Manual Radar Rangers: The Parsnip Saga

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A complete fire support overlay must include: Target More than meters but less than meters long. Target Undisclosed area and desired radius. There are two types of close air support requests, planned and immediate. Planned requests are processed by the Army chain to Corps for approval. Format for requesting immediate CAS: Description must include, as a minimum: Close Air Support Capabilities: Most accurate ground delivery system in the inventory; supersonic; typical load lbs, max load 10, lbs.

A wide variety of air-to-surface weapons. Typical load lbs, max load 17, lbs, 20mm gun mounted in the nose; air-to-air missiles. A model is equipped with two 40mm guns, two 20mm guns and two 7. The H model is similar, except no 7. Both models have advanced sensors and target acquisition system including forward looking infrared radar FLIR and low light TV. Weapons employment accuracy is outstanding. This aircraft is vulnerable to enemy air defense systems and must operate in a low threat environment.

Nearest 5m c Polar Plot: Nearest 10 mils - Send distance. Nearest m - Send vertical shift. Nearest 5m 5 Description of Target: Standard b High angle. Mortars or if requested 10 Ammunition - HE quick will be used unless specified by the observer. Observer may request the number of rounds to be fired. Standard b Converged sheaf. Used for small hard targets. Any length, width and attitude d Open sheaf. Separate bursts e Parallel sheaf. Linear target 12 Method of Fire and Control: Normally adjust fire, one gun is used with a 5-second interval between rounds.

Observer tells FDC when he wants the rounds to impact. Calculated by the FDC otherwise observer indicates interval between rounds in seconds. Load and fire as fast as possible. Fire another round s with or without adjustments. Examples of Call for Fire Transmissions: End of mission, 15 casualties, Platoon dispersed, OUT. End of mission, 2 tanks destroyed, 3 in woodline, OUT.

To survive on the battlefield, stealth, dispersion, and security must be enforced in all tactical movements. The leader must be skilled in all movement techniques. Formations are arrangements of elements and soldiers in relation to each other. Leaders are where they can best control formations. A movement technique is the manner a unit uses to traverse terrain. There are three movement techniques: The selection of a movement technique is based on the likelihood of enemy contact and the need for speed.

Factors to consider for each technique are control, dispersion, speed, and security. Movement techniques are not fixed formations. They refer to the distances between soldiers, teams, and squads that vary based on mission, enemy, terrain, visibility, and any other factor that affects control. Soldiers must be able to see his fire team leaders. The platoon leader should be able to see his lead squad leader. Leaders control movement with arm-and-hand signals and use radios only when needed.

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Preparations are worthless if the objective cannot be found in time, or if the patrol is compromised because it is run into during movement. Plan to use at least two compass and pace men per patrol. The element point man must not be tasked to perform compass or pace duties. Patrols must use stealth, and use the cover and concealment of the terrain to its maximum advantage. The patrol must use both active and passive security measures constantly. Give men or subunits responsibility for security enroute, at danger areas, at patrol bases, and most importantly in the objective area.

Plan for fire support, artillery, tactical air, attack helicopter, naval gunfire even if you think it may not be needed during movement. When contact is not likely: When enemy contact is possible, have one fire team well forward and overwatch with the other fire team. Assign duties for the movement. Fire teams can spread their formations as necessary to gain better observation to the flanks. Although widely spaced, men retain their relative position in their wedge and follow their team leader. Only in extreme situations should the file be used.

In the traveling technique, the distance between individuals is about 10 meters with 20 meters between squads. It has the following characteristics: The traveling overwatch technique is the basic movement technique.

This is normally between 50 to meters, depending on terrain, vegetation, and light and weather conditions. Bounding Overwatch Figure The distance between teams and squads varies. The bounding element moves while the overwatch element occupies an overwatch position that can cover the route of the bounding element by fire. Each bound is within supporting range of the overwatch element. Squad Bounding Overwatch 3 The length of a bound depends on the terrain, visibility, and control. Platoon Bounding Overwatch Figure When platoons use bounding overwatch, one squad bounds and one squad overwatches; the third squad awaits orders.

Forward observers stay with the overwatching squad to call for fire. Platoon leaders normally stay with the overwatching squad who use machine guns and attached weapons to support the bounding squad. Another way is to have one squad use bounding overwatch and have the other two squads use traveling or traveling overwatch technique Figure Platoon Bounding Overwatch 3 Movement Considerations.

When deciding where to move the bounding element, consider: Platoons conduct two types of marches with the company: A successful foot march is when troops arrive at their destination at the prescribed time, physically able to execute their tactical mission. Keep in mind that a Ranger moves faster, further, and fights harder than any other soldier. Duties and Responsibilities 1 Platoon Leader: Physically checks the men in his squad, ensures they drink water, and change socks as necessary.

Advise the chain of command on the evacuation and transportation requirements of casualties 6 Individual: At night or when visibility is poor, a platoon must be able to function the same as during the day. It must be able to control, navigate maintain security, move and stalk at night or during limited visibility. When visibility is poor, the following methods aid in control. To assist in navigation during limited visibility, leaders may use the following techniques: For stealth and security in night movements squads and platoons— 1 Enforce strict noise and light discipline 2 Use radio-listening silence 3 Use of camouflage 4 Use of terrain to avoid detection by enemy surveillance or night vision devices 5 Make frequent listening halts SLLS 6 Mask the sounds of movement with artillery fires d.

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Actions to be taken at rally points must be planned in detail. The plan must provide for continuation as long as there is a good chance to accomplish the mission. Some form of communications must be left in the rally point to inform stragglers of how many men linked up and the direction they took. There are two techniques for actions at rally points: The assembled members will wait until a set number of men arrive and then go on with the mission under the senior man present.

This plan is good for a reconnaissance patrol when two or three men may be able to accomplish the mission. The assembled members wait for a set period of time, after which the senior man present will decide whether to continue the mission, based on troops and equipment present. This may be the plan when a minimum number of men, or certain items of equipment, or both, are needed to accomplish the mission. During halts, security must be posted and all approaches into the sector will be covered with key weapons. Some examples of danger areas are open areas, roads and trails, native villages, enemy positions, and obstacles such as minefields, streams, and wire obstacles.

Avoid danger areas whenever possible. If they must be passed or crossed, use great caution. Technique for crossing danger areas: The alpha team leader ATL observes the linear danger area and sends the hand and arm signal to the SL who determines to bound across. Bravo team moves to the LDA to the right or left to provide an overwatch position prior to A team crossing. SL receives the hand and arm signal that it is safe to move the rest of the squad across B team is still providing overwatch. A team provides overwatch for squad missions. A team on azimuth at SLs command or hand and arm signal.

Prior to crossing, the compassman with the lead two squads confirm azimuth and pace data. Platoon leader will plan for fires at all known LDA crossing sites. Squads in overwatch 2 nd and 3 rd will sterilize where they cross. Paceman stops pace count and starts new pace count. Lead squad assumes original azimuth, pace man original pace.

A series of danger areas is two or more danger areas within an area that can be either observed or covered by fire. A series of danger areas is crossed using the technique which provides the most security. Prior to the point man stepping into the danger area. The PL and FO will plan for fires. If far side of danger area is less than meters- PL establishes overwatch, and designates lead squad to clear woodline on far side. Infantry platoons and squads primarily conduct two types of patrols: This chapter describes the principles of patrolling, planning considerations used in preparation for patrols, conduct of patrols, supporting tasks, establishment of and actions in a patrol base, and movement to contact.

All patrols are governed by five principles. Quickly make a simple plan and effectively communicate it to the lowest level. Plan and prepare to a realistic standard, and rehearse everything. Preserve your force as a whole, and your recon assets in particular. Every Ranger and every rifle counts; anyone could be the difference between victory and defeat.

This paragraph provides the planning considerations common to most patrols. It discusses task organization, initial planning and coordination, completion of the plan, and contingency planning. A patrol is a mission, not an organization. To accomplish the patrolling mission, a platoon or squad must perform specific tasks; for example, secure itself, cross danger areas, recon the patrol objective, breach, support, or assault.

As with other missions, the leader tasks elements of his unit in accordance with his estimate of the situation, identifying those tasks his unit must perform and designating which elements of his unit will perform which tasks. Where possible, in assigning tasks, the leader should maintain squad and fire team integrity. The chain of command continues to lead its elements during a patrol. In this chapter, the terms "element" and "team" refer to the squads, fire teams, or buddy teams that perform the tasks as described.

Squads and fire teams may perform more than one task in an assigned sequence; others may perform only one task. The leader must plan carefully to ensure that he has identified and assigned all required tasks in the most efficient way. Elements and teams for platoons conducting patrols include the following: Aid and litter teams are responsible for buddy aid and evacuating casualties. They then rejoin their parent element. The enroute recorder records all information collected during the mission. The compass man assists in navigation by ensuring the patrol remains on course at all times.

Instructions to the compass man must include initial and subsequent azimuths. As a technique, the compass man should preset his compass on the initial azimuth before the unit moves out, especially if the move will be during limited visibility conditions. The platoon or squad leader should also designate an alternate compass man. As required, the PL designates a point man and a pace man for the patrol.

The pace man aids in navigation by keeping an accurate count of distance traveled. The point man selects the actual route through the terrain, guided by the compass man or team leader. In addition the point man also provides frontal security. The assault element seizes and secures the objective and protects special teams as they complete their assigned actions on the objective.

The security element provides security at danger areas, secures the ORP, isolates the objective, and supports the withdrawal of the rest of the platoon once actions on the objective are complete. The security element may have separate security teams, each with an assigned task or sequence of tasks. The support element provides direct and indirect fire support for the unit. Demolition teams are responsible for preparing and detonating the charges to destroy designated equipment, vehicles, or facilities on the objective.

The assault element may provide two-man buddy teams or four-man fire team search teams to search bunkers, buildings, or tunnels on the objective. These teams will search the objective or kill zone for casualties, documents, or equipment. The breach team conducts initial breaches as required in order to allow the patrol to enter an objective. Reconnaissance teams reconnoiter the objective area once the security teams are in position. Normally these are two-man teams buddy teams to reduce the possibility of detection. When the responsibilities of reconnaissance and security are separate, the security element provides security at danger areas, secures the ORP, isolates the objective, and supports the withdrawal of the rest of the platoon once the recon is complete.

Initial Planning and Coordination. Leaders plan and prepare for patrols using the troop-leading procedures and the estimate of the situation, as described in Chapter 2. Through an Estimate of the Situation, leaders identify required actions on the objective mission analysis and plan backward to departure from friendly lines and forward to reentry of friendly lines.

Because patrolling units act independently, move beyond the direct-fire support of the parent unit, and operate forward of friendly units, coordination must be thorough and detailed. Coordination is continuous throughout planning and preparation. PLs use checklists to preclude omitting any items vital to the accomplishment of the mission. The leader coordinates with the unit through which his platoon or squad will conduct its forward and rearward passage of lines, IAW Chapter , Coordination Checklists.

As the PL completes his plan he considers the following: The PL ensures that he has assigned all essential tasks to be performed on the objective, at rally points, at danger areas, at security or surveillance locations, along the route s , and at passage lanes. These make up the maneuver and tasks to subordinate units sub-paragraphs of the Execution paragraph.

The leader estimates time requirements for movement to the objective, leaders reconnaissance of the objective, establishment of security and surveillance, completion of all assigned tasks on the objective, and passage through friendly lines. The leader selects primary and alternate routes to and from the objective. The return routes should differ from the routes to the objective. The PL may delegate route selection to a subordinate, but is ultimately responsible for the routes selected. The leader should consider the use of special signals.

These include hand-and-arm signals, flares, voice, whistles, radios, and infrared equipment. All signals must be rehearsed so that all soldiers know their meaning. The leader specifies an odd number. The challenge can be any number less than the specified number. The password will be the number that must be added to it to equal the specified number. SOIs may also designate a running password. This code word alerts a unit that friendly soldiers are approaching in a less than organized manner and possibly under pressure.

This may also be used to get soldiers quickly through a compromised passage of friendly lines. The PL considers where he and the PSG and other key leaders are located for each phase of the patrol mission. The PL positions himself where he can best control the actions of the patrol. The PSG is normally with the following elements for each type of patrol: Unless required by the mission, the unit avoids enemy contact. The plan must address the handling of seriously wounded soldiers and KIAs. The plan must also address the handling of prisoners who are captured as a result of chance contact and are not part of the planned mission.

The leader leaves his unit for many reasons throughout the planning, coordination, preparation, and execution of his patrol mission. Each time the leader departs the patrol main body, he must issue a five-point contingency plan to the leader left in charge of the unit. TIME he plans to be gone. WHAT to do if the leader does not return in time. The leader considers the use and location of rally points. A rally point is a place designated by the leader where the unit moves to reassemble and reorganize if it becomes dispersed. Soldiers must know which rally point to move to at each phase of the patrol mission should they become separated from the unit.

They must also know what actions are required there and how long they are to wait at each rally point before moving to another. Rally points must be: The most common types of rally points are initial, en route, objective, reentry, and near-and-far-side rally points. Actions at the ORP typically include: Preparing EPW bindings, first aid kits, litters, and inspecting weapons. Before departing the leader must issue a 5 point contingency plan. During his reconnaissance, the leader pinpoints the objective, selects reconnaissance, security, support, and assault positions for his elements, and adjusts his plan based on his observation of the objective.

The platoon leader will bring different elements with him. These are discussed separately under each type of patrol. The leader must plan time to return to the ORP, complete his plan, disseminate information, issue orders and instructions, and allow his squads to make any additional preparations. Each type of patrol requires different actions on the objective. Actions on the objective are discussed under each type of patrol. The two types of patrols covered in this section are reconnaissance recon patrols and combat patrols.

Combat patrols are further divided into raids and ambushes. A third type of patrol, the tracking patrol, is not covered in this section, but can be found in FM This section will cover each of these types of patrols in terms of fundamentals and planning considerations, task standards, and execution actions on the objective. Recon patrols provide timely and accurate information on the enemy and terrain. Units on reconnaissance operations collect specific information [Priority Intelligence Requirements PIR ] or general information [Information Requirements IR ] based on the instructions from their higher commander.

The two types of recon patrols discussed here are area and zone. This section discusses the fundamentals of reconnaissance, task standards for the two most common types of recon, and actions on the objective for those types of recon. In order to have a successful area reconnaissance, the platoon leader must apply the fundamentals of the reconnaissance to his plan during the conduct of the operation. The parent unit tells the patrol leader PL what information is required. During the entire patrol, members must continuously gain and exchange all information gathered, but cannot consider the mission accomplished unless all PIR has been gathered.

A patrol must not let the enemy know that it is in the objective area. If the enemy knows he is being observed, he may move, change his plans, or increase his security measures. Methods of avoiding detection are: A patrol must be able to break contact and return to the friendly unit with what information is gathered. If necessary, break contact and continue the mission. Security elements are emplaced so that they can overwatch the reconnaissance elements and suppress the enemy so the reconnaissance element can break contact. When the platoon leader receives the order, he analyzes his mission to ensure he understands what must be done.

Recons are typically squad-sized missions. The area recon patrol collects all available information on PIR and other intelligence requirements specified in the order for the area. The patrol completes the recon and reports all information by the time specified in the order. The patrol is not compromised. The zone recon patrol determines all PIR and other intelligence requirements specified in the order for its assigned zone. The patrol reconnoiters without detection by the enemy. The leader confirms his location on map while subordinate leaders make necessary perimeter adjustments.

That is out of sight and sound distance from the objective if possible , but at a minimum definitely out of sight of the objective, and should also possess good rally point characteristics. The surveillance team is positioned with one man facing the objective, and one facing back in the direction of the release point. Issues a contingency plan to the senior man remaining with the surveillance team. Before doing this, he will issue new five-point contingency plans all around and may even have to return to the ORP to alert the PSG of the change.

To disseminate, the leader has the RTO prepare three sketches of the objective site based on his the leader's sketch and provides the copies to the subordinate leaders to assist in dissemination. Once they have moved a safe distance away, the leader will inform higher HQ of the situation and take further instructions from them. These individuals will withdraw through the release point to the ORP and follow the same procedures as above. All personnel will fire a full magazine on to the objective site.

Surveillance will fire a LAW on the biggest weapon on the objective. All elements will pull off the objective and move to the release point. The senior man will quickly account for all personnel and return to the ORP. Once in the ORP, the procedures as outlined in 1 above will be followed. The patrol establishes security at the first ORP. Each recon element moves from the ORP along a different fan-shaped route that overlaps with others to ensure recon of the entire area. The leader typically maintains a reserve at the ORP.

Each recon element moves and recons along a specified route, and all elements converge at one time and place to link-up. He sends other elements along routes through the area within the box. All teams link-up at the far side of the box from the ORP. PL will brief all key subordinate leaders on information gathered by other squads, establishing one consolidated sketch if possible, and allow team leaders time to brief their teams.

Units conduct combat patrols to destroy or capture enemy soldiers or equipment; destroy installations, facilities, or key points; or harass enemy forces. Combat patrols also provide security for larger units. The two types of combat patrol missions are ambush and raid. This section describes overall combat patrol planning considerations, task considerations for each type of combat patrol, and finally actions on the objective for each type. In planning a combat patrol, the PL considers the following: Normally the platoon headquarters element controls the patrol on a combat patrol mission.

The PL makes every attempt to maintain squad and fire team integrity as he assigns tasks to subordinates units. For the assault on the objective, the PL considers the required actions on the objective, the size of the objective, and the known or presumed strength and disposition of the enemy on and near the objective.

The PL considers the weapons available, and the type and volume of fires required to provide fire support for the assault on the objective. The PL considers the requirement to secure the platoon at points along the route, at danger areas, at the ORP, along enemy avenues of approach into the objective, and elsewhere during the mission. In a combat patrol, the PL has additional considerations for the conduct of his reconnaissance of the objective from the ORP.

The platoon leader will normally bring the following personnel. In a combat patrol the PL considers the following additional actions in the conduct of the leader's reconnaissance of the objective. The PL posts the surveillance team. Squads and fire teams separate at the release point and move to their assigned positions. The PL confirms the location of the objective or kill zone. He notes the terrain and identifies where he can place mines or claymores to cover dead space. Any change to his plan is issued to the squad leaders while overlooking the objective if possible. If the objective is the kill zone for an ambush, the leader's reconnaissance party should not cross the objective; to do so will leave tracks that may compromise the mission.

The PL confirms the suitability of the assault and support positions and routes from them back to the ORP. The platoon moves quickly to concealed positions. The ambush is not initiated until the majority of the enemy is in the kill zone. The unit does not become decisively engaged. The platoon surprises the enemy. The patrol captures, kills, or forces the withdrawal of the enemy within the kill zone. On order, the patrol withdraws all personnel and equipment in the kill zone from observation and direct fire.

The unit does not become decisively engaged by follow-on elements. The platoon continues follow-on operations. The ambush is emplaced NLT the time specified in the order. The patrol surprises the enemy and engages the enemy main body. The patrol withdraws all personnel and equipment from the objective, on order, within the time specified in the order. The patrol obtains all available PIR from the ambush and continues follow-on operations. The patrol does not become decisively engaged. The patrol obtains all available PIR from the raid objective and continues follow-on operations.

An ambush is a surprise attack from a concealed position on a moving or temporarily halted target. Ambushes are classified by category--hasty or deliberate; type--point or area; and formation--linear or L-shaped. The leader uses a combination of category, type, and formation in developing his ambush plan. The key planning considerations include: The assault element must be able to move quickly through its own protective obstacles.

Time the actions of all elements of the platoon to preclude loss of surprise. When the ambush must be manned for a long time, use only one squad to conduct the entire ambush and determining movement time of rotating squads from the ORP to the ambush site. A unit conducts a hasty ambush when it makes visual contact with an enemy force and has time to establish an ambush without being detected. The actions for a hasty ambush must be well rehearsed so that soldiers know what to do on the leader's signal. They must also know what action to take if the unit is detected before it is ready to initiate the ambush.

A deliberate ambush is conducted against a specific target at a predetermined location. The leader requires the following detailed information in planning a deliberate ambush: In a point ambush, soldiers deploy to attack an enemy in a single kill zone. In an area, soldiers deploy in two or more related point ambushes. In an ambush using a linear formation, the assault and support elements deploy parallel to the enemy's route. This positions both elements on the long axis of the kill zone and subjects the enemy to flanking fire. This formation can be used in close terrain that restricts the enemy's ability to maneuver against the platoon, or in open terrain provided a means of keeping the enemy in the kill zone can be effected.

In an L-shaped ambush the assault element forms the long leg parallel to the enemy's direction of movement along the kill zone. The support element forms the short leg at one end of and at right angles to the assault element. This provides both flanking long leg and enfilading fires short leg against the enemy. The L-shaped ambush can be used at a sharp bend in a trail, road, or stream. It should not be used where the short leg would have to cross a straight road or trail. Ambush Formations 4 Planning Considerations Raid.

A raid is a combat operation to attack a position or installation followed by a planning withdrawal. Squads do not conduct raids. The sequence of platoon actions for a raid is similar to those for an ambush. Additionally, the assault element of the platoon may have to conduct a breach of an obstacle. It may have additional tasks to perform on the objective; for example, demolition of fixed facilities. Fundamentals of the raid include: Infiltrate and surprise the enemy without being detected. Seal off the objective with well-synchronized direct and indirect fires. Overwhelm the enemy with fire and maneuver.

Withdraw from the objective in an organized manner, maintaining security. The security element must be in position before the support and assault elements move forward of the release point. Actions of the assault element should include: The security element must also keep the platoon leader informed if any enemy forces are following the lead force. He may use a command-detonated claymore. He must also plan backup method for initiating the ambush should the primary means fail. This should also be a casualty-producing device such as his individual weapon.

This information must be passed out to all soldiers and practiced during rehearsals. The patrol must have a means of engaging the enemy in the kill zone during period of limited visibility if it becomes necessary to initiate the ambush under this situation. Use of tracers must be weighed against how it might help the enemy to identify friendly positions.

The platoon leader may use handheld or indirect illumination flares to illuminate the kill zone. The PL directs lift or shift prior to any assault. Establish a location for EPWs and enemy wounded who will not be taken out that provides them cover, yet allows them to be found easily by their units. Search all dead enemy personnel using two-man search techniques. First, he kicks the enemy weapon away.

Second, he rolls the body over if on the stomach by lying on top and when given the go ahead by the guard who is positioned at the enemy's head , the searcher rolls the body over on him. This is done for protection in case the enemy soldier has a grenade with the pin pulled underneath him. The searchers then conduct a systematic search of the dead soldier from head to toe removing all papers and anything new different type rank, shoulder boards, different unit patch, pistol, weapon, or NVD.

They note if the enemy has a fresh or shabby haircut and the condition of his uniform and boots. They take note of the radio frequency, SOI, and maps. Once the body has been thoroughly searched, the search team will continue in this manner until all enemy personnel in and near the kill zone have been searched. This is normally the last action performed before the unit departs the objective and may signal the security elements to return to the ORP. They must work in 3 men teams in order to provide security within the teams to the far side of the kill zone while the search is being conducted.

All KIAs should be dragged to the near side of the kill zone prior to the search. It uses a prearranged signal to let the platoon leader know it is breaking contact. The platoon leader may direct a portion of the support element to assist the security team in breaking contact. It maintains security for the ORP while the rest of the platoon prepares to leave. The soldier continues to monitor the location and activities of the enemy force until his team or squad leader relieves him, and gives the enemy location and direction of movement.

He uses arm-and-hand signals to direct the unit members to covered and concealed positions. The leader directs the security elements to move a given distance, set up, and rejoin the unit on order or, after the ambush the sound of firing ceases. At squad level, the two outside buddy teams normally provide flank security as well as fires into the kill zone. At platoon level, fire teams make up the security elements. The PL updates his plan and issues instructions to his squad leaders. Security elements occupy designated positions, moving undetected into positions that provide early warning and can seal off the objective from outside support or reinforcement.

The support element leader moves the support element to designated positions. The support element leader ensures his element can place well-aimed fire on the objective. The PL moves with the assault element into the assault position. The assault position is normally the last covered and concealed position before reaching the objective. As it passes through the assault position the platoon deploys into its assault formation; that is, its squads and fire teams deploy to place the bulk of their firepower to the front as they assault the objective. Element leaders inform the PL when their elements are in position and ready.

The PL directs the support element to fire. Upon gaining fire superiority, the PL directs the assault element to move towards the objective. The support element lifts or shifts fires as directed, shifting fire to the flanks of targets or areas as directed in the FRAGO. The assault element attacks and secures the objective. The assault element may be required to breech a wire obstacle. As the platoon or its assault element moves onto the objective, it must increase the volume and accuracy of fires. Only when these direct fires keep the enemy suppressed can the rest of the unit maneuver.

As the assault element gets closer to the enemy, there is more emphasis on suppression and less on maneuver. Ultimately, all but one fire team may be suppressing to allow that one fire team to break into the enemy position. Throughout the assault, soldiers use proper individual movement techniques, and fire teams retain their basic shallow wedge formation. The platoon does not get "on-line" to sweep across the objective. The platoon establishes security, mans key weapons, provides first aid and prepares wounded soldiers for MEDEVAC, redistributes ammunition and supplies, relocates selected weapons to alternate positions if leaders believe that the enemy may have pinpointed them during the attack, adjusts other positions to maintain mutual support and squad and team leader provide ammunition, casualty, and equipment ACE reports to the platoon leader.

Using prearranged signals the assault line begins an organized withdrawal from the objective site maintaining control and security as the withdrawal is conducted. The assault element will bound back in the vicinity of the original assault line and will begin a single file withdrawal through the APLs choke point. It is critical for all men to move through the choke point to maintain an accurate count.

Once the assault element is a safe distance from the objective and the headcount is confirmed, the platoon can withdraw the support element. If the support element were a part of the assault line they will withdraw together and the security would be given the signal to withdraw. Once the support is a safe distance off the objective they will notify the platoon leader and the platoon leader will contact the security element and give them the signal to withdraw.

All security teams will link-up at the release point and notify the platoon leader prior to moving to the ORP. As personnel return to the ORP, they immediately secure their equipment and establish degree security. Once the security element returns, the platoon will move out of the objective area as soon as possible, normally within 2 — 3 minutes. Actions on the Objective -- Raid Additionally, the forward unit positions are considered danger areas and it must be assumed that they are under enemy surveillance at all times.

The unit moves all personnel and equipment through the stationary unit NLT the time specified in the order. The enemy surprises neither unit main body during passage of lines. Provide the size of both units. Provide the times of departure and return. Plan for exchange of intelligence.

Plan for exchange of tactical plans. Plan for exchange of communication information. Plan for near and far recognition signals. Plan for guides and traffic control measures. Plan for security measures during the passage. Plan specific control measures for the passage contact points, passage lanes and points, release points, assembly areas, and rally points. Enroute to the PP, the guide designates the Initial Rally Point IRP using the appropriate hand and arm signal, and all personnel ensure they know its location. This can easily be accomplished by passing by, moving through, or actually occupying.

Actions on Enemy Contact during Forward Passage. They will inform higher of the situation and await orders. A link-up is a meeting of friendly ground forces. Link-ups depend on control, detailed planning, communications, and stealth. The units link up at the time and place specified in the order.

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The enemy does not surprise the main bodies. The link-up units establish a consolidated chain of command. The leader identifies a tentative link-up site by map reconnaissance or higher headquarters designates a link-up site. The link-up site should have the following characteristics: Link-up procedure begins as the unit moves to the link-up point.

The steps of this procedure are: It then marks the link-up point with the coordinated recognition signal. The unit moves to a covered and concealed position and observes the linkup point and immediate area around it. The PL coordinates or obtains the following information from the unit that his patrol will link-up with: Immediately after the platoon or squad returns, personnel from higher headquarters conduct a thorough debrief.

Normally the debriefing is oral.

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Sometimes a written report is required. Information on the written report should include: Use checkpoints, grid coordinates for each leg or include an overlay. The ORP is a point out of sight, sound, and small arms range of the objective area. It is normally located in the direction that the platoon plans to move after completion of actions on the objective. The ORP is tentative until the objective is pinpointed.

The unit prepares for the mission in the ORP. Occupation of the ORP A patrol base is a security perimeter that is set up when a squad or platoon conducting a patrol halts for an extended period. Patrol bases should not be occupied for more than a 24 hour period except in emergency. A patrol never uses the same patrol base twice. Patrol bases are typically used: Keep the following fundamentals in mind during patrol base operations. The leader selects the tentative site from a map or by aerial reconnaissance.

Plans to establish a patrol base must include selecting an alternate patrol base site. The alternate site is used if the first site is unsuitable or if the patrol must unexpectedly evacuate the first patrol base. Leaders planning for a patrol base must consider the mission and passive and active security measures.

A patrol base must be located so it allows the unit to accomplish its mission. Security measures involve the following selection criteria and planning considerations: Squad-sized patrols will generally occupy a cigar-shaped perimeter; platoon-sized patrols will generally occupy a triangle-shaped perimeter. Passive Clandestine Patrol Base Squad 1 The purpose of a passive patrol base is for the rest of a squad or smaller size element.

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Priorities of work is not a laundry list of tasks to be completed; to be effective, priorities of work must consist of a task, a given time, and a measurable performance standard. For each priority of work, a clear standard must be issued to guide element in the successful accomplishment of each task. It must also be designated whether the work will be controlled in a centralized or decentralized manner.

Priorities of Work may include, but are not limited to the following tasks: Develop squad sector sketches and platoon fire plan. SLs supervise placement of aiming stakes and claymores. The PL uses the patrol base to plan, issue orders, rehearse, inspect, and prepare for future missions. The PL ensures that machine guns, weapon systems, commo equipment, and night vision devices as well as other equipment is maintained.

If one machine gun is down, then security for all remaining systems is raised. The PSG organizes watering parties as necessary. The watering party carries canteens in an empty rucksack or duffel bag, and must have commo and a contingency plan prior to departure. At a minimum, security and weapons maintenance areperformed prior to mess. No more than half of the platoon typically eats at one time, and men will typically eat M behind their fighting positions. The patrol conducts rest as necessary to prepare for future operations.

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The PL states the alert posture and the stand-to time. Distribute or cross-load ammunition, meals, equipment, etc. The PSG and medic ensure a slit trench is prepared and marked, and that squads designate urine areas. All soldiers will shave, brush teeth, wash face, hands, armpits, groin, and feet, and darken brush shine boots daily.

The patrol will not leave trash behind. The movement to contact MTC is one of the five types of offensive operations. A MTC gains or regains contact with the enemy. Once contact is made, the unit develops the situation. Normally a platoon conducts a MTC as part of a larger force. There are two techniques of conducting a movement to contact: This technique is utilized when the enemy is dispersed, is expected to avoid contact, disengage or withdraw, or you have to deny his movement in an area.

The search and attack technique involves the use of multiple platoons, squads, and fire teams coordinating their actions to make contact with the enemy. Platoons typically attempt to find the enemy and then fix and finish him. They combine patrolling techniques with the requirement to conduct hasty or deliberate attacks once the enemy has been found. The length of operations. Positioning key leaders and equipment. Employment of key weapons. Requirement for patrol bases. Concept for entering the zone of action.

The concept for link-ups while in contact. The concept of the approach march is to makecontact with the smallest element, allowing the commander the flexibility of destroying or bypassing the enemy. A platoon uses the approach march method as part of a larger unit. It can be tasked as the advance guard, move as part of the main body, or provide flank or rear security for the company or battalion. They may also receive on-order missions as part of the main body. Fundamentals common to all movements to contact. The platoon moves NLT the time specified in the order.

The platoon makes contact with the smallest element possible, and the main body is not surprised by the enemy. Once the platoon makes contact, it maintains contact. The platoon destroys squad and smaller-sized elements, and fixes elements larger than a squad. The platoon maintains sufficient fighting force capable of conducting further combat operations. Reports of enemy locations and contact are forwarded. If not detected by the enemy, the PL initiates a hasty attack. The platoon sustains no casualties from friendly fire. The platoon is prepared to initiate further movement within 25 minutes of contact, and all personnel and equipment are accounted for.

Critical Performance Measures Search and Attack.

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Critical Performance Measures Approach March. They require leaders to make decisions rapidly and to issue brief oral orders quickly. All soldiers and their leaders must know their immediate reaction to enemy contact as well as follow-up actions. Drills are limited to situations requiring instantaneous response; therefore, soldiers must execute drills instinctively.

This results from continual practice. Drills provide small units with standard procedures essential for building strength and aggressiveness. Where applicable, drills are crossreferenced with material in other chapters, or other drills, or both. Training standards for battle drills are in the mission training plan MTP. The platoon is moving as part of a larger force conducting a movement to contact or a hasty or deliberate attack. Action on Enemy Contact. The platoon initiates contact. The platoon leader plans when and how his base-offire element initiates contact with the enemy to establish a base of fire.

This element must be in position and briefed before it initiates contact. The enemy initiates contact. If the enemy initiates contact, the platoon takes the following actions: It attempts to achieve suppressive fires with one fire team and maneuvers the other team to attack the enemy in the flank. The squad leader notifies the platoon leader of his action.

If directed, he assumes control of the base-offire element and positions the machine guns to add suppressive fires against the enemy. The squad leader deploys his squad to provide effective, sustained fires on the enemy position. The squad leader reports his final position to the platoon leader. The squad leader of the squad in contact reports the enemy size and location, and any other information to the platoon leader.

The platoon sergeant moves forward with the second machine gun team and links up with the platoon leader.

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The platoon leader may direct the platoon sergeant to position this squad and one or both machine gun teams in a better support-by-fire position b. And just as we're getting round to doing something about it, we're distracted again. I, Joe Lycett, comedian, wordsmith, and professional complainer, am here to help. During my short life of doing largely nothing I've discovered solutions to many of life's problems, which I impart to you, dear Reader.

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