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Edited after his death by L. Days and nights have I passed in my solitary hunting hole, near some drinking place, watching the majestic carriage of the lion, the sagacious actions of the elephant, and the curious instincts of the countless varieties of game that have passed within a few yards of me, unaware of the proximity of man. One of the discoverers of the sources of the Nile and afterwards appointed, Feb. The sentries are posted, and the animals picketed and fed, and the fires arranged in a complete circle around the entire party, men, animals, and luggage, all being within the fiery ring the sentries alone being on the outside.

Levison Traveller, Explorer, and Hunter. James Inglis Indian Hunter and Sports- man. Days and Nights by the Desert, by Parker Gilmore, Charles Robert Darwin Philosopher, Naturalist, etc. If so, I am sure the pleasure of living in the open air, with the sky for a roof, and the ground for a table, is part of the same feeling: I always look back to our boat journeys, and my land jour- neys, when through unfrequented countries, with an extreme delight, which no scenes of civilization could have created.

I do not doubt that every traveller must remember the glowing sense of happiness which he experienced when he first breathed in a foreign clime, where the civilized man had seldom or never trod. Beagle on Darwin's career. He left England untried and almost uneducated for science. He returned a successful collector, a practised and brilliant geologist, and with a wide knowledge of zoology and above all, he came back full of the thoughts on evolution, etc.

There can be no doubt that the foundations of Darwin's great career were laid as the direct result of his experience of life in the wilderness by land and sea, during which he was constantly studying the phenomena of Nature as there witnessed by him. This makes good what we have already said as to the value of such experiences on the future life of the intelligent traveller. It also will be interesting to note the objects which seem to have made a particular impres- sion upon the mind of the learned Darwin during the period of nearly five years, over which his travels extended.

He tells us " Of individual objects perhaps nothing is more certain to create astonishment than the first sight in his native haunts, of a barbarian of man in his lowest and most savage state. I do not believe it is possible to describe, or paint, the difference between savage and civilized man.

Both are temples of the God of Nature: In calling up the images of the past, I find that the plains of Patagonia frequently cross before my eyes ; yet these plains are pronounced by all, wretched and useless. They can be described only by negative characters; without habitations, without water, without trees, without mountains, they support merely a few dwarf plants. Why then, and the case is not peculiar to myself, have these arid wastes taken so firm a hold on my memory? Darwin thinks most desirable in a traveller, he con- siders that, " A traveller should be a botanist, for in all views plants form the chief embellishment.

We shall therefore offer no apology for reproducing one such picture of this kind, bequeathed to posterity by Mr. Darwin in his Journals: But who from seeing a plant in a herbarium can imagine the appearance when growing in its native soil? Who from seeing choice plants in a hot-house can magnify some into the dimensions of forest trees, and crowd others into an entangled jungle? Who, when examining in the cabinet of the entomologist the gay exotic butterflies and singular cicadas, will associate with these lifeless objects the ceaseless harsh music of the latter, and the lazy flight of the former the sure accom- paniments of the still glowing noon-day of the tropics?

It is when the sun has attained its greatest height that such scenes should be viewed: Epithet after epithet was found too weak to convey to those who have not visited the intertropical regions, the sensations of delight which the mind experiences. Yet to every person in Europe it may be truly said that at the distance of only a few degrees from his native soil, the glories of another world are opened to him. In my last walk I stopped again and again to gaze on these beauties, and endeavoured to fix in my mind for ever an impression which I knew sooner or later must fail.

The form of the orange tree, the cocoa nut, the palm, the mango, the tree fern, and the banana, will remain clear and separate ; but the thousand beauties which unite these into one perfect scene, must fade away. Yet they will leave, like a tale heard in childhood, a picture full of. My health was unimpaired, and never before had I been less hindered in prosecuting my pursuits.

I was left alone in the temple of creation. The people around me were somewhat embarrassing, but it did not much disturb the inner repose of this still life. Darwin, Extracts from pp. The expeditions teem with incident, adventure, novelty, and means of obtaining insight into human nature; -and form in after-life a perpetual fund of interesting recollec- tion: All that was charming will then be remembered, and the disagreeable, if not forgotten, will be disarmed of its sting.

Georg Schweinfurth, , Vol. Boundaries of Climatic Zones subject to Variations. The Theory of Climatic Zones not new. Nature and Arti- ficial Management of Land. Vegetation destroying the Works of Man. Sand Drifts on Deserts, burying Cities and Temples. The Primeval Forests of Britain. Scriptural Description of a Ruined City. Land reverting to " A State of Nature. The Evergreen Band of Equatorial Forest. The Great Prairie or Steppe Regions. Tendency of Soil to revert to its Primeval Condi- tion. Flora as a Clue to Climate. Characteristics of Climate determinable from a Collection of its Plants.

But Geographical Position no sure Guide to Flora. Deflection of Isothermal Lines on Climatic Charts. Climates of Great Britain and Labrador contrasted. Table of Special Regions. WHEN a traveller is about to visit a strange land, the very first question which he asks himself will naturally be: So also, while investigating the phenomena of Nature, we shall find almost every detail of the landscape governed by the same considerations: These attain their maximum at the equator. The equatorial regions, therefore, have the highest mean temperature of any part of the earth, and also, as we shall presently show, the heaviest rainfall.

Sometimes this zone is spoken of by geographers as the Region of Perpetual Rains, because for some distance on each side of the equator heavy rains occur at short intervals throughout the whole year. Beyond that again, both to the northwards and southwards, we come to regions where the rains become intermittent ; part of the year being dry and hot, and the remainder subject to periodic wet seasons. Here we locate other zones, and so on, to denote every well-marked change of climate that occurs, until we reach the Polar regions, of almost perpetual cold.

It goes almost without saying, however, that there are no fixed limits at which hard and fast lines can be drawn round the earth, marking the exact points where each substantial change of climate occurs. Climates as we know, are variable, so that even in the same district, they differ materially one year with another. So also the boundaries of Climatic Zones, wheresoever they may be placed, are apt to shift from time to time, rendering it impossible to say with certainty exactly where such zones begin or end.

A good example of this is to be found in the limits of "The Desert Zone.


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Prima facie, it would seem that it ought to be very easy to see where a desert begins, or where it comes to an end; and yet it is not so: What is at one period of the year an expanse of absolutely sterile sand or clay, at another time is covered with verdure, and cattle may be pastured upon it. In fixing the limits of the desert, or any other zone, therefore, all that we aspire to do is to show the approximate mean limits to which, as we humbly conceive, the desert may be taken to extend. But we cannot too emphatically point out that there exists no hard and fast line anywhere in Nature, ex- actly circumscribing the geographical limits of any of her productions: If we take any of the phenomena of Nature, and carefully examine its conditions, we shall find this the invariable rule.

Take a well-known case, such as that of the limits of the Polar ice: Arctic navigators are well aware that these limits are continually shifting; some years the sea is open much farther towards the pole; while at other times the ice extends a long way further out into the ocean than it did the previous year. The boundaries which we have ventured to fix to each of our Climatic Zones are therefore to be under- stood to be subject to similar conditions. In each case we have been careful to set forth the reasons which have seemed to warrant our decision, and also to ex- plain, as far as that has been possible, the causes which produce exceptional climatic conditions in particular regions ; as for instance in South America: Why should large portions of the western seaboard be practically a rainless and treeless desert, while upon the same parallel of latitude, upon its eastern and central portions, there is a tremendous rainfall, and the land is covered by impenetrable forests of the most luxuriant growth?

The reasons for this will be apparent when we come to consider this question. Fortunately, in this case, the causes of these wonderful differences of climate are so manifest as to be ac- cepted by geographers in general as furnishing a complete explanation of this wonderful phenomenon. The matter is merely referred to at present, however, with a view to show that exceptional causes are apt to produce exceptional effects in every part of the world, which of course still further complicates the difficulty of saying what are the limits of, say, the Desert Zone, with any certainty in any part of the world.

The theory of Climatic Zones, though by no means a new one, has in consequence been abandoned by many geographers, as too uncertain to warrant its general adoption. And yet, when all is said and done, we hold it to be impossible to close one's eyes to the fact that a certain class of country does, in effect, form a belt round the earth's circumference, with more or less continuity almost everywhere. Nevertheless the theory of Climatic Zones has failed to obtain general ac- ceptance, because, as we humbly conceive, its advocates have tried to prove too much, and desired to parcel out the earth's surface into too great a number of regions, differing from each other in too slight a degree to be generally accepted among men regarding things from different points of view.

Let us take a single instance of a belt such as we have described: It is true that through human agency this forest has been destroyed at certain places near the Equator, and that meadows and open country in consequence, at present exist in these spots; but if so, the moment that these lands are suffered to run wild, even for a comparatively very short space of time, young trees and bushes spring up with inconceivable rapidity, and reassert the title of the wilderness. This is the reason why we have chosen the Wil- derness as the type of country which we purpose to write about: It is a remarkable fact how Nature resents these changes.

Man may continue steadily working for ages, without limitation, to maintain a piece of ground in a certain condition to suit his own purpose. Yet the moment he gives up the contest Nature at once proceeds to reassert her indefeasible title to the land, and one after the other his works begin to dwindle away and decay, until finally they are entirely effaced. Future generations of travellers making their way across the country find the wilderness again in full possession of the disputed territory; if it was a forest country, the tree growth has again occupied the scenes of man's labours and aspirations, seeds have germinated, and their roots have fixed themselves upon his mouldering walls and have overturned his most massive architectural monuments, destroying them in many cases so completely that it is sometimes im- possible even to trace with any degree of certainty their original limits or design.

The beast of prey and the night-bird make their lairs in what were the habitations of mankind. So again, if it was a desert land and man has reclaimed certain areas of ground from the sand, and planted upon it his cities and his temples, feeding the thirsty soil with water brought thither by construction of canals or other means ; if in the vicissitudes of time the human population become dispersed: Arguing from analogy, therefore, we can have no doubt that if the population of Great Britain from any cause were to disappear, the country which is situated in the Great Forest region of the Temperate Zone would gradually resume the condition of a great forest what history teaches us it actually was in ancient times.

It might be supposed that with its superabundant population and advanced civilization this would be impossible. But as we know, the world contains numerous instances of mighty nations, pos- sessing an advanced civilization as the remains of their ancient works of art and architectural monuments most clearly show which have disappeared so completely that their very name and language have now passed into oblivion. There are places where the country is covered, for many square miles, with traces of a former super- abundant population, including the ancient sites of great cities, containing remains of magnificent temples, palaces, and other extensive works, representing an enormous expenditure of human skill and labour; where the wilderness has so completely resumed its sway that the whole district is now covered with almost impenetrable forest, inhabited only by a few wandering families of wild jungle people.

These spectacles of fallen greatness and depaiced glory are eloquent and solemn object lessons to man- kind, and exhibit in the most striking manner the instability of human institutions. Their transitory splendour, when contrasted with their present utter desolation and loneliness, has been very beautifully.

Before we pass to the consider- ation of other matters we shall take the liberty of reproducing one of these picturesque descriptions: Pro-verbs xxx, verse The wild beasts of the desert shall also meet with the wild beasts of the island, and the satyr shall cry to his fellows; the screech-owl also shall rest there, and find for herself a place of rest. There shall the great owl make her nest, and lay, and hatch, and gather under her shadow: If it was a forest region the tendency, therefore, is for trees to spring up spontaneously; if it was a heathy moorland, the tendency is for the soil to produce heather ; though every trace of heather may have been extirpated by generations of steady, continuous tillage.

These things can hardly fail to produce a deep im- pression upon every thoughtful mind, and seem to point to the conclusion that Nature has aplotted the earth's surface into special regions, such as the forest, the prairie, or the desert; and taking the map of the world in one's hand, anybody possessing a fair know- ledge of physical geography can see that these special regions seem to extend in a more or less continuous way, in the form of bands encircling the earth's ter- j- Isaiah xxxiv, part of verse 2. Ibid, xxxiv, verses 13, 14, and These form what we have ventured to call "The Climatic Zones.

Again, take the prairie, or Steppe Region: Then again these great plains re- appear in a similar position in the southern hemisphere, in the pampas of South America, and in the karroo and grass veld of Southern Africa, though on account of the great preponderance of ocean in that hemi- sphere, their extent is very much smaller than in the northern hemisphere.

So we might go on to show that, save and except in certain exceptional districts, the whole earth is thus laid out substantially in a series of climatic bands or zones throughout its entire terrestrial extent; and again, wherever exceptional regions do extend, form- ing a breach in their continuity, in almost every case there are evident reasons which make it apparent why they should occur where we find them.

Moreover, these very exceptions to the general law are in themselves in a pre-eminent degree suggestive and instructive ; and show in terms that speak louder and clearer than any words could do, that all these varia- tions in the nature of a country depend upon climate. The two great factors in climate, as we have said, are heat and moisture. Such in brief are the principal conditions which operate, as we humbly venture to assert, to create the great system of climatic zones. It may, however, be objected that the division of these zones is really a botanical rather than a climatic one: Tell a botanist what plants grow in a given district, and he will tell you what its climate and mean tem- perature should be, and whether it has a dry or a moisture-laden atmosphere.

Let us take the cocoa-nut Cocos Nuciferd as an example. If this tree grew there, the climate must have been equatorial, the atmosphere was hot, moist and equable, and the ele- vation above sea-level did not exceed feet: And so a skilled botanist would really be able to tell more about the climate of a place, which he had never seen, on being shown a collection of its plants, than a careless or ill-educated observer, who had resided for a considerable time in the locality: But though the botanist can form an excellent idea respecting climate, etc. On turning to the climatic chart of any atlas of physical geography, the examination of it will show that its isothermal lines are here and there curved out of their regular course, on account of being deflected by various local causes.

The causes of these variations involve technical questions which will be dealt with as they arise in the course of this work; it will be sufficient for the present to cite the marked deflection of the isotherms over the British Islands, compared with those over Labrador, as a notable instance in point. These wide differences in their mean temperatures are created, as it is now almost universally admitted, by the set of ocean currents.

These extensive streams of warm and cold water, respectively, either raise or lower the temperature of the air in their vicinity, and thus produce great variations of climate between these countries situated within nearly the same parallels of latitude, which under the circumstances is not much to be wondered at. So again in almost every instance, where sharp curves of the isotherms warn us of marked abnormal increase or diminution in the temperature of a particular region, local causes are apparent, which furnish very good reasons why such peculiarities should occur.

It would, however, be out of place to enter into details respecting these phenomena in a preliminary and explanatory chapter upon the Climatic Zones generally; and we shall close these remarks by giving a table in which the name and locality of each of them is clearly indicated, which will give our readers a general idea of our system.

The Climatic Zones, which girdle the earth, both by land and sea, are six in number; and occur in corresponding positions in both hemispheres: We have ventured to fix their position and boundaries beginning from the equator , respectively, as follows: This comprises two other belts, beginning at Lat. Comprising two belts extending from the' 2 5th to the 3oth parallels. Comprising two belts extending from the 3oth to the 5oth parallels.

Comprising two belts extending from the 5oth parallel to the circumpolar circles Lat. Extending from the circumpolar circles Lat. To these we must add k three additional sections, relative to special regions, which occur at different parts of the earth's surface throughout each of the six pairs of climatic zones, viz. Each of these last-named important sub -divisions, as we shall presently have occasion to show, exercises a vast influence upon the whole expanse of the ter- VOL. When the mountains, for instance, sink down into the plain, their climatic influence still extends over a vast expanse of low-lands.

When the rivers mingle with the ocean, they are not lost. And though the Creator has set bounds to the sea which its waves cannot overpass, new rivers rise from its surface and are carried by the winds back to the mountain slopes from whence they took their sources. Value of a Knowledge of Climate to Travellers. Ignorance that formerly Prevailed on this Subject. Examples from British Military and Colonial Records.

Principal Factors in the Creation of Climate. Temperature as Modified by Elevation. General Contour of the Earth's Surface. Ratio of Temperature to Elevation. Mean Temperature of the Equatorial Zone. Swampy and Unhealthy Coasts. The Highlands of the Interior. Beauty and Luxuriance of Its Forest Scenes. The Climatic Range of Yellow Fever. Yellow Fever at Lisbon. In the West Indies and Brazil.

Effects of " Moisture " on Temperature. Depressing Effects of "Damp Heat. Remarkable Instances of Great Heat. Dry Air and Cool Nights. Influences of Climate on the History of Man. The Phenomena of Dry Atmosphere. Therapeutic Effects of Dry Cold. Created by the Sun's Heat. The Uses of Deserts. Indian Droughts and Famines. Equatorial Currents in the Celestial Altitudes. The Coming-up of a Sub-Tropical Rainstorm. Outburst of an Equatorial Thunder Storm. Remarkable Instances of Great Rainfalls.

Sudden Inundations Caused by Torrential Rains. The Coming down of the Great River Atbara. Danger of Encamping in Dry River Beds. The Coming down of an American Prairie Flood. Army Camps by Sudden Floods. Supposed Causes of These Floods. Instances of Great Thunder Storms. Traveller Killed by Lightning. Thirteen Oxen Struck Dead in a Heap.

The Bursting of the Indian Monsoon. Ideas of the Ancients on the Sources of Rain. The Superior Waters Above the Firmament. The Teachings of Modern Science upon Rain. The Vapour-Carrying Power of the Winds. Probable Cause of Blue Colour of the Sky. Evaporation in Visible Form. The "Lull" of the Storm. Rules for Avoiding Cyclones at Sea. Velocity of the Wind in Great Hurricanes. Indications of an Ap- proaching Cyclone. Loss of a British Fleet. The Great Cyclone of in England. Cyclone on the Brahmaputra in , and Loss of , Lives. Great Cyclone at the Mauritius in Partial Destruction of U.

Waggon Train in a Blizzard. Buffalo Hunteis Frozen to Death. Terrible Nature of Frostbite. The Great Blizzards of March Possible Effects of a Great Storm in London. Cause of Moving Pillars of Sand in the Desert. How they are Formed. Collapse of Dust Columns. The "Ascending" Form of Tornadoes. Tracks of Tornadoes through Forests. The Great Atmospheric Ocean. The Great Billows of the Atmospheric Ocean.

Heavy Falls of the Barometer.

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Why Threatened Storms Sometimes do not Occur. NOWHERE do meteorological phenomena assume more immediate importance to the individual man than they do to the traveller in wild countries, whose life for the most part is passed in the open air, or at best under the shelter of a canvas tent. Hence it comes that the thoughtful traveller by land and sea has his attention continually drawn to the consideration of some one or other of those phenomena of Nature to which we desire to call attention in this chapter.

The influence of climate is felt, as we know, all over the world. But experience shows that people comfortably housed, and surrounded by all the refine- ments of an ultra-civilization, have rarely either time or inclination to bestow much thought upon the study of the weather: Beagle, during her voyage round the world, undertaken for the purpose of scientific research in the third decade of the present century. He was accompanied throughout the last named expedition by Charles Darwin, who afterwards attained an imperishable renown in the world of science as a naturalist, etc.

Darwin did the almost totally un- known wilderness of South America, together with islands, and other sections of wild country visited by the expedition. Fitzroy especially, as the officer primarily responsible for the safety of its personnel, must have been throughout these years constantly employed in the consideration of such questions as we now propose to glance at. Upon the stormy and desolate coasts they were for the greater part of the time engaged in surveying.

This subject of "The Wilderness and Its Tenants," must also perforce have been to both gentlemen their peculiar study, just in the same way as we propose to make it ours throughout these pages. Before entering upon the question of the climatic zones r however, we think it desirable to open the subject with a survey of the leading features of climates, as these are exhibited to travellers proceeding from Europe to tropical and other distant lands. We shall also endeavour to describe the extraor- dinary nature and intensity of some of the atmospheric disturbances by which these regions are visited, of which dwellers at home can form but a very faint and imperfect idea: It is highly desirable that all travellers should possess at least a good general idea of these phenomena before visiting such countries, as there is great art in laying out an extended tour judiciously, so as to take the best advantage of the proper seasons for visiting the dif- ferent climates included in the programme, and thus seeing them under the best and most agreeable conditions.

In these days, when such numbers of persons make extended trips about the world, these matters assume a constantly growing importance as there is a healthy, as well as an unhealthy season, in many of these coun- tries. There can be no doubt that in former days many travellers fell victims to the effects of climate, either from visiting unhealthy places during the sickly season, or because they were unacquainted with the proper means of preserving health in such localities.

It might, for example, reasonably have been supposed, that at all events expeditions fitted out under the auspices of the leading European governments would have been well advised in these matters; but in general it was the very re- verse, and immense loss of life was incurred from the want of what now seem the most obvious precautions. The records of British military and naval experiences in Africa, and in the East and West Indies, are full of warning and instruction in this respect.

Sanitary science was, however, a thing that can hardly be said to have had any existence a few years ago. Indeed, if an accurate return could be obtained of the thousands of lives that have been sacrificed to incompetence and ignorance of the elementary rules of this science, it would be one of the most appalling documents that has ever been published and in defence of British officers it may be stated if that can be of any satisfaction to us that French records show that they did not do these things one whit better there.

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Instances of this kind might be multiplied almost without end, were it desirable to do so, which show that, in the words of Sir James Martin, a well-known Indian medical authority on these matters, it is not an exaggeration of the facts to say that, " with our com- manders and statesmen, it has never been the disaster, or the loss of an army, but always the accusation of having caused it, that has disturbed their serenity. Generally speaking, there can be no doubt that for a traveller such an arrangement is perfectly feasible, provided, of course, that a man is his own master, and that the claims of business, or of duty, do not intervene to hamper his movements.

British officers are now all of them highly trained, and often exceedingly scientific soldiers ; and probably few people will be disposed to deny, without in the slightest degree depreciating the merits of our com- manders in former days, that these recent triumphs are largely to be attributed to the judicious arrangements made for these expeditions, and the higher standard of education maintained among the officers of the present day over their predecessors of a generation or two ago. The older commanders acted according to their lights, and the state of knowledge of the times they lived in.

The modern expeditions to which refer- ence is made, are, ist, the Abyssinian Campaign and march to Magdala, under the late Lord Napier, in 8; 2ndly, the Red River expedition to Fort Garry, under Lord Wolseley, in ; and 3rdly the Ashanti War and expedition to Coomassie, under the same commander, in Those who witnessed the departure of the troops for Abyssinia and Ashanti will, however, doubtless remem- ber the dismal foreboding with which the deadly nature of the climate was regarded.

It is only necessary to refer to the files of the newspapers of the day to realize how strong a hold this view had taken upon the public mind. Many people thought that very few of those who went out would ever return nor can it be said that these fears were altogether groundless, for judging from the experiences of former expeditions at the end of the last and the beginning of the present century, very great losses seemed not improbable. But, by going at the right time, in the right manner, and lastly by getting away again in time, as we have pointed out, these disasters were avoided.

It will merely be necessary to refer to a single one of the many cases where in former times these things were done with an entire disregard to these con- siderations, to show the appalling consequences which ignorance and incompetence in such matters are almost certain to entail. We shall select the case of the Walcheren Expe- dition of This expedition was one of the most powerful and admirably disciplined forces that has ever sailed from the shores of this country, " consisting of 35 ships of the line, with smaller ships, and 40, men under the Earl of Chatham.

Of course, in considering the question of " climate, " it would be impracticable to discuss that of each par- ticular country, or region, separately. The most that we can hope to do is to offer a few suggestions and remarks, which we trust may contribute to a right understanding of this important subject. The best index to a climate will of course be the meteorological record of its weather, and the range of its temperature, extending over a series of years; because, as we know, in many places the climate varies greatly from year to year and the further we go away from the Equator, the more considerable as a rule are these variations.

It must also be remem- bered that climate depends upon a number of different considerations besides that of latitude among the principal of which are elevation, and the quantity of moisture contained in the atmosphere. Temperature, which is such an all-important factor in the climate of a place, is mainly dependent upon these circum- stances. We propose therefore to say a few words upon this question of " Elevation " in its relation to climate.

There- fore the larger the area of a continent, the general presumption is the greater will be the elevation of its highlands. Where this is not so, it must be obvious that except in waterless regions, the drainage would be so imper- fect, that were the country perfectly flat, its interior would become a region of swamps and morasses; while depressions below the general level of the country would gradually fill with water, and form vast inland lakes or seas. We have good examples of this in the great lakes of North America and in the Caspian Sea in Asia, the level of which is fixed on the Russian ordinance map as 86 feet below that of the Black Sea.

While in the waterless area of the Great Sahara of Northern Africa, it is stated on what is believed to be good authority, that one of these dry depressions actually does exist, needing only a canal from the Mediterranean to convert it into an inland sea, in the heart of a burning waste of sand and stones. It has been variously estimated in what ratio temperature is affected by altitude.

Baron Humboldt fixes it as amounting to a fall of i degree Fahr. Descending from this extreme elevation we have every gradation of climate, down to the normal tem- perature of the Equatorial zone, amounting to about 86 Fahr. In saying so, we wish to guard against misconception: The flat character which the land is known to assume upon the seaboard of many countries, accounts for the formation of extensive areas of swampy land in such localities.

Now it may be accepted as a matter of ascertained fact, that wherever stagnant water is associated with a powerful sun, malarial diseases are always prevalent and therefore as a rule we find the coast line of most tropical countries is unhealthy; and in many cases it may even be considered deadly to Europeans, at certain seasons.

But as we penetrate into the interior and ascend the highlands, the climate in general becomes compara- tively healthy.

We shall here confine our remarks to the case of tropical countries, as the climates of temperate regions call for no particular notice in this respect: The land upon the seaboard, as we have pointed out, often rises very gradually from the coast, and therefore in tropical regions a wide belt of unhealthy country, generally clothed with dense forests, has to be traversed before the highlands can be reached.

The coasts of the African continent, especially those of the west coast, largely partake of this character. But as means of communication improve, affording facilities for pushing rapidly in to the elevated table- lands of the interior, we venture to predict that we shall hear less of the supposed peculiarly deadly na- ture of the African climate. In other more favoured regions of the tropical world, the mountain ranges of the interior throw out spurs towards the coast, so that sometimes a very short journey brings the traveller to high and healthy sta- tions, where in the midst of a delicious climate, closely resembling that of a perennial spring, he can look down upon the fertile lowlands, clothed in all the magnificence of tropical vegetation, and reside in safety, as long as he pleases, above the reach of their baneful vapours.

Some of those charming spots may be set down so far as climate is concerned as the nearest approach that can be found upon earth to a terrestrial Paradise where flowers perpetually bloom. The tropical regions of Central and South America have been specially favoured by Nature in this respect, and nowhere is this more the case than in the Repub- lic of Mexico, which is at once one of the richest and most beautiful countries in the world.

The effects of elevation in modifying climate are there exhibited under such striking conditions that we could not do better than give a short sketch of the climate of Mexico, as a good illustration of tropical nature in general. Mexico is divided by the natives into three zones the "Tierra Caliente " or hot zone , the " Tierra Templada" temperate , and " Fria " cold.

It extends to feet above sea-level, and almost all the choicest treasures of tropical vegetation flourish there in the greatest luxuriance. The dry season Estacion Seca usually lasts from October till the middle of May; and the rainy season Estacion de las aguas from the middle of May till the end of September; but the greater or less regularity of the rainy season depends exclusively on the position and mean elevation of each locality.

The showers generally last till midnight, leaving the early morning clear and bright. Besides the constant summer rainfall, there are also occasional storms and showers from December to February, called the 'Aguas Nieves' snow rains. The rains as a rule begin first on the Atlantic seaboard, gradually spread- ing westward in the time of the trade winds. But fortunately in illustration of what we have already said as to the possibility of being sometimes able to pass rapidly through an unhealthy district on the coast, to a high and healthy station inland even before the days of railways, all that the prudent traveller needed to do in this case in order to avoid the sickly season, was to proceed some twelve hours up the country to Jalapa, a distance of about 52 miles by the old trail, leading mostly through the forest and jungle.

Since , however, a railway, making a detour up to about 70 miles, makes the matter more easy still and at Jalapa, which lies within the Tierra Templada, some feet above the sea-level, a delicious climate, combined with magnificent scenery, can be enjoyed, very little warmer than an ordinary English summer day, above the reach of the dreaded "Yellow Jack.

As Sir James Martin has pointed out "It would seem that the diseases of tropical climates, like certain vegetable productions, are restricted to certain altitudes and particular degrees of temperature.

But to give, if possible, still greater emphasis to Sir James Martin's maxim, we may here mention the very remarkable fact that the range of altitude to which yellow fever ascends in Mexico and other places, is found to be coincident with that of certain plants. In the present instance it has been ascertained that as a rule, " this disease ceases at that altitude at which the Mexican oak Quercus Xalapensis commences to appear, that is at feet.

Quain's Dictionary of Medicine, p. But wherever there are popu- lous sea-ports or other towns in low-lying situations as long as the summer temperature keeps up sufficiently high even though it be for a single season of excep- tional heat we may on the other hand pretty safely assert that the place is never secure from the possible inroads of this terrible pestilence. We may quote, for instance, the case amongst others of the fearful outbreak of epidemic yellow fever at Lisbon, at the close of a very hot summer, in October and November , which attacked nearly 1 9, people, and carried off some 6, of the population living in and around the city, many of them being persons of the upper classes.

On the whole, this is the most disastrous epidemic of this fell disease which has visited Europe during the century. We have dwelt somewhat at length upon this subject, because yellow fever forms a constant bugbear to all European travellers and residents, throughout tropical America, while the range of this malady seems to be peculiarly one dependent upon such questions of elevation and temperature as we have just been con- sidering.

And the rule that holds good in Mexico seems generally to maintain itself under similar con- ditions elsewhere, notwithstanding that some exceptions are alleged to haVe occurred, owing to special circum- stances, in Peru and elsewhere in South America. In the West Indies we may point to the hill stations of Jamaica and San Domingo, which have thus far proved to be exempt from this scourge. Another instance is met with in Brazil, near Rio Janeiro, itself a hot and unhealthy place at certain seasons, with defective sanitary arrangements, from which a short journey, in like manner, takes the traveller through lovely scenery to Petropolis, which at an elevation of some feet above sea-level, has thus far also proved exempt from epidemics of this disease.

Similar cases might be multiplied but we pass on to the consideration of another important factor in climate, namely, the effect of moisture in the form of atmo- spheric vapour. According to the Encyclopeedia Bri- tannica, " Climate is practically determined by the temperature and moisture of the air, and those in their turn are dependent on the prevailing winds, which are charged with the temperature and moisture of the regions they have traversed. In hot, damp climates, such as that of the Equatorial Zone for instance, it is the means whereby the night temperature is kept up to nearly the same point as that of the day.

Thus, at Batavia r " the usual daily range of the thermometer averages only a little more than 1 1 Fahr. During the fifteen years, to , both inclusive, "the greatest maximum temperature in November was 96 8' Fahr. It is this long unbroken continuity of high temperatures which proves trying to the European constitu- tion, for the new-comer seldom feels himself much oppressed by the heat. The great heat of the night, therefore, prevents many people who feel the heat greatly, from obtaining sound and refreshing sleep.

The minimum tempera- ture of the 24 hours, it must be remembered, merely as a rule represents that of the last hour or two before sunrise, and by no means that of the greater part of the night, during which it stands considerably higher. Sound sleep is therefore in many cases only enjoyed during the morning hours: On the other hand, the intense solar temperatures which we hear of as being registered occasionally, do not as a rule occur in the intertropical regions at all.

Where high temperatures, such as those exceeding F. The highest solar temperatures generally occur in the zones of dry country which extend in belts around the earth wherever there is land, somewhat to the northward of the Tropic of Cancer, and to the south- ward of the Tropic of the Capricorn. These therefore may be regarded as the zones of maximum solar temperatures. These cases are, however, of course entirely exceptional. Some of these extreme temperatures which have occasionally been registered, are so extraordinary, that it may be desirable to quote a few instances of what great heat can occasionally be like.

South Australia and Victoria, for instance are " subject to hot winds from the interior resembling the blast from a furnace, and the thermometer rises to Fahr. On one occasion Captain Sturt hung a thermometer on a tree shaded from the sun and wind, and it was graduated to Fahr. The heat therefore must have been at least Fahr. For three months Capt. Sturt found the mean temperature to exceed Fahr.

Every screw came out of their boxes, the horn handles of instruments and combs split up into fine laminae, the lead dropped out of their pencils, the wool of sheep ceased to grow, and their finger nails became brittle as glass. Everything in fact assumed a certain temperature approximate to that of the atmosphere. Edited by Alfred R. Murray's Handbook for the Bombay Residency, , p. So much so, that the hand cannot be kept on one particular spot for even five seconds, without one feeling glad enough to remove it.

So the guns, if placed on the ground for even a few minutes, become so dreadfully hot that it is distinctly painful to handle the metal. If obliged to lie, or sit down, on hot rocks, it is absolutely necessary to have some protection first spread over the burning ground. The City of Omaha, it seems, "had the thermometer at F. Solimos in his " Desert Life " informs us that the " sand temperature one day marked Fahr. We might largely increase the number of instances where these intense heats are recorded, by quotations from the works of various authors, did not time and space forbid.

What we desire, however, more parti- cularly to point out, is that where these great heats do occur, they are certain when they are not accompanied by hot winds to be compensated for by the occurrence of cool nights: The German traveller Dr. Undertaken under the directions of H. Government, and published In the Empire of Morocco the Bedouins all have a sort of long, thick, brown-striped woollen garment, made of native cloth and furnished with a hood, called] a " haik," for this purpose, which can with a little trouble be easily adapted for the use of Europeans.

Before the days of ulsters, the author found this haik a good and efficient substitute for that now almost indispensable garment, which has contri- buted so largely to the comfort and health of modern travellers. Of course it goes without saying, that for a traveller to be without ample protection against the sudden falls of temperature at night, and especially against the bitter chill of the small hours of the morning, is one of the surest ways of laying the seeds of fever, rheumatism, or some other serious ailment a matter which we shall have a good deal to say upon here- after, in the proper place.

But barring accidents from this preventable cause, the beneficial effects of these cool nights in bracing up the constitution against the exhausting heat of the day, is very marked. Hence it comes that these very high temperatures are not found to produce the same evil effects as the considerably lower ones met with in damp, steamy, tropical climates. The dry zone of desert countries which extends across the continents of Asia and Africa, is therefore comparatively healthy notwithstanding that they comprise within their limits what are probably the hottest countries in the world that is to say, those countries where the range of the thermometer PEOPLE OF COLOUR.

It is a remarkable fact that almost the whole of this immense region is co-terminous with the limits of the strongholds of the Mahometan faith, showing that even opinions, like plants and animals, have their special climatic range. This is a fact which has been noted in all ages, notwithstanding the European prejudice against people of colour. Thus, the picturesque Moorish prince, attired in all the magnificence of oriental costume, while apologizing for his sun-burnt face, in Shakespeare's celebrated play, is supposed to address his English sweetheart in the following strain: Look not upon me, because I am black, because the sun hath looked upon me.

Thus with the seasons they must change their localities precisely as the wild beasts of the country are driven from place to place, either by the arrival of the fly the seroot , the lack of pasturage, or by the want of water; even so must the flocks of the Arab obey the law of necessity in a country where the burning sun and total absence of rain, for nine months of the year, convert the green pastures into a sandy desert. In the absence of a fixed home, without even a village that is permanent, there can be no change of custom. His wants must be few, as the constant changes of encampment necessitate the trans- port of all his household goods.

Verses 5 and 6. The desert is then the desert indeed: Magazine for March During the hot season the nights are cool and de- lightful. There is not one drop of dew, and we live entirely in the open air, beneath the shade of a tree in the day, and under a roof of glittering stars at night. There were no mosquitoes; neither were there any of the insect plagues of the tropics: These paragraphs describe in the clearest manner the peculiar charm of night in these hot dry countries, which afford, as we have already pointed out, a period of cool and refreshing rest to both mind and body, exhausted by the overpowering heat of the day and we might amplify these facts, were that desirable, to any extent, by quotations from the works of other travellers.

Please enter a valid postcode. There are 2 items available. Please enter a number less than or equal to 2. Select a valid country. Please enter five or nine numbers for the postcode. Will usually send within 20 business days of receiving cleared payment - opens in a new window or tab. Back to home page. Image not available Photos not available for this variation Stock photo. Get the item you ordered or get your money back. Seyette desired to run away on numerous occasions only to realize she had place to go and one to look after her.

To worsen matters, she had money and means of earning any. She entertained the thought of running away to the local town to work in one of the whorehouses and decided against it. Somehow, the thought of strange men pawing her delicate body and leaving her feeling as if she'd been ransacked didn't appeal to her. If only her mother hadn't deserted her for the first decent man she met!

Seyette lived apart in a world void of people, laughter, and love. Her drunken ex-stepfather was usually away in town as he lavished money on soiled doves while leaving her alone to tend to the ranch. Her ex-stepfather settled on securing the services of Xavier Littleton who is a young cowboy-for-hire to help out around the ranch for a few days. Xavier knew how to treat a woman and Seyette knew she'd miss his presence once he finished his work on the ranch. Gwandine is an anointed pastor, author, artist, and mentor to young women in Christ. She has also ministered and shared her testimony to homeless individuals.

The strong anointing she possesses came as a result of her years of suffering, which she learned that Jesus is her faithful Rock. During her youthful years, she lived in an unstable home environment nearly starving. She sometimes found sustainment by consuming outdated food discarded in garbage dumpsters, which was unhealthy. She suffered numerous rapes throughout her years, mental, physical, emotional, verbal abuse, and rejection by men before and after she received Jesus Christ as her Lord and Saviour.

She learned that Jesus never promised her that life would be easy. Nevertheless, He proved Himself faithful throughout it all. Gwandine learned that Jesus will heal your mind and broken heart. He makes all things new! She writes Christian non-fiction and Christian parables. She has written Christian parables of encounters in the Old West, Christian mysteries, inspirational poetry, graphic novels, and children's stories. Her book covers consists of her artwork including oil on canvas. Gwandine is gifted to glorify God!

She refuses to create works that fail to glorify Him. In times past, she wrote a couple of secular books and felt uncomfortable. The Lord convicted her heart and she repented from her dead works. She writes under her following logos: Precious Parables are her Christian children's stories.


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  5. Throughout her years as a historical researcher and author, Gwandine found a niche for writing inspirational stories. Being of African and Cherokee descent, she depicts cowboys and cowgirls of the Old West in her western parables series. She has written inspirational cowboy poetry. Her former instructors complimented her creative writing skills. Her passion and persistence in creative writing and classical literature stems from childhood when she preferred to write stories as opposed to playing.

    She formerly exhibited her fine art figurative sculptures on tour.