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  1. World Health Organization - Wikipedia
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  3. World Health Organization
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  5. World Health Organization

During the United Nations Conference on International Organization, Szeming Sze , a delegate from China, conferred with Norwegian and Brazilian delegates on creating an international health organization under the auspices of the new United Nations. After failing to get a resolution passed on the subject, Alger Hiss , the Secretary General of the conference, recommended using a declaration to establish such an organization.

Sze and other delegates lobbied and a declaration passed calling for an international conference on health. Andrija Stampar was the Assembly's first president, and G. In the WHO established an epidemiological information service via telex , and by a mass tuberculosis inoculation drive using the BCG vaccine was under way. In , the malaria eradication programme was launched, although it was later altered in objective. WHO established a network of consultants who assisted countries in setting up surveillance and containment activities.

In , the first list of essential medicines was drawn up, and a year later the ambitious goal of " Health For All " was declared. In , the Global Polio Eradication Initiative was established. In , WHO's Director-General highlighted gains in child survival, reduced infant mortality , increased life expectancy and reduced rates of "scourges" such as smallpox and polio on the fiftieth anniversary of WHO's founding.

He, did, however, accept that more had to be done to assist maternal health and that progress in this area had been slow. The WHO's Constitution states that its objective "is the attainment by all people of the highest possible level of health". The WHO fulfills this objective through its functions as defined in its Constitution: As of [update] , the WHO has defined its role in public health as follows: The — WHO budget identified 5 areas among which funding was distributed. During the s, WHO had dropped its commitment to a global malaria eradication campaign as too ambitious, it retained a strong commitment to malaria control.

WHO's Global Malaria Programme works to keep track of malaria cases, and future problems in malaria control schemes. For the time being, insecticide -treated mosquito nets and insecticide sprays are used to prevent the spread of malaria, as are antimalarial drugs — particularly to vulnerable people such as pregnant women and young children. These include engaging national governments and their financing, early diagnosis, standardising treatment, monitoring of the spread and effect of tuberculosis and stabilising the drug supply.

As of [update] , it has been working to immunize young children and prevent the re-emergence of cases in countries declared "polio-free". Polio is now on the verge of extinction, thanks to a Global Vaccination Drive. Another of the thirteen WHO priority areas is aimed at the prevention and reduction of "disease, disability and premature deaths from chronic noncommunicable diseases , mental disorders , violence and injuries , and visual impairment ".

The WHO estimates that Environmental risk factors, such as air, water and soil pollution, chemical exposures, climate change, and ultraviolet radiation, contribute to more than diseases and injuries.

World Health Organization - Wikipedia

This can result in a number of pollution-related diseases. WHO works to "reduce morbidity and mortality and improve health during key stages of life, including pregnancy, childbirth, the neonatal period , childhood and adolescence, and improve sexual and reproductive health and promote active and healthy aging for all individuals".

It also tries to prevent or reduce risk factors for "health conditions associated with use of tobacco, alcohol, drugs and other psychoactive substances, unhealthy diets and physical inactivity and unsafe sex ". The WHO works to improve nutrition, food safety and food security and to ensure this has a positive effect on public health and sustainable development. The WHO promotes road safety as a means to reduce traffic-related injuries. The WHO has also worked on global initiatives in surgery, including emergency and essential surgical care, [38] trauma care, [39] and safe surgery.

The World Health Organization's primary objective in natural and man-made emergencies is to coordinate with member states and other stakeholders to "reduce avoidable loss of life and the burden of disease and disability. On 5 May , WHO announced that the spread of polio was a world health emergency — outbreaks of the disease in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East were considered "extraordinary".

On 8 August , WHO declared that the spread of Ebola was a public health emergency; an outbreak which was believed to have started in Guinea had spread to other nearby countries such as Liberia and Sierra Leone. The situation in West Africa was considered very serious. WHO addresses government health policy with two aims: The organization develops and promotes the use of evidence-based tools, norms and standards to support member states to inform health policy options. It oversees the implementation of the International Health Regulations , and publishes a series of medical classifications ; of these, three are over-reaching "reference classifications": In terms of health services, WHO looks to improve "governance, financing, staffing and management" and the availability and quality of evidence and research to guide policy.


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It also strives to "ensure improved access, quality and use of medical products and technologies". Partners work together to put international principles for aid effectiveness and development co-operation into practice in the health sector. WHO created the Civil Society Reference Group on HIV [57] , which brings together other networks that are involved in policy making and the dissemination of guidelines.

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Each year, the organization marks World Health Day and other observances focusing on a specific health promotion topic. Recent themes have been vector-borne diseases , healthy ageing and drug resistance The World Health Organization works to provide the needed health and well-being evidence through a variety of data collection platforms, including the World Health Survey covering almost , respondents from 70 countries, [63] and the Study on Global Aging and Adult Health SAGE covering over 50, persons over 50 years old in 23 countries. The WHO has published various tools for measuring and monitoring the capacity of national health systems [66] and health workforces.

The database was launched on Human Rights Day , and is part of WHO's QualityRights initiative, which aims to end human rights violations against people with mental health conditions. The new database presents a great deal of information about mental health, substance abuse, disability, human rights, and the different policies, strategies, laws, and service standards being implemented in different countries.

The database allows visitors to access the health information of WHO member states and other partners. Users can review policies, laws, and strategies and search for the best practices and success stories in the field of mental health. The WHO regularly publishes a World Health Report , its leading publication, including an expert assessment of a specific global health topic. In the draft, the World Health Organization outlines its commitment to ending the AIDS epidemic by the year [79] with interim targets for the year In order to make achievements towards these targets, the draft lists actions that countries and the WHO can take, such as a commitment to universal health coverage, medical accessibility, prevention and eradication of disease, and efforts to educate the public.

Some notable points made in the draft include addressing gender inequity where females are nearly twice as likely as men to get infected with HIV and tailoring resources to mobilized regions where the health system may be compromised due to natural disasters, etc.

Among the points made, it seems clear that although the prevalence of HIV transmission is declining, there is still a need for resources, health education, and global efforts to end this epidemic. As of [update] , the WHO has member states: As of [update] , it also had two associate members, Puerto Rico and Tokelau. Palestine is an observer as a "national liberation movement" recognized by the League of Arab States under United Nations Resolution The Holy See also attends as an observer, as does the Order of Malta.

Based in Geneva, it typically meets yearly in May. It appoints the Director-General every five years and votes on matters of policy and finance of WHO, including the proposed budget. It also reviews reports of the Executive Board and decides whether there are areas of work requiring further examination. The Assembly elects 34 members, technically qualified in the field of health, to the Executive Board for three-year terms. The main functions of the Board are to carry out the decisions and policies of the Assembly, to advise it and to facilitate its work.

The regional divisions of WHO were created between and , and are based on article 44 of the WHO's constitution, which allowed the WHO to "establish a [single] regional organization to meet the special needs of [each defined] area". Many decisions are made at regional level, including important discussions over WHO's budget, and in deciding the members of the next assembly, which are designated by the regions. Each region has a Regional Committee, which generally meets once a year, normally in the autumn. Representatives attend from each member or associative member in each region, including those states that are not fully recognized.

For example, Palestine attends meetings of the Eastern Mediterranean Regional office. Each region also has a regional office. The Board must approve such appointments, although as of , it had never over-ruled the preference of a regional committee. The exact role of the board in the process has been a subject of debate, but the practical effect has always been small. Aside from electing the Regional Director, the Regional Committee is also in charge of setting the guidelines for the implementation, within the region, of the health and other policies adopted by the World Health Assembly.

The current Director-General is Dr. Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, who was appointed on 1 July The WHO employs 8, people in countries. The WHO operates " Goodwill Ambassadors "; members of the arts, sports, or other fields of public life aimed at drawing attention to WHO's initiatives and projects. The World Health Organization operates country offices in six different regions.

As of [update] , the only WHO Representative outside Europe to be a national of that country was for the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya "Libya" ; all other staff were international. The country office consists of the WR, and several health and other experts, both foreign and local, as well as the necessary support staff. The WHO is financed by contributions from member states and outside donors. This represented a significant fall in outlay compared to the previous — budget, adjusting to take account of previous underspends. Assessed contributions were kept the same. In recent years, the WHO's work has involved increasing collaboration with external bodies.

There were partnerships with international NGOs in formal "official relations" — the rest being considered informal in character. A selective reading of this document clause 3 can result in the understanding that the IAEA is able to prevent the WHO from conducting research or work on some areas, as seen hereafter. However, the following paragraph adds that. The nature of this statement has led some pressure groups and activists including Women in Europe for a Common Future to claim that the WHO is restricted in its ability to investigate the effects on human health of radiation caused by the use of nuclear power and the continuing effects of nuclear disasters in Chernobyl and Fukushima.

They believe WHO must regain what they see as "independence". In particular, and in accordance with the Constitution of the World Health Organization and the Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency and its agreement with the United Nations together with the exchange of letters related thereto, and taking into account the respective co-ordinating responsibilities of both organizations, it is recognized by the World Health Organization that the International Atomic Energy Agency has the primary responsibility for encouraging, assisting and co- ordinating research and development and practical application of atomic energy for peaceful uses throughout the world without prejudice to the right of the World Health Organization to concern itself with promoting, developing, assisting and co-ordinating international health work, including research, in all its aspects.

Clearly suggesting that the WHO is free to do as it sees fit on nuclear, radiation and other matters which relate to health. In , the WHO denounced the Roman Curia 's health department's opposition to the use of condoms , saying: It also stood by its recommendation based upon its own analysis of scientific studies. In , the WHO organized work on pandemic influenza vaccine development through clinical trials in collaboration with many experts and health officials.

By the post-pandemic period critics claimed the WHO had exaggerated the danger, spreading "fear and confusion" rather than "immediate information". This response was only possible because of the extensive preparations undertaken during the last decade".

Following the Ebola outbreak in West Africa, the organization was heavily criticized for its bureaucracy, insufficient financing, regional structure, and staffing profile. An internal WHO report on the Ebola response pointed to underfunding and the lack of "core capacity" in health systems in developing countries as the primary weaknesses of the existing system.

The program was aimed at rebuilding WHO capacity for direct action, which critics said had been lost due to budget cuts in the previous decade that had left the organization in an advisory role dependent on member states for on-the-ground activities. In comparison, billions of dollars have been spent by developed countries on the — Ebola epidemic and —16 Zika epidemic.

World Health Organization

The World Health Organization sub-department, the International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC , has been criticized for the way it analyses the tendency of certain substances and activities to cause cancer and for having a politically motivated bias when it selects studies for its analysis. Ed Yong, a British science journalist, has criticized the agency and its "confusing" category system for misleading the public. He claimed that this classification did not take into account the extent of exposure: Controversies have erupted multiple times when the IARC has classified many things as Class 2a probable carcinogens , including cell phone signals, glyphosate , drinking hot beverages, and working as a barber.

The appointment address praised Mugabe for his commitment to public health in Zimbabwe. The appointment attracted widespread condemnation and criticism in WHO member states and international organizations due to Robert Mugabe's poor record on human rights and presiding over a decline in Zimbabwe's public health.

Environmental risk factors, such as air, water and soil pollution, chemical exposures, climate change, and ultraviolet radiation, contribute to more than diseases and injuries. This can result in a number of pollution-related diseases. WHO works to "reduce morbidity and mortality and improve health during key stages of life, including pregnancy, childbirth, the neonatal period , childhood and adolescence, and improve sexual and reproductive health and promote active and healthy aging for all individuals". It also tries to prevent or reduce risk factors for "health conditions associated with use of tobacco, alcohol, drugs and other psychoactive substances, unhealthy diets and physical inactivity and unsafe sex ".

The WHO works to improve nutrition, food safety and food security and to ensure this has a positive effect on public health and sustainable development. The WHO promotes road safety as a means to reduce traffic-related injuries. The WHO has also worked on global initiatives in surgery, including emergency and essential surgical care, [38] trauma care, [39] and safe surgery.

The World Health Organization's primary objective in natural and man-made emergencies is to coordinate with member states and other stakeholders to "reduce avoidable loss of life and the burden of disease and disability. On 5 May , WHO announced that the spread of polio was a world health emergency — outbreaks of the disease in Asia, Africa, and the Middle East were considered "extraordinary".

On 8 August , WHO declared that the spread of Ebola was a public health emergency; an outbreak which was believed to have started in Guinea had spread to other nearby countries such as Liberia and Sierra Leone. The situation in West Africa was considered very serious. WHO addresses government health policy with two aims: The organization develops and promotes the use of evidence-based tools, norms and standards to support member states to inform health policy options.

It oversees the implementation of the International Health Regulations , and publishes a series of medical classifications ; of these, three are over-reaching "reference classifications": In terms of health services, WHO looks to improve "governance, financing, staffing and management" and the availability and quality of evidence and research to guide policy. It also strives to "ensure improved access, quality and use of medical products and technologies".

Partners work together to put international principles for aid effectiveness and development co-operation into practice in the health sector. WHO created the Civil Society Reference Group on HIV [57] , which brings together other networks that are involved in policy making and the dissemination of guidelines. Each year, the organization marks World Health Day and other observances focusing on a specific health promotion topic. Recent themes have been vector-borne diseases , healthy ageing and drug resistance The World Health Organization works to provide the needed health and well-being evidence through a variety of data collection platforms, including the World Health Survey covering almost , respondents from 70 countries, [63] and the Study on Global Aging and Adult Health SAGE covering over 50, persons over 50 years old in 23 countries.

The WHO has published various tools for measuring and monitoring the capacity of national health systems [66] and health workforces. The database was launched on Human Rights Day , and is part of WHO's QualityRights initiative, which aims to end human rights violations against people with mental health conditions. The new database presents a great deal of information about mental health, substance abuse, disability, human rights, and the different policies, strategies, laws, and service standards being implemented in different countries.

The database allows visitors to access the health information of WHO member states and other partners. Users can review policies, laws, and strategies and search for the best practices and success stories in the field of mental health. The WHO regularly publishes a World Health Report , its leading publication, including an expert assessment of a specific global health topic.

In the draft, the World Health Organization outlines its commitment to ending the AIDS epidemic by the year [79] with interim targets for the year In order to make achievements towards these targets, the draft lists actions that countries and the WHO can take, such as a commitment to universal health coverage, medical accessibility, prevention and eradication of disease, and efforts to educate the public. Some notable points made in the draft include addressing gender inequity where females are nearly twice as likely as men to get infected with HIV and tailoring resources to mobilized regions where the health system may be compromised due to natural disasters, etc.

Among the points made, it seems clear that although the prevalence of HIV transmission is declining, there is still a need for resources, health education, and global efforts to end this epidemic. As of [update] , the WHO has member states: As of [update] , it also had two associate members, Puerto Rico and Tokelau. Palestine is an observer as a "national liberation movement" recognized by the League of Arab States under United Nations Resolution The Holy See also attends as an observer, as does the Order of Malta.

Based in Geneva, it typically meets yearly in May. It appoints the Director-General every five years and votes on matters of policy and finance of WHO, including the proposed budget. It also reviews reports of the Executive Board and decides whether there are areas of work requiring further examination. The Assembly elects 34 members, technically qualified in the field of health, to the Executive Board for three-year terms. The main functions of the Board are to carry out the decisions and policies of the Assembly, to advise it and to facilitate its work.

The regional divisions of WHO were created between and , and are based on article 44 of the WHO's constitution, which allowed the WHO to "establish a [single] regional organization to meet the special needs of [each defined] area". Many decisions are made at regional level, including important discussions over WHO's budget, and in deciding the members of the next assembly, which are designated by the regions.

Each region has a Regional Committee, which generally meets once a year, normally in the autumn. Representatives attend from each member or associative member in each region, including those states that are not fully recognized. For example, Palestine attends meetings of the Eastern Mediterranean Regional office. Each region also has a regional office. The Board must approve such appointments, although as of , it had never over-ruled the preference of a regional committee.

The exact role of the board in the process has been a subject of debate, but the practical effect has always been small. Aside from electing the Regional Director, the Regional Committee is also in charge of setting the guidelines for the implementation, within the region, of the health and other policies adopted by the World Health Assembly. The current Director-General is Dr.

Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, who was appointed on 1 July The WHO employs 8, people in countries. The WHO operates " Goodwill Ambassadors "; members of the arts, sports, or other fields of public life aimed at drawing attention to WHO's initiatives and projects. The World Health Organization operates country offices in six different regions. As of [update] , the only WHO Representative outside Europe to be a national of that country was for the Libyan Arab Jamahiriya "Libya" ; all other staff were international.

The country office consists of the WR, and several health and other experts, both foreign and local, as well as the necessary support staff. The WHO is financed by contributions from member states and outside donors. This represented a significant fall in outlay compared to the previous — budget, adjusting to take account of previous underspends. Assessed contributions were kept the same.

In recent years, the WHO's work has involved increasing collaboration with external bodies. There were partnerships with international NGOs in formal "official relations" — the rest being considered informal in character. A selective reading of this document clause 3 can result in the understanding that the IAEA is able to prevent the WHO from conducting research or work on some areas, as seen hereafter. However, the following paragraph adds that. The nature of this statement has led some pressure groups and activists including Women in Europe for a Common Future to claim that the WHO is restricted in its ability to investigate the effects on human health of radiation caused by the use of nuclear power and the continuing effects of nuclear disasters in Chernobyl and Fukushima.

They believe WHO must regain what they see as "independence". In particular, and in accordance with the Constitution of the World Health Organization and the Statute of the International Atomic Energy Agency and its agreement with the United Nations together with the exchange of letters related thereto, and taking into account the respective co-ordinating responsibilities of both organizations, it is recognized by the World Health Organization that the International Atomic Energy Agency has the primary responsibility for encouraging, assisting and co- ordinating research and development and practical application of atomic energy for peaceful uses throughout the world without prejudice to the right of the World Health Organization to concern itself with promoting, developing, assisting and co-ordinating international health work, including research, in all its aspects.

Clearly suggesting that the WHO is free to do as it sees fit on nuclear, radiation and other matters which relate to health. In , the WHO denounced the Roman Curia 's health department's opposition to the use of condoms , saying: It also stood by its recommendation based upon its own analysis of scientific studies. In , the WHO organized work on pandemic influenza vaccine development through clinical trials in collaboration with many experts and health officials. By the post-pandemic period critics claimed the WHO had exaggerated the danger, spreading "fear and confusion" rather than "immediate information".

Navigation menu

This response was only possible because of the extensive preparations undertaken during the last decade". Following the Ebola outbreak in West Africa, the organization was heavily criticized for its bureaucracy, insufficient financing, regional structure, and staffing profile. An internal WHO report on the Ebola response pointed to underfunding and the lack of "core capacity" in health systems in developing countries as the primary weaknesses of the existing system.

The program was aimed at rebuilding WHO capacity for direct action, which critics said had been lost due to budget cuts in the previous decade that had left the organization in an advisory role dependent on member states for on-the-ground activities. In comparison, billions of dollars have been spent by developed countries on the — Ebola epidemic and —16 Zika epidemic.

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The World Health Organization sub-department, the International Agency for Research on Cancer IARC , has been criticized for the way it analyses the tendency of certain substances and activities to cause cancer and for having a politically motivated bias when it selects studies for its analysis. Ed Yong, a British science journalist, has criticized the agency and its "confusing" category system for misleading the public.

He claimed that this classification did not take into account the extent of exposure: Controversies have erupted multiple times when the IARC has classified many things as Class 2a probable carcinogens , including cell phone signals, glyphosate , drinking hot beverages, and working as a barber. The appointment address praised Mugabe for his commitment to public health in Zimbabwe.

World Health Organization

The appointment attracted widespread condemnation and criticism in WHO member states and international organizations due to Robert Mugabe's poor record on human rights and presiding over a decline in Zimbabwe's public health. The seat of the organization is in Geneva , Switzerland. It was designed by Swiss architect Jean Tschumi and inaugurated in On a stamp of the German Democratic Republic.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see WHO disambiguation.

Brazzaville , Republic of Congo. Eastern Mediterranean ; HQ: South East Asia; HQ: International Agency for Research on Cancer. Internal courtyard , Reflecting pool , The British Medical Journal. Chronicle of the World Health Organization. Archived from the original PDF on 9 August Retrieved 18 July Retrieved 27 March Retrieved 31 March Smallpox and Its Eradication.

History of International Public Health. Archived from the original on Retrieved 11 June Central European Journal of Public Health. Retrieved 24 November