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  1. Cultural Anthropology/Ritual and Religion
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  4. Cultural Anthropology/Ritual and Religion - Wikibooks, open books for an open world
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This moral isolation in time would give way to politician and military confrontation. Muslims have been accustomed by their religion to bend space and time by overcoming the geographical and temporal dimensions set by outsiders. The ummah does not recognize man- made boundaries. The Middle East is a modern, European invention.

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The first migration for the sake of the religion, or hijra, when Muslims fled to Ethiopia to escape persecution in Arabia in A. The Believers took Mecca and Medina, the latter the site of the second hijra and home to al- muhajiroun the emigrants from Mecca and al-ansar the helpers born in Medina , the hub of Islam and axis of Africarabia. The hajj reinforced the notion of supra- national loyalty and identity. Leaving his home for Mecca the Muslim rediscovered his deen, re- discovered Allah, and saw his small village or city in the glow of a global civilization. Wars between Africans and among the Muslims themselves, kidnappings by Europeans, shipment across the Atlantic, chattel slavery and forced conversion to Christianity all plagued, perplexed and challenged the Believers, just as the followers of the Prophet had been tested, but surrender to kaafir authority was not an option.

Holy warriors, saints and healers crossed first the African continent in the seventh century. Islam came to West Africa by way of trade, commerce and labor migration. Indigenous proselytizers, not Arab warriors or immigrants, spread news of the One God. European slavers and merchant traders who might have raised the banner of Christianity mostly staid put on the coasts, hence Islam faced little competition for prestige among converts, and this reinforced the notion of the deen as native to Africarabia.

Cultural Anthropology/Ritual and Religion

The transatlantic slave trade did not break but perpetuated the status of Islam as a global religion, and brought two new continents into the ummah. Among the Africans shipped from the Central Sudan, principal source of slaves for Brazil, females accounted for less than five percent, according to some estimates. Marriage was usually voluntary and consensual rather than arranged, and female circumcision rare. The dowry guaranteed to her by the Quran gave her property separate from her husband, and at the same time was regarded as a gift to the spirits of the animist tradition who protected the bride.

Matrilineage was maintained by many African peoples who converted to Islam, and the wife, in principle if not always in practice, had to be consulted on all important decisions. We may assume that she was the prototype of the Bahianathe strong, self-assured, independent woman from Bahia celebrated in Brazilian folklore since colonial times.

The dress was made of the same linen worn by women back in the Costa da Mina where the Portuguese raided for slaves.

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Lace skirts were not unusual, and most Muslim women in Bahia walked in sandals. Some were veiled in the hijab, and others covered their bodies in cloth head to feet in shawls or multi- layered skirts. The move from countryside in West Africa to Salvador had apparently highlighted, though not entirely enthroned, more patriarchal and domestic values among the Afro-Muslims. Tawheed Islamic monotheism and the Arabic language ensured cohesion and order, while multiculturalism led to syncretism and Muslims adapting to new circumstances, no matter how harsh the surroundings.

In matters of cultural preference the Muslims remained committed to individual choice, informality and negotiated accommodation to the ways of others. Yet, they nevertheless guard and faithfully transmit the opinions they brought from Africa, because they study Arabic rather thoroughly, or enough to understand the Quran. The purity of the Muslim, his constant battle against the intrusion of disbelief, struck some Christians as bordering on violence. He is well-educated, knowing how to read and write in his own language but also Portuguese.

He is very intolerant, very fanatical, and is trying in every way to convert me; and even though I had received him in the best manner possible, and even given him money, he refuses to pay me a return visit, telling another black that he will not call on a Christian dog. He must be about seventy years old. He had been a marabout, and made the pilgrimage to Mecca. At the base of jihad was maintaining the five pillars of Islam in the land of the kaafirs: The five daily prayers: The mandated month of sacrifice and purification by abstaining from food, drink and conjugal relations from dawn to dusk.

The thirty days of fasting would be followed by sixty days of normal activity, and then ten days given over to penitence. There may have been, according to some sources, an additional thirty days of fasting just for the marabouts. Ramadan, with its lunar calendar and precise observation of dawn and dusk, countered European solar and clock time. Yet even here an African element can be detected, as the pre-dawn and post-sunset meal, iftar, typically consisted of yam cooked with oil of dende oil-palm commonly used in Bahian cooking , rice with water, and a drink of sugar, milk and honey, just like on the mother continent.

Zakah, is the third pillar of Islam and was practiced by both slaves and free persons. There are two types of zakah: But, quite a few freed Africans made the hajj and then returned to Salvador to proselytize among the non-Muslims, thus reinforcing the axis of Africarabia. Those forced to stay in Bahia celebrated hajj in a ceremony named the bairan, which involved the sacrifice of a lamb followed by public prayer.

Endogamous marriage solidified ties among families, clans, and ethnic groups in Bahia. Parents from both families were in attendance. An exchange of gifts made of silver started the ceremony. Afterwards, all retired to a makeshift banquet hall, owned by a free person in most cases, but men and women, including the new husband and wife, sat in different compartments.

He with his mates, talking of family to come, and she among her Muslim sisters, clapping hands and singing songs from the other side of the Atlantic. The Hausa held a belief in evil spirits called ishoki, which they made compatible with the jinn. In fact, the Hausa word for jinn, adjan, is taken from the Arabic janna. West African animism features a continuum between man and nature and a supernatural world-spirit who inhabits his own creation; indeed we may say that for the animists God exists in degrees, not as an absolute Being.

Spells were written on a tablet Arabic aliwa , with ink made from rice burnt for this ceremony. The water used to clean the tablet was then drunk, granting the writer, and spell-maker, magical powers; an enemy, including the master, might be poisoned or a piece of machinery might break down if interfered with by the adjan. Counter-magic or reverse witchcraft took the form of a small purse worn around the neck, the bolsa de mandinga, purse of the Mandinga a talisman which contained papers inscribed with Quranic verses written in broken Arabic.

The talisman protected the wearer from every peril, including spells, bullets, and the evil eye. Rings displaying the Sign were also worn to bring blessings upon any undertaking. In the opposite corner, the Yoruba devil, Exu, acted in the manner of a mediator and intercessor between humans and the gods residing in the next world; hence he did not exactly fit the description of the sneaking Shaytan of Islam who whispers evil suggestions in the ears of mankind.

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But he could be taken for one of the nefarious jinn who cause mischief yet have no power other than what Allah grants them. Jihad against the Disbelievers: This came from a Hausa tradition of applying Shariah after accepting Islam, whereas others tended to maintain pre-Islamic laws and customs. The imam appointed an authority in matters of judicial decisions al- Khadi and the fiscal system, primarily taxation for al-zakat.

His chief aide, the ladano served him in both tasks. The European slave trade and intrusions into the interior of West Africa by missionaries and other colonists had shattered the cosmology of many animists, and delegitimized their deities. The predominance of one Islamic school of jurisprudence in West Africa, the Maliki, which emphasizes the Sunnah and the practices of the Companions of the Prophet over a strict interpretation of the Quran, highlighted the importance of brotherhood between Muslims and prospective converts.

The Muslim, by design of Allah is thrust into confrontation with the power of the kaafir to test and try the Believer.

Cultural Anthropology/Ritual and Religion - Wikibooks, open books for an open world

Events are moving forward at such a rapid pace that many of his predictions have become history. Lukman didn't want to be accused of that for which he condemns our "rearguard leadership"; namely, "Monday Morning Quarterbacking". He was the Distinguished Honor Graduate of his U. Army Airborne School class.

He attended the U. Army Ranger School and was stationed in a Ranger Unit. He has over 20 years experience as a computer consultant to a host of Fortune and International Corporations. His passion for history has fueled his travel.


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While in Greece, he toured not only the mainland but also many of the Greek Isles, visiting most of the major archeological sites and museums. While in Egypt, he did the same. Lukman has visited almost every major Mayan archeological site in the Western Hemisphere, including Chichenitza, Tulum, Coba, Copan etc. Lukman has lectured at various colleges and institutions, bringing light to the teachings of the Honorable Elijah Muhammad.


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Lukman is eminently qualified to lecture on the topics of history, geo-politics, military science and theology. Lukman's strength lies in his ideological diversity. Because of his in depth knowledge of the various schools of thought i.

Translation passages were given to the New Muslim and Non-Muslim high school and college students for reading under the supervision of various Ulema scholars. It was tremendous patience on part of the participants. May Allah reward them all. In this translation Simple Language and Direct Approach is used for appealing to the common sense of scholars and common people. There are no foot notes to refer and no commentary or lengthy explanations to read. All necessary explanations have been incorporated right there in the text with italic type setting to differentiate from the translation of the meanings of Qur'anic Arabic Text.

Before the start of each Srah, information relating to its Period of Revelation, Major Issues, Divine Laws and Guidance has been presented as an outline. All over this country, and the world, women and some male allies marched on Saturday, January 21st, Each woman who marched was a rain drop in a river of resistance to an increasing turn by demagogic leaning world leaders toward policies that trample on human rights.

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Paul Ryan, Mitch McConnell and others. As with many other women of color, I had to make an affirmative decision to march when part of my gut was suspicious. Suspicious of what you might ask? Suspicious of the fact that early on many organizers of the march seemed to be all white and middle class and not voicing the intersectionality that is so critical to addressing the oppression of women of color as well as any white women who are LGBTQ or poor. There seemed to be, once again, a feminism that identified patriarchy as oppression but not racism, homophobia or xenophobia — of which even some women themselves are guilty.

Ultimately I decided to march rather than cede a major political action to those whom I might not trust to articulate what I wanted such a march to protest. I was also very motivated by what happened with the national march in DC — women of color came to its leadership and the mission statement was radical and progressive. I was still dissatisfied with a number of things.