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In January he was hospitalized and spent three years at the Sotiria Sanatorium. While there he met several Marxists and intellectuals of his time and wrote several poems which were published in the literary annex of Pyrsos Encyclopedia. In October Ritsos returned to Athens and assumed the direction of the artistic division of the Labor Club, where he directed and acted in plays.
His health improved gradually, and so did his finances. In the following year, his father was admitted to Dafni Psychiatric Hospital, where he died in In , he began writing articles for Rizospastis, the Greek Communist Party newspaper, and he also became a member of the party, to which he remained loyal until his death. He published his first collection of poems called Tractor under the nickname Sostir anagram of his last name meaning saviour.
The following day, Ritsos saw a photo in Rizospastis showing a mother crying over her dead son who had been killed by police in the riots. That episode was the inspiration for one of his most popular poems, Epitaphios, which had a publishing run of 10, copies. During the Ioannis Metaxas dictatorship the last copies were burned by the regime at the Columns of Olympian Zeus in central Athens. In he was hospitalized again at the Parnitha Sanatorium.
Two years later, he was hired as a dancer at the National Opera. During the Civil War he was exiled because of his leftist activities, first in Limnos , then Makronisos and Agios Efstratios In he married pediatrician Fillitsa Georgiadou of Samos and they had a daughter Eri in In he ran as a member of the EDA in the national election. He was arrested and detained at the Faliro Hippodrome and was later taken to the camp for political prisoners on Gyaros, later being transferred to Leros.
In he returned to Athens, but after his refusal to compromise with the regime he was again exiled on Samos until the end of the year. In he participated in the Polytechnio uprising. After the fall of the dictatorship in , he spent most of his time in Athens, where he continued to write at a great pace.iampeterpham.com/5007.php
Emblems of the Passing World: Poems after Photographs by August Sander
The following year he was awarded the Lenin Prize in Moscow. In the ensuing years, he gave lectures at various universities, including Birmingham , Karl Marx of Leipzig and the University of Athens The Nordics are, all over the world, a race of soldiers, sailors, adventurers, and explorers, but above all, of rulers, organizers, and aristocrats in sharp contrast to the essentially peasant character of the Alpines.
Chivalry and knighthood, and their still surviving but greatly impaired counterparts, are peculiarly Nordic traits, and feudalism, class distinctions, and race pride among Europeans are traceable for the most part to the north.
Grant, while aware of the "Nordic Migration Theory" into the Mediterranean, appears to reject this theory as an explanation for the high civilization features of the Greco-Roman world. The mental characteristics of the Mediterranean race are well known, and this race, while inferior in bodily stamina to both the Nordic and the Alpine, is probably the superior of both, certainly of the Alpines, in intellectual attainments.
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In the field of art its superiority to both the other European races is unquestioned. Yet, while Grant allowed Mediterraneans to have abilities in art, as quoted above, later in the text in a sop to Nordic Migration Theorists, he remarked that true Mediterranean achievements were only through admixture with Nordics:. This is the race that gave the world the great civilizations of Egypt, of Crete, of Phoenicia including Carthage, of Etruria and of Mycenean Greece.
It gave us, when mixed and invigorated with Nordic elements, the most splendid of all civilizations, that of ancient Hellas, and the most enduring of political organizations, the Roman State.
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To what extent the Mediterranean race entered into the blood and civilization of Rome, it is now difficult to say, but the traditions of the Eternal City, its love of organization, of law and military efficiency, as well as the Roman ideals of family life, loyalty, and truth, point clearly to a Nordic rather than to a Mediterranean origin. In this manner, Grant appeared to be studiously following scientific theory. Critics warned that Grant used uncritical circular reasoning. By , the book is said to have sold 17, copies in the U. The book received positive reviews in the s, but Grant's popularity declined in the s.
Among those who embraced the book and its message was Adolf Hitler , who wrote to Grant to personally thank him for writing it, referring to the book as "my Bible.
Grant researched the published scientific literature, especially in anthropology, to support his notions of Nordic racialism. According to Grant, Nordics were in a dire state in the modern world, where their abandonment of cultural values rooted in religious or superstitious proto-racialism, they were close to committing "race suicide" by miscegenation and being outbred by inferior stock, which was taking advantage of the transition. Nordic theory was strongly embraced by the racial hygiene movement in Germany in the early s and s; however, they typically used the term " Aryan " instead of "Nordic", though the principal Nazi ideologist, Alfred Rosenberg , preferred "Aryo-Nordic" or "Nordic-Atlantean".
Grant was involved in many debates on the discipline of anthropology against the anthropologist Franz Boas , who advocated cultural anthropology in contrast to Grant's "hereditarian" branch of physical anthropology. Boas and his students were strongly opposed to racialist notions, holding that any perceived racial inequality was from social rather than biological factors.
Grant advocated restricted immigration to the United States through limiting immigration from East Asia and Southern Europe; he also advocated efforts to purify the American population though selective breeding. He served as the vice president of the Immigration Restriction League from to his death.
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Acting as an expert on world racial data, Grant also provided statistics for the Immigration Act of to set the quotas on immigrants from certain European countries. Even after the statute was passed, Grant continued to be irked that even a smattering of non-Nordics were allowed to immigrate to the country each year. He also assisted in the passing and prosecution of several anti-miscegenation laws , notably the Racial Integrity Act of in the state of Virginia , where he sought to codify his particular version of the " one-drop rule " into law.
Grant became a part of popular culture in s America. It's all scientific stuff; it's been proved. The book was a parody of contemporary writers and would thus be referring to them sarcastically as a "great race". Americans turned against Grant's ideas in the s; his book was no longer sold, and his supporters fell away. Grant's book and the genre in general was read in Germany, but eugenicists increasingly turned to Nazi Germany for leadership.
Heinrich Himmler 's Lebensborn Society was formed to preserve typical Nordic genes, such as blond hair and blue eyes, by sheltering blonde, blue-eyed women. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The Passing of the Great Race 4 ed. Defending the Master Race: Conservation, Eugenics, and the Legacy of Madison Grant. University of Vermont Press. Lay summary 29 September Charles Scribner's Sons, , p.
Oxford University Press, p. Norton, , p. The New York Times. Retrieved 13 March Retrieved from " https: