to dove-tail, not overlap. The EU is also supporting the development of Somali security capacities This includes: The EU follows developments in Iraq very closely and continuously voices human rights concerns at every possible occasion with Iraqi authorities and at every level. The EU Delegation also meets regularly with members of the Iraqi Parliament and civil society, especially those involved in human rights work. Both are considered crucial sectors, to ensure protection of human rights.

The EU capacity building activities and support to the civil society in those sectors will continue to be reflected in the priorities of EU's policy towards Iraq. Ask the EEAS what political pressure can be applied on Lebanon to address its lack of legislation against spousal rape, and current laws that drop sentences for rapists who agree to marry their victims? The EU Delegation in Beirut is in close contact with the local civil society to discuss various issues connected to the rights of women, among others their protection from domestic violence and spousal rape.

Would it not agree that the breakneck speed of Chinese military modernisation, especially in the domains of space and cyber warfare, may create a formula for mistrust that challenges the regional balance in the Asia-Pacific region and potentially beyond? It has been working especially on developing a number of domestic technologies either related to asymmetric warfare for instance, anti-satellite capabilities or to more conventional power projection tools such as their first aircraft carrier.

The EU is also extending its bilateral cooperation with China in order to secure an appropriate framework for addressing such concerns, complementary to the bilateral cooperation that many member states have with China in the military field. Of particular relevance in all this remain the issues of human rights, stability and security in the region and the national security of friendly and allied countries. The EU has not changed its position on the arms embargo since , when it had reaffirmed its political will to continue to work towards lifting it. Following the death of North Korean dictator Kim Jong-Il, the situation in the Korean peninsula remains in a parlous state.

What recent contact has the EEAS had with the parties involved in the six-party talks on the nuclear issue? Although not directly involved in the Six Party Talks, it is closely working with its international partners towards a complete, verifiable and irreversible dismantlement of that programme. The issue is discussed in all political meetings with the EU's strategic partners.

Strict safeguards and controls were agreed with the WFP in order to mitigate the risks of food diversion. WFP monitors checked the food commodities delivered at the main entry ports and railway stations, as well as their dispatching to the transit warehouses and local food production factories, with hundreds of visits paid each month to different social institutions. The Commission also deployed five technical monitoring missions in order to verify the correct implementation of the humanitarian aid operations.

All monitoring commitments were respected from the DPRK side. The exercise of these exemptions is a matter for Member States and the Honourable Member's questions regarding the two examples cited should be addressed to the relevant states. Women in Yemen have limited access to healthcare, economic opportunities and education. Accordingly, can the EEAS outline what pressure it has — or intends to — put on the Yemeni authorities to address such shortcomings?

The cooperation programmes financed through the Development Cooperation Instrument from which Yemen benefits have largely concentrated on three main areas: Within these programmes specific attention is paid to underprivileged parts of society, mainly women and youth. Several projects under the European Instrument for Democracy and Human Rights have directly addressed discrimination against women and girls. It is clear that the gender-gap in Yemen will not disappear overnight. Can the Commission provide details of its slum upgrade and prevention programmes in Kenya?

Another ongoing regional project that includes a component in the Mathare slum supports women and young people in obtaining decent work through entrepreneurship development. The EU is also the main donor of the regional Participatory Slum Upgrading Programme PSUP , which provides technical assistance to efforts of slum upgrading at national level on how to undertake assessments, design proposals, mobilise stakeholders and establish a national framework coordinating urban poverty reduction issues. There are also two projects in the health sector, which ended in , in Nairobi's Kibera and Mukuru slums.

Can the Commission provide details of measures it is taking, or has taken, to bring an end to forced prostitution within these camps, especially as this issue has received little attention from the Haitian government or international community? The Commission responded swiftly and massively to the devastating earthquake in Haiti. Needs were enormous and EU funded projects in key areas such as health, shelter, water and sanitation, nutrition, food assistance, risk reduction, as well as protection. Follow up actions included a series of activities including: The Commission has, as much as possible, promoted cooperation with local organisations which have taken some very simple but efficient measures to enhance protection in the camps.

Considering that violence against women was already widespread before the earthquake, addressing sexual violence in Haiti in a more comprehensive and sustainable way requires longer-term actions going beyond the scope of humanitarian emergency interventions and involves structural changes to enforce the rule of law in the country.


The European Commission is very much attached to gender equality and committed to its implementation in all EU policies. In the current context of austerity, it is of utmost importance that public money is spent in an efficient way. The European Commission will in particular pay attention to the implementation of the annual and multi-annual work programmes.

Does the Commission intend to ring-fence any spending such as projects and programmes designed to protect women from violence and discrimination? The Commission's proposals represent a budget for investment and growth, focusing on Europe priorities, impacts and results. They focus on priority funding that provides EU added value. This programme merges three current Programmes: The integration of the three programmes into one aims to promote the development of synergies among these areas of funding.

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In order to achieve this goal and in order to allow for flexibility in addressing the needs that might arise annually until , the programme does not preset a strict allocation of funds per area. This allocation will be done annually in the Programme's Annual Work Programme and it will take into consideration the annual needs and priorities of each policy area. Would it not agree that such a draft law risks the safety of women in Turkey, and any potential Turkish membership of the EU? The Minister for Family and Social Policy has proposed a draft law on the protection from violence of women and family members.

This draft has been prepared with extensive consultation of NGOs and is currently with the Turkish Cabinet of Ministers. Contrary to what is suggested in the question of the Honourable member, the Commission's understanding is that the draft law grants no authority to Turkish courts to remove penalties from men who promise not to use violence against women again.

The Commission announced with great fanfare earlier this month that, for the second year running, it had urged all EU institutions to show the utmost restraint when drafting their estimates for their administrative budgets. However, the Commission notes that its calls for restraint to other Institutions along the same rigorous budgeting the Commission applies to its own section of the budget has resulted in a very limited increases in administrative expenditure in , despite increasing tasks resulting, among others from the entry into force of the Lisbon Treaty and the necessary preparation of Croatia's accession.

Expenditure of Institutions other than the Commission increased by 1. That was only possible, for instance, because the Council reduced the appropriations for items such as travel expenditure or building provisions; the Court of Auditors redeployed existing posts for new auditors and did not take into account price increases for expenditure not related to salaries and related allowances; the Parliament implemented measures to make economies in fields such as language services or travel expenditure.

If the impact assessment published in September was so inaccurate, will the Commission consider bringing disciplinary procedures against the officials involved in the drafting of this report? In the context of ongoing discussions on the Commission proposal for an FTT, the Commission services will continue to provide appropriate additional elements of analysis complementing and further explaining the assessment that accompanied the legislative proposal.

The Commission is satisfied that the impact assessment established in preparation of its FTT proposal was carried out in accordance with the internal rules of the institution and that it provided an appropriate basis for the College in it's decision-making process. Egyptische filmster moet de cel in na beledigen islam. De Egyptische filmster Adel Imam heeft een gevangenisstraf van drie maanden gekregen omdat hij in zijn films en voorstellingen de islam beledigt. Afgelopen zomer plaatste hij op Twitter een afbeelding van Mickey en Minnie Mouse in islamitische kleren.

Hoe luidt het exacte vonnis tegen Adel Imam en hoe luidt de aanklacht tegen Naguib Sawiris? Op welke rechtsbeginselen wordt hij vervolgd en zijn die rechtsbeginselen verenigbaar met het concept van een democratische rechtsstaat? Welke stappen heeft de Commissie ondernomen of gaat de Commissie nog nemen, om er zorg voor te dragen dat vrijheid van meningsuiting ook geldt voor mensen die kritiek hebben op de islam?

De EU hecht veel belang aan de eerbiediging van de vrijheid en de pluriformiteit van de media. Vrijheid van meningsuiting is een grondrecht van ieder mens en maakt inherent deel uit van de menselijke waardigheid. Het is ook een hoeksteen van de democratie, die van cruciaal belang is voor de vrije uitwisseling van informatie waarop eenieder recht heeft. De EU zet de Egyptische autoriteiten onder druk wegens de schendingen van de mensenrechten sinds de afzetting van president Mubarak.

Egyptian film star Adel Imam has received a three-month prison sentence for insulting Islam in his films and plays. Egyptian media magnate Naguib Sawiris also faces trial on a charge of insulting Islam. What is the exact wording of the verdict against Adel Imam and that of the charge against Naguib Sawiris? According to which principles of justice is he being prosecuted and are those principles compatible with the concept of a democratic state based on the rule of law?

Does the Commission agree with the PVV that it should be possible in a democratic state based on the rule of law to criticise Islam? If not, why not? Which steps has the Commission taken, or is it going to take, to ensure that freedom of expression also applies to people who criticise Islam? The EU is strongly committed to the respect of freedom and pluralism of the media. Freedom of expression is a fundamental right of every human being and an inherent part of human dignity. It is also a cornerstone of democracy and crucial for the free flow of information to which everyone is entitled.

The protection of persons belonging to minorities and the fight against discrimination, including on religious grounds, is a priority in the planning of the EU's cooperation with Egypt. The EU has put pressure on the Egyptian authorities with regard to the human rights violations perpetrated since the ousting of President Mubarak. These matters are also regularly raised in our informal contacts with the Egyptian authorities in Brussels and Cairo. Adel Imam has announced that he would appeal his three-month jail sentence pronounced in abstentia for insulting Islam in some characters he protrayed in movies and plays.

The Qasr El-Nil Misdemeanour Court in Cairo rejected the religious defamation lawsuit that accused Naguid Sawiris of contempt for religion on the grounds that the plaintiffs had no legal standing to sue. The annual Report on Progress on Equality between Women and Men that has been submitted by the European Commission to the European Parliament, the Council, the European Economic and Social Committee and the Committee of the Regions every year since is a very important and useful document both for the institutions of the European Union and the Member States. The report presents trends and comparative statistical information from all the countries according to strategic priorities, information about gender equality actions undertaken by the European Commission and the Member States and provides an opportunity to eliminate manifestations of inequality.

These are not simply de jure equal rights for women and men. They are tangible, practical actions, specific measures, projects and initiatives by means of which to achieve de facto gender equality in all areas, particularly in matters of employment and occupation. We have been informed that this year the European Commission will not submit a separate annual Report on Progress on Equality between Women and Men, but will attach an annex on the issue of gender equality to the report on Fundamental Human Rights.

If so, could the European Commission explain why and on what grounds it will not be submitting this separate report this year? The Commission further committed to prepare annual reports to better inform citizens on the application of the Charter and to measure progress in its implementation. In riferimento a quanto precedentemente detto, chiediamo alla Commissione di precisare quanto segue:. Sono previste azioni mirate al fine di evitare che queste emergenze si ripresentino ciclicamente?

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Tuttavia, una rete interna del gas ben interconnessa e un mercato interno dell'energia ben funzionante sono altrettanto importanti per garantire il trasporto senza ostacoli del gas nell'ambito dell'UE. Entro la fine del dovranno essere istituiti piani di azione preventivi e piani di emergenza. The freezing cold snap in recent days has, once again, highlighted the long-standing problem of energy supply in Europe and the lack of a common energy policy.

Diversification of sources, routes and counterparts is a cornerstone of European security of supply. One of the objectives of the EU's policy to promote renewable energy is precisely to contribute to improving energy security by reducing dependency of imported fuels through the exploitation of a wide range of often indigenous renewable energy sources. The Commission's communication on the EU's external energy policy aims at enhancing the partnership with our supply partners. Additional obligatory measures in all Member States, such as the supply standard and the infrastructure standard, ensure that gas is supplied to protected customers even in severe weather conditions and that there is sufficient capacity to transport the gas in cases of disruptions on the biggest infrastructure.

Preventive measures against avian influenza are in place and coordinated at the level of the Union. These prescribed measures must be implemented by all the Member States along with strengthened surveillance to ensure a high degree of preparedness against avian influenza across the Union and ensure equal standards of protection for citizens. Por conseguinte, foi recomendado um acompanhamento caso a caso. Breast implants PIP and other brands are classified as active implantable medical devices. Before they can be placed on the market, medical devices are required to have received the CE marking, which guarantees their compliance with applicable legislation and that they are appropriate for their purpose and safe to use.

How does it view what is so far known about the safety of PIP implants? How does it consider it to have been possible for both EU and national authorities to have been unaware of the major health risks posed by these implants? Does it have any information on cases of cancer linked to PIP implants? How does it advise Member States to address this issue? Is the Commission able to give a favourable response to the request made by the French health minister, among others?

Does it see a need to amend the current legislation to make it more restrictive and prevent the recurrence of situations such as this? Is it able to reassure Europeans of the safety and effectiveness of medical devices currently on the market? Does it have access to any data that might confirm that what happened with PIP implants will not happen with other, similar medical devices used for the same purpose? In the PIP case, the manufacturer has fraudulently used a silicone different to the one declared during the conformity assessment procedure.

The fraud was not immediately detected, neither by the Notified Body during the audits, nor by the authorities during market surveillance. In its opinion the SCENIHR referred to studies on silicone breast implants providing evidence against an increased risk of breast cancer or any other type of cancer. The SCENIHR concluded that the evidence indicating a health risk for women implanted with PIP implants was not strong, but raised some concern regarding an increased inflammation resulting from ruptured implants.

A patient by patient approach was therefore recommended. This opinion constitutes a common scientific basis for Member States to take the appropriate risk management decisions at national level. The Commission has analysed this case to identify possible shortcomings in the medical device legislation. The findings will be taken into account in the proposals to revise this legislation, whose preparations had started before this case and which are foreseen for The Commission has also prepared a list of measures that could be taken immediately under existing legislation to reinforce the system, in particular with regard to unannounced audits, sample testing and better data sharing.

The Commission does not have data putting into question the safety of other breast implants, but will closely monitor any scientific evidence in order to take measures, if appropriate. Two recent developments in Guinea-Bissau have been of particular concern: Both are tending to jeopardise the already fragile stability of the state, making it advisable that aid to Guinea-Bissau from the international community be stepped up.

Do you have information about the situation of the military personnel imprisoned following this and previous conflicts? Are you prepared to continue supporting Guinea-Bissau, and to continue promoting the rule of law and human rights there? What specific measures have you taken or do you envisage taking in this regard? Recent events appear to have neutralised one of the armed forces' leaders, and to have convinced the armed forces to better support the Government. But the political situation remains very fragile and the armed forces still wield significant power over civilian authorities.

Drug trafficking affects the whole society. There is an urgent need for a genuine and deep security sector reform.

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Those still kept in prison are reported to be in good detention conditions and hearings before the Prosecutor continue. There are no military personnel still imprisoned following earlier events, to the EU's knowledge. The EU will continue to support Guinea Bissau and promote the rule of law and human rights there. A significant part of EU assistance is still ongoing, including cooperation benefitting the most vulnerable population, as well as programmes promoting democratic stability, human rights and governance. The EU will support the holding of the presidential and legislative elections in The full resumption of EU assistance will take place when further progress has been made by the Government and the armed forces on the specific commitments they have undertaken, notably security sector reform.

The most frequently detected offences were lack of prior information for consumers and lack of written information about the right of withdrawal. There were cases of failure to implement the contract by the supplier; repair or replacement of goods outside the established timeframe; lack of a complaints book; failure to include taxes, levies or charges in the published price; non-identification of the vendor or representative and absence of any Portuguese-language version in the guarantee; failure by the supplier to refund payment within the established timeframe in case of withdrawal from the contract; and disregard for advertising rules, with price reductions and the use of unauthorised means of distance communication.

What is its overall evaluation of the security and reliability of the services provided by such operators? Is the Commission prepared to continue promoting the security and reliability of this type of commerce? What measures has it taken or does it envisage taking in relation to this matter? EU legislation already provides significant protection for consumers. If this uncertainty is not cleared up soon, the tuna seiners run the risk of missing the fishing season, as they will not be able to fish in March.

According to some sources, the talks are now focusing on the inclusion of a human rights clause. The respect of human rights is a necessary condition for the conclusion of the Protocol with Gabon. This condition is an explicit element of the mandate that the Council gave the Commission for this negotiation. After the second round of negotiations, both Parties considered that more time for reflection was needed. Nevertheless, it is worth noting that fishing activities can resume only after the adoption of a new Council Decision endorsing a new Protocol.

China verbiedt deelname luchtvaartmaatschappijen aan ETS. In navolging van de Verenigde Staten heeft nu ook de Chinese regering luchtvaartmaatschappijen verboden deel te nemen aan ETS. De EU-ETS-wetgeving bevat bepalingen over doeltreffende, evenredige en afschrikkende sancties bij niet-naleving, die door de lidstaten ten uitvoer worden gelegd, zoals boetes of andere sancties. De samenwerking met China blijft ook op dit specifieke gebied gehandhaafd en de Commissie voert besprekingen met China over hoe de klimaatverandering kan worden aangepakt en rekening kan worden gehouden met alle rechtmatige belangen.

De Commissie zal nagaan of wijzigingen in de wetgeving nodig zijn, zoals reeds in de richtlijn zelf is bepaald, indien en wanneer binnen de Internationale Burgerluchtvaartorganisatie ICAO een overeenkomst over mondiale maatregelen tot stand komt.

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China is opposed to the unilateral introduction of the ETS on the grounds that it is an unfair trade barrier. The EU ETS legislation includes provisions on effective, proportionate and dissuasive penalties for non-compliance, which would be implemented by Member States and which may include fines or other sanctions. The coordinated introduction of EU wide operating bans for specific operators is theoretically possible under the directive but this would only become relevant as a last resort option where all other measures have failed to ensure compliance. Cooperation with China is also continuing in this specific field and the Commission is conducting talks with China about how to address climate change, and to consider any legitimate concerns.

The Commission is also working hard to reach an agreement on global measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from aviation. The Commission will review and consider amendments to the legislation, as already foreseen in the directive itself, if and when an agreement on global measures is achieved in the. This pipeline agreement has cast further doubt on the Nabucco pipeline project.

While RWE has so far rejected this speculation, uncertainties are only increasing, especially ahead of the decision by Azerbaijan on supply contracts in March. It seems clear that now would be the time for action on the part of the Commission to clarify once and for all the situation of the Southern Corridor. Could the Commission present its understanding of the current state of play of the Nabucco pipeline project? Will the Commission be willing to ask the Council for an urgent mandate to enter into talks to secure the Nabucco project or to negotiate its merger with the Trans-Anatolian Pipeline project?

Does the Commission intend any other actions in this regard? Could the Commission reconfirm to Parliament that it is committed to a Southern Corridor with access to non-Russian sources of gas supply, and state what it will now do to implement this programme? The promoter of the Nabucco project participates in these negotiations. TANAP, the new project idea which emerged in the process of the Shah Deniz 2 negotiations, is in a very early stage and its feasibility remains to be tested. The Commission, in its contacts with the Azerbaijani and Turkish governments, stresses that the transportation solution across Turkey needs to consist of a newly built dedicated pipeline, engineered in such a way as to allow an increase in capacity when new gas becomes available scalability and operating under a well defined, transparent and internationally-acceptable regulatory and legal regime that guarantees the rights of the consumers.

Danni provocati dalla neve nelle campagne romane. I danni causati da neve e ghiaccio nelle campagne romane hanno raggiunto i 4 milioni e potrebbero aumentare ancora.

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Con quali misure la Commissione intende intervenire a sostegno dei produttori gravemente danneggiati dal maltempo? Con quali misure la Commissione intende intervenire per tutelare i consumatori ed evitare che i prodotti subiscano rincari e speculazioni? Il regolamento di esecuzione UE n. Per quanto concerne i prezzi al consumo, il cattivo raccolto in una determinata regione comporta generalmente una pressione al rialzo dei prezzi sul mercato locale, che va a vantaggio dei produttori e compensa in parte le perdite. Per tale ragione, la Commissione non considera necessario adottare misure speciali allo stadio attuale.

According to Coldiretti, work in the vegetable fields and unheated greenhouses in the agri-food centres around Rome is at a virtual standstill. The risk is that the goods actually reaching supermarket shelves might become more expensive and subject to speculation. What action does the Commission intend to take to support the producers who have been so seriously damaged by the bad weather?

What action does the Commission intend to take to protect consumers and prevent product prices from rising and speculation in general? The aim of the harvest insurance measures is to contribute to safeguarding producers' income and covering market losses caused by natural disasters, climatic events and, where appropriate, diseases or pest infestations. To benefit from the harvest insurance measure, the producers need to belong to a recognised producer organisation and the operational programme has to include this measure.

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As far as consumer prices are concerned, it can be expected that a bad harvest in a certain region will lead to an upward pressure on prices in the local market, which benefits producers and compensate part of the losses. However this is a transitory situation in view of the improving weather conditions the prices will return to normal levels. Therefore, the Commission currently sees no necessity to take any special measures at this stage.

Carenza di infrastrutture e fondi per treni e autostrade nel Sud Italia. Per le linee a doppio binario elettrificato va anche peggio: Uguale svantaggio per il Sud Italia nel settore stradale e autostradale, il che causa un danno al processo di industrializzazione del Mezzogiorno d'Italia. Nel dicembre il Ministro Passera, seguendo la cattiva abitudine di tutti i governi precedenti che hanno favorito il Nord, ha sbloccato dal CIPE 3,8 miliardi di euro per finanziare infrastrutture trasportistiche.

Di questi, solo milioni sono stati assegnati al Sud. The south of Italy is penalised with regard to transport and rail transport in particular. Suffice it to say that in this era of high-speed travel, the Rome-Palermo service has become 34 minutes slower than it was in In the case of electrified double-track lines, it is even worse: Southern Italy suffers the same disadvantage in terms of its roads and motorways, thereby damaging its industrialisation.

In view of the above, does the Commission not believe that there is a clear breach of the fundamental right to mobility and consumer rights for the citizens of Southern Italy, who pay the same ticket prices but receive a lower quality and slower service? Does it not believe that this imbalance serves purely to further deprive the regions of Southern Italy? The primary responsibility to ensure the welfare of its citizens, including by providing access to quality services to all, rests with the Member States.

However, within the framework of its cohesion policy, the Union cooperates with the Member States and makes available important financial resources to support the reduction of the disparities between the levels of development of the various regions and the backwardness of the least favoured regions. In certi Stati membri, i contratti di lavoro a tempo determinato possono essere usati quali periodo preassunzione o quali prolungamento del periodo di prova.

The percentage of those with temporary jobs remains high even when moving up to the next age band: It is only among employees aged 35 and over that the incidence of temporary jobs drops significantly: The figures stated refer to averages and it must be borne in mind that they only apply to those lucky enough to actually have a job, whilst for others even a temporary position may be an impossible dream. Unemployment figures show that one in three young adults is currently unable to find any form of employment. The Commission is keenly aware of the very difficult youth employment situation in Europe and the high incidence of temporary contracts, which is one of its symptoms.

Nonetheless, the situation varies considerably across the Union, which may reflect differences in organisation of the labour market. In some Member States temporary contracts may conceivably be used as a pre-hiring or extended probationary period. This could explain the big difference Piano di emergenza per la fornitura di gas. La morsa del gelo in Italia e in Europa ha messo a dura prova le aziende e le famiglie europee che si trovano ora in emergenza energetica.

Nel frattempo Russia e Francia hanno ridotto le esportazioni. Pertanto, gli Stati membri e le associazioni europee del settore del gas erano a conoscenza della situazione italiana. Then, ir also follows the question about the legitimacy of the court, that is, does the Supremo Tribunal Federal should have the last word on decisions of the executive and legislative powers, especially concerning their public policies? Dworkin; law; constitution; democracy; legitimacy. Entendo que a norma do art. Neste sentido, ele age moral e politicamente. As leis devem representar a moralidade compartilhada entre os membros de uma comunidade.

O juiz " [ Isso porque " [ Celso de Mello, j. O tema vem sendo decidido nos mesmos moldes pelos tribunais inferiores 3. Dessa maneira, o direito individual poderia ser sacrificado para atender a um interesse coletivo.