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- Political Economy, Race, and National Identity in Central America, 1500–2000
- Blacks and Blackness in Central America | Duke University Press
Read more Read less. Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App. Kindle Cloud Reader Read instantly in your browser. Customers who bought this item also bought. Page 1 of 1 Start over Page 1 of 1. Ethnicity, Race, and Color in Latin America. Latinos and the Cultural Transformation of Race. The Borders of Dominicanidad: Race, Nation, and Archives of Contradiction. In this book, Ginetta E. Candelario shows processes of identity formation among Dominicans in different historical and geographical contexts, and she looks at the nuanced relationship between ethnic and racial identities.
In my opinion, this is one of the best books written on the subject of racial, ethnic, and national identity formation in general. It is the most comprehensive, focused, and balanced treatment to date of Dominican racial and gender ideologies in the United States. Identities on the Island and in the United States. The author renders facile readings of the Dominican chapter of the black experience in the Americas as exceptional or pathological simply unsustainable. In exploring the paradoxes of Dominican ethno-racial identity so creatively, Candelario has produced a fascinating template for scholars and students of race, ethnicity and national identity in general.
Candelario breaks new ground with her analysis of racial formation in Dominican communities in the United States. Black Behind the Ears is a well-researched analysis of the cultural sites through which various actors produce racial understandings in relation to national discourses. It is an important contribution to the study of race, gender and national identity within the Dominican Republic and its US-based migrant communities.
Candelario's "Black behind the Ears" argues compellingly that any serious effort to understand Dominican ideas and practices of race in the ancestral homeland as well as in the diaspora requires a large conceptual framework, a triangular geography of knowledge, and a cultural history formed by Dominican nation-building projects, the difficult plight of the Haitian Republic in the midst of a negrophobic world, the impact of U.
Candelario's book remarkably dares to bring apparently disparate discursive sites to interact convincingly and engagingly in her analysis. She shows instead that it invites White Americans, African Americans, and other Latinos to revisit long-held assumptions about racial categories, ethnic identity, nationality, and the ideologies behind taking the 'visible' for 'real' in matters of race.
See all Editorial Reviews. Product details File Size: November 21, Sold by: Share your thoughts with other customers. Write a customer review. Showing of 9 reviews. The official historiography, promoted by the Ministry of Education since the first decade of the 20th century, and then by the Ministry of Culture since the mids, usually identified Lempira as a native Lenca chieftain from the west of the country, whose merits included dying defending his territory against the Spanish conquistadors during the third decade of the 16th century.
No other state elevated mythic Indians to such a status. This official and subaltern championing of Lempira after the s must be juxtaposed against the 20th-century narrative of blackness. By the late s, Nicaraguan intellectuals, especially members of or sympathizers with the Sandinista National Liberation Front, and the state, had sanctioned a national narrative of indigenous resistance to the Spaniards during the colonial period, but it largely excluded the living Miskitos, Sutiabas, English-speaking creoles, and others. Comparatively speaking, Nicaraguan historiography until very recently lacked significant scholarly research on its African descendants, even less than Honduras, Guatemala, and Costa Rica, in particular.
The mutilation of our history in order to remove its African element is astounding. Those looking to define a national identity turned the focus on a race that had been oppressed and held back, and was in need of redemption, a point of view that was developing throughout the first half of the 20th century in Latin America and became a part of the literature.
This race is a mestizo, native, Hispanic one, [though] more native than Hispanic. It cannot be spoken of. A sepulchral silence falls over its presence in our history and on those cultural elements that make up our daily life, to the point that everything that comes from this black heritage is disguised as indigenous. The triumph of a silent indigeneity within a homogenous mestizaje achieved preeminence in the s and in the context of the formidable coffee economy that was being consolidated at the time, as Jeff L.
Gould argued in pioneering work on the issue. By the beginning of the 21st century, research on the Afro-descendant population had identified at least three major strands of the African diaspora in Nicaragua that had historically been excluded from the state-generated national political imagination: In Costa Rica, a Latin American whiteness was juxtaposed not so much to colonial indigeneity but to legacies of the postcolonial African diaspora in ways that are comparable to Uruguay in South America.
In fact, it probably had the opposite effect. In fact, until the mids Costa Rica cultivated the same general patterns in their educational systems and civic calendars as the rest of Central America, with nuances of format and presentation. As in Nicaragua and El Salvador, and unlike in Honduras and Guatemala, the list of official holidays in Costa Rica does not include days dedicated to indigenous heroes, and certainly not to those of African descent.
Our blood is turning black! And if we continue like this, not a fleck of gold will the crucible produce but rather a chunk of coal. There might still be time to save our heritage of European blood which is possibly what has prevented us until now from falling into African-like manners, whether it be in politics or in tastes that mimic art or social status in pathetic and ridiculous ways.
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His evident mulatto features were erased from official representations of this hero, named Juan Santamaria. Costa Rican academia—in the social sciences and through universities and graduate degrees in history—has made impressive advances, at least in recent years, in the historiography related to the Afro-descendant problematic, even as officially its governments have only slowly registered its racial and ethnic pasts in the imagined political imagination.
In Guatemala, the civil war in the s represented an extension and more violent phase of the civil war that began after the coup against Jacobo Arbenz in which Mayan indigenous communities lost thousands and thousands of victims, leading eventually to formal trials for genocide. As elsewhere in Central America, combatants and sympathizers in a varied political and cultural left, ranging from Marxists to progressive Catholics, often faced overwhelming force and repression from state-sanctioned military violence and civilian death squads, especially in Guatemala, Nicaragua, and El Salvador and, to a lesser extent, in Honduras.
Military regimes ruled these four societies almost continuously after the end of World War II and continued to do so into the late s. The civil wars were sparked by various critical events during the mid- to late s. In Honduras, very small guerrilla groups organized in and but were mostly killed by the military and death squads. The Honduran guerillas failed to garner massive popular support comparable to that in Nicaragua and El Salvador. Honduras instead saw its territory occupied by US military forces that supported the military regimes in Guatemala, Nicaragua, and El Salvador, with which it shares borders.
The civil wars and insurrections and US military support for the right-wing military regimes resulted in an enormous number of violent deaths and casualties, on a scale never before registered in the region. This only ended after various negotiated peace accords were signed by contending sides in the early s. In Guatemala, between and the accords of , some , Guatemalans lost their lives in the civil war. In Nicaragua, the Sandinista insurrection, its repression, and the civil war of the s accounted for approximately 40, deaths.
In El Salvador, between and , almost 80, succumbed to violent deaths. While Nicaraguans fled the country as never before in its history during the s, Guatemalans and Salvadorans fled in the tens of thousands, most often as refugees to the United States. In , there were about 1. In the first decade of the 21st century, this figure stands at about one million. There are about , Hondurans in the United States today, most having arrived in the late s and especially during the s. In the s and s, repressive reaction to protests, along with demands for greater democratic participation on the part of authoritarian, militarized regimes, except for Costa Rica, deepened the agro-export crisis.
More than fifteen years ago, William I. Robinson succinctly summarized the structural changes in the political economy of Central America that began in the mids and consolidated during the s:. Polyarchy and neoliberalism are political and economic components, respectively, of global capitalism. Transitions to polyarchy represent adjustments of political structure to the economic changes brought about by capitalist globalization. The type of flexibility in the exercise of social control, the mechanisms of intra-elite conflict resolution, compromise and consensus building, and the superior prospects it offers for the hegemonic incorporation of subordinate groups, makes polyarchy a more appropriate political system than authoritarianism for capitalist modernization in the current epoch.
The global economy cannot function without a harmonization of national fiscal, monetary, exchange, budgetary, industrial, labor and other macroeconomic policies. Structural adjustment programs attempt to restore macroeconomic equilibrium. The investigation explores historical context, transformation, and continuity in elite composition as well as how elites relate to the economic, political, and social orders. This research highlights continuity and change in all aspects. We explore how the economic landscape gives rise to political interests, and catalogue the organizational mechanisms through which elites seek to channel their interests into public policy.
We describe and analyze elite relationships to different components of the state and, where relevant, their ties to illicit actors. The research empirically documents the sociopolitical attitudes of Central American elites and assesses how those attitudes translate into behaviors. In fact, argued Charles R. Hale more than ten years ago, neoliberalism represented. In particular, neoliberal governance includes the limited recognition of cultural rights, the strengthening of civil society, and endorsement of the principle of intercultural equality.
When combined with neoliberal economic policies, these progressive measures have unexpected effects, including a deepened state capacity to shape and neutralize political opposition, and a remaking of racial hierarchies across the region. Neoliberal reforms were epitomized by the notorious Congressional Decree , an amendment to Article of the Constitution, passed in , which made it legal for foreigners to own beach land, thereby clearing the way for a surge of beachside property sales and mega-tourist development.
Black and indigenous organizations in this period engaged in intense protest and mobilization. Over the next fifteen years, the state begrudgingly conceded a series of essential multicultural reforms: Anthropologists, on their own and in conversation with historians during the last fifteen years have been documenting race, ethnicity, and national identity in the region, now influenced by critical race theory, feminism, and postmodernism to search in many new directions.
A recent succinct statement summarizes the current state of research thus:. Especially in the fields of war aftermaths, violence, and the formation of political subjectivities, anthropologists of Central America have elaborated innovative trajectories for the discipline as a whole. The complex idioms of multiculturalism and identity politics have taken particular forms in Central America that are foundational for the theorizing of anthropologists elsewhere. Ultimately, though, the vast majority of Central Americans live in precarious, violent conditions, ever more so under neoliberal governance.
The historical literature on the articulated relationships between political economy, race, and national identity in Central America in the sense presented in this article reflect a posts academic phenomenon. Moreover, subaltern identities in the historiography prior to the s, and even into the mids, largely excluded the African diaspora, blackness, and even the earlyth-century West Indian migrations from their focus of study.
Examples include two of the most comprehensive historiographical studies of the s and s: Historiographical trends in each Central American country conversant with ethnographic sensibilities, and with the s work on nation-state formation, are available in Spanish. Euraque presented new and critical research on mestizaje in Memorias del mestizaje: A very recent summary of the ethnographic and ethnohistorical production during the last ten years is, Jennifer Burrell and Ellen L.
The first venues for studying race, ethnicity, and nation in Central American history, especially under Spanish colonialism, are the national and municipal archives of each country in the region and the archives in Seville, Spain. The best collection in the region is the one in Guatemala City, unsurprising given that all the current states of Central America were governed from there until the s.
The card catalogue of the Archivo General de Centroamerica in Guatemala City, also known as the Fichero Pardo, has an accessible website. Many of the scholarly journals referenced here, especially Mesoamerica , have published articles and essays on the status of the archives in different countries of Central America. Novice researchers should first contact experienced researchers because gaining access to collections in Central America often requires very different protocols from those in the United States or Europe.
Several academic institutions in the United States since World War II have specialized in collecting and conserving unique primary sources about Central America, particularly for the 19th and 20th centuries. These have well organized and accessible online research portals to a vast assortment of primary sources, from ephemera to newspapers to private papers, periodicals, and photographic collections generated by individuals and state and corporate actors, local to the region, and often based in the United States.
In this regard a critical source of primary materials are the vast numbers of documents, maps, and diplomatic correspondence exchanged between US foreign policy agencies and institutions and Central American governments since the midth century, and especially during the 20th century. Classic reference sources are Arthur E. The 19th-century US consular reports had been microfilmed by the s; many of the US Department of State documents related to Central American internal affairs had been microfilmed by the late s and early s.
During the s, thousands of documents for the to period, often declassified confidential materials, were reproduced by University Publications of America, and sold to library and archive collections at universities in the United States All have good indexes and guides. Many of these primary sources are now being digitalized and can be accessed via portals at universities in the United States. Finally, fascinating details on race, ethnicity, and migration patterns are now accessible, for fees, of course, from commercial enterprises that have digitalized and scoured a massive collection of primary sources such as birth, death, and marriage records, as well as maritime and even air travel and trade documents.
Examples are My Heritage ; and Ancestry. Casaus, Arzu, and Marta Elena. Louisiana State University Press, Black Labor on a White Canal: Panama, — , 3—4, University of Pittsburgh Press, San Jose, Costa Rica: Editorial de la Universidad de Costa Rica, Race and Ethnicity in the Honduran Banana Economy, s and s. Power, Production, and History in the Americas.
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Edited by Steven Striffler and Mark Moberg, , Duke University Press, Economic Development of Latin America , Cambridge University Press, Identity and Politics in an African-Nicaraguan Community. University of Texas Press, Racial Ambivalence and Neoliberal Multiculturalism in Guatemala. School of American Research Press, The West Indians of Costa Rica: Race, Class, and the Integration of an Ethnic Minority , 19, Theorizing Race in the Americas: Douglass, Sarmiento, Du Bois, and Vasconcelos.
Oxford University Press, Remembering a Massacre in El Salvador: University of New Mexico Press, La Patria del Criollo: An Interpretation of Colonial Guatemala. Edited by Leslie Bethell, Taracena, Arturo, et al. Centro de Investigaciones Regionales Mesoamerica, Nations and Nationalism since Cambridge University Press, , 9. McAnany, Maya Cultural Heritage: Rowman and Littlefield, Fernando Cruz Sandoval, et al. University of North Carolina Press, For more on the issues in Latin America as a whole, see Leo J. Editorial Costa Rica, , About , square feet was updated at Gross Hall, including new lighting and windows and a skylight.
See main article, Duke University West Campus. West Campus , considered the main campus of the University, houses the sophomores and juniors, along with some seniors. Main West Campus , with Duke Chapel at its center, contains the majority of residential quads to the south, while the main academic quad, library, and Medical Center are to the north. The campus, spanning acres 2. East Campus , the original location of Duke after it moved to Durham,  functions as a first-year campus, housing the university's freshmen dormitories as well as the home of several academic departments.
Since the —96 academic year, all freshmen—and only freshmen, except for upperclassmen serving as Resident Assistants—have lived on East Campus , an effort to build class unity. The self-sufficient East Campus contains the freshmen residence halls, a dining hall, coffee shop, post office, Lilly Library, Baldwin Auditorium, a theater, Brodie Gym, tennis courts, several disc golf baskets, and a walking track as well as several academic buildings. Central Campus, consisting of acres 0. Central Campus has several recreation and social facilities such as basketball courts, a sand volleyball court, a turf field, barbecue grills and picnic shelters, a general gathering building called "Devil's Den", a restaurant known as "Devil's Bistro", a convenience store called Uncle Harry's, and the Mill Village.
The Mill Village consists of a gym and group study rooms. See main article, Duke Kunshan University Campus. Located within the Kunshan Yangcheng Lake Science Park in China , the first phase of the DKU campus includes classroom and research spaces, student and faculty residences, dining facilities, an executive conference center, and recreation and leisure spaces.
An innovation center is set to open in The acre site has a high water table, so designers elected to preserve 40 acres as community gardens. Duke Forest, established in , consists of 7, acres Duke Forest is used extensively for research and includes the Aquatic Research Facility, Forest Carbon Transfer and Storage FACTS-I research facility, two permanent towers suitable for micrometerological studies, and other areas designated for animal behavior and ecosystem study.
The Duke Lemur Center , located inside the Duke Forest, is the world's largest sanctuary for rare and endangered strepsirrhine primates. Duke Gardens , established in the early s, is situated between West Campus and the apartments of Central Campus. There are five miles 8. Duke University Medical Center , bordering Duke's West Campus northern boundary, combines one of the top-rated hospitals  and one of the top-ranked medical schools  in the U.
Duke's interest in the area began in the early s and the first buildings were erected in Pilkey Marine Research Laboratory was dedicated. Duke University has 12 schools and institutes, three of which host undergraduate programs: Duke is a leading participant in the National Lambda Rail Network and runs a program for gifted children known as the Talent Identification Program. Admission to Duke is defined by U.
Test score ranges account for the 25thth percentile of accepted students. From to , Duke has had the sixth highest number of Fulbright , Rhodes , Truman , and Goldwater scholarships in the nation among private universities. About 50 percent of all Duke students receive some form of financial aid, which includes need-based aid, athletic aid, and merit aid. Roughly 60 merit-based full tuition scholarships are offered, including the Angier B. Duke Memorial Scholarship awarded for academic excellence, the Benjamin N.
Duke Scholarship awarded for community service, and the Robertson Scholars Leadership Program , a joint scholarship and leadership development program granting full student privileges at both Duke and UNC-Chapel Hill. Other scholarships are geared toward students in North Carolina, African-American students, children of alumni, and high-achieving students requiring financial aid. Eighty-five percent of undergraduates enroll in the Trinity College of Arts and Sciences , while the rest are in the Pratt School of Engineering.
Trinity's curriculum operates under the revised version of "Curriculum The intent is to assist students in acquiring perspective on current and historical events, conducting research and solving problems, and developing tenacity and a capacity for hard and sustained work. Pratt's curriculum is narrower in scope, but still accommodates double majors in a variety of disciplines. The school emphasizes undergraduate research—opportunities for hands-on experiences arise through internships, fellowship programs, and the structured curriculum.
More than 27 percent of Pratt undergraduates study abroad,  small compared to about half of Trinity undergraduates, but much larger than the recent national average for engineering students 3. Duke's faculty is among the most productive in the nation. Throughout the school's history, Duke researchers have made breakthroughs, including the biomedical engineering department's development of the world's first real-time, three-dimensional ultrasound diagnostic system and the first engineered blood vessels and stents.
In , Robert Lefkowitz along with Brian Kobilka , who is also a former affiliate, shared the Nobel Prize in chemistry for their work on cell surface receptors. In May Duke researchers mapped the final human chromosome, which made world news as the Human Genome Project was finally complete. Several other departments including Electrical Engineering, Mechanical Engineering and Nursing ranked in the top ten. Duke University is ranked in the top 10 in the following college ranking publications: In —17, Duke was ranked 19th in the world by U.
The university also ranks 22nd in the world on the alternative Academic Ranking of World Universities which excludes Nobel Prize and Fields Medal indicators. The Global Employability Ranking as published by The New York Times surveyed hundreds of chief executives and chairmen from around the world and asked them to select the best universities from which they recruited. Duke placed 13th in the world and 9th in the country. In , Duke enrolled National Merit Scholars , the 6th university in rank by number. Only graduates of Princeton and Harvard have received more Churchill awards.
According to a study by Forbes , Duke ranks 11th among universities that have produced billionaires and 1st among universities in the South. In a corporate study carried out by The New York Times , Duke's graduates were shown to be among the most valued in the world,  and Forbes magazine ranked Duke 7th in the world on its list of 'power factories' in The ranking graded universities based on patent volume and research output among other factors. The ranking was based on representation, affordability and post-graduate earnings.
Times Higher Education ranked the mathematics department tenth in the world in The ranking was based on journal article publication counts and citation frequencies in over 11, academic journals from around the world. A study conducted by academic analytics ranks Duke fourth in the nation behind only Harvard , Stanford , and MIT in terms of faculty productivity.
Political Economy, Race, and National Identity in Central America, 1500–2000
In the same year, a ranking compiled by the University of Texas at Dallas ranked Fuqua 5th in the world based on the research productivity of its faculty. The ranking used alumni giving as a criterion to determine which private colleges offer the best returns. In , Duke was named the 20th best global research university according to rankings published by U.
News ranking was based on 10 indicators that measure academic research performance and global reputations. Duke's student body consists of 6, undergraduates and 8, graduate and professional students as of fall Duke requires its students to live on campus for the first three years of undergraduate life, except for a small percentage of second-semester juniors who are exempted by a lottery system. These buildings range in occupancy size from 50 Epworth—the oldest residence hall, built in as "the Inn" to residents Trinity.
Although the newer residence halls differ in style, they still relate to East's Georgian heritage. Learning communities connect the residential component of East Campus with students of similar academic and social interests. Sophomores, juniors and seniors can choose to reside on either West or Central campuses, although the majority of undergraduate seniors choose to live off campus. Central Campus provides housing for over 1, students in apartment buildings. House residents create their house identities.
There are houses of unaffiliated students, as well as wellness houses and living-learning communities that adopt a theme such as the arts or foreign languages. There are also numerous "selective living groups" on campus for students wanting self-selected living arrangements. SLGs are residential groups similar to fraternities or sororities, except they are generally co-ed and unaffiliated with any national organization. Many of them also revolve around a particular interest such as entrepreneurship, civic engagement or African-American or Asian culture.
Fifteen fraternities and nine sororities also are housed on campus, primarily on Central. Most of the non-fraternity selective living groups are coeducational. Starting in , the nine now ten Panhellenic Association sorority chapters decided to live in houses clusters of apartments on Central Campus.
Not all sorority members live with their chapters, though, as membership exceeds house space. In addition, there are seven other fraternities and sororities that are a part of the Inter-Greek Council, the multicultural Greek umbrella organization. SLGs are residential groups similar to fraternities or sororities, except they are generally co-ed and unaffiliated with any national organizations.
In the late s, a new keg policy was put into effect that requires all student groups to purchase kegs through Duke Dining Services. According to administrators, the rule change was intended as a way to ensure compliance with alcohol consumption laws as well as to increase on-campus safety. Many of these houses were situated in the midst of family neighborhoods, prompting residents to complain about excessive noise and other violations.
Police have responded by breaking up parties at several houses, handing out citations, and occasionally arresting party-goers. In March , the university purchased 15 houses in the Trinity Park area that Duke students had typically rented and subsequently sold them to individual families in an effort to encourage renovations to the properties and to reduce off-campus partying in the midst of residential neighborhoods. Duke athletics, particularly men's basketball, traditionally serves as a significant component of student life.
Duke's students have been recognized as some of the most creative and original fans in all of collegiate athletics. For a mid-February game against UNC, some of the most eager students might even begin tenting before spring classes begin. There are different categories of tenting based on the length of time and number of people who must be in the tent. The men's basketball coach, Mike Krzyzewski , occasionally buys pizza for the inhabitants of the tent village.
More than student clubs and organizations operate on Duke's campus. One of the most popular activities on campus is competing in sports. Duke has 37 sports clubs , and several intramural teams that are officially recognized. Performance groups such as Hoof 'n' Horn, the country's second-oldest student-run musical theater organization, a cappella groups, student bands, and theater organizations are also prominent on campus. More than 75 percent of Duke students pursue service-learning opportunities in Durham and around the world through DukeEngage and other programs that advance the university's mission of "knowledge in service to society.
As of summer , more than 2, Duke students had volunteered through DukeEngage in 75 nations on six continents. Duke students have created more than 30 service organizations in Durham and the surrounding area. Examples include a weeklong camp for children of cancer patients Camp Kesem and a group that promotes awareness about sexual health, rape prevention, alcohol and drug use, and eating disorders Healthy Devils.
The Duke-Durham Neighborhood Partnership, started by the Office of Community Affairs in , attempts to address major concerns of local residents and schools by leveraging university resources. Project CHANGE is a free weeklong program co-sponsored by the Kenan Institute for Ethics and the Duke Women's Center with the focus on ethical leadership and social change in the Durham community; students are challenged in a variety of ways and work closely with local non-profits.
Some courses at Duke incorporate service as part of the curriculum to augment material learned in class such as in psychology or education courses known as service learning courses. The Chronicle , Duke's independent undergraduate daily newspaper, has been continually published since and now, along with its website, has a readership of about 70, It is a popular activity for students interested in film production and media.
The Rival Duke  is an online-only, student run publication. The three sections, campus, culture, and current, feature opinion and commentary. Benefits include alumni events, a global network of regional DAA alumni chapters, educational and travel opportunities and communications such as The Blue Note, social media and Duke Magazine. Duke Magazine , an alumni magazine , is the university's flagship vehicle for stories about the Duke community. The Duke University Athletic Association chairs 27 sports and more than student-athletes. Duke's teams have won 16 NCAA team national championships—the women's golf team has won six , , , , and , the men's basketball team has won five , , , , and , the men's lacrosse team has won three , , and , and the men's soccer and women's tennis teams have won one each.
The Blue Devils have finished within the top 10 six times since the inception of the Cup in — Duke's men's basketball team is one of the nation's most successful basketball programs.
Blacks and Blackness in Central America | Duke University Press
The Blue Devils are the only team to win five national championships since the NCAA Tournament field was expanded to 64 teams in , 11 Final Fours in the past 25 years, and eight of nine ACC tournament championships from to Coach K has also coached the USA men's national basketball team since and led the team to Olympic golds in , , and His teams also won World Championship gold in and That total is tied with Clemson for the highest in the ACC.
The most famous Duke football season came in ,  when Wallace Wade coached the "Iron Dukes" that shut out all regular season opponents; only three teams in history can claim such a feat. David Cutcliffe was brought in prior to the season, and amassed more wins in his first season than the previous three years combined. The team won 5 of 12 games, and was eliminated from bowl contention in the next-to-last game of the season. While the football team has struggled at times on the field, the graduation rate of its players is consistently among the highest among Division I FBS schools.
In Norm Ogilvie was promoted to Director of Track and Field, and has led athletes to over 60 individual ACC championships, and 81 All-America selections, along with most of the track and field records being broken during his tenure. Duke's active alumni base of more than , devote themselves to the university through organizations and events such as the annual Reunion Weekend and Homecoming.
Richard Nixon , 37th President of the United States graduated with a law degree in Secretary of Commerce Juanita M. Kreps ,  congressman and three-time presidential candidate Ron Paul ,  U. Duke graduates who have won the Nobel Prize in Physics include Hans Dehmelt for his development of the ion trap technique,  Robert Richardson for his discovery of superfluidity in helium-3,  and Charles Townes for his work on quantum electronics. Duke professor of mathematics, served as the first woman president of the International Mathematical Union and is known for pioneering work on Wavelets.
Fenn won the Pulitzer Prize for History in Other acclaimed writers include John W. Campbell and Reynolds Price. The current or recent president, CEO, or chairman of each of the following Fortune companies is a Duke alumnus: Hawkins ,  Morgan Stanley John J. Mack ,  Norfolk Southern David R. Goode ,  Northwest Airlines Gary L. Taylor ,  Pfizer Edmund T. Several athletes have become stars at the professional level, especially in basketball's NBA. Redick are among the most famous. Men's basketball coach Mike Krzyzewski led the US men's team to three gold medals  , , , and Abigail Johnston won a silver medal in synchronized diving at the Olympic Games while an undergraduate at Duke and competed in the Olympic Games while attending Duke Medical School.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Universitas Dukiana  Former names. History of Duke University. Primary Care 34 Medicine: Duke Blue Devils men's basketball. Duke Blue Devils football. List of Duke University people. Retrieved November 30, Archived from the original on July 2, Retrieved July 4, Archived from the original PDF on April 2, Retrieved January 25, Retrieved March 1, A Brief Narrative History". Retrieved May 23, Archived from the original on June 29,