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  1. Inter/Intra-Vehicle Wireless Communication
  2. Inter- and Intra-Vehicle Communications
  3. 1st Edition
  4. Inter/Intra-Vehicle Wireless Communication
  5. Table of contents for Inter- and intra- vehicle communications / Gilbert Held.

Toggle navigation Additional Book Information. Description Table of Contents. Next on the horizon is the application of new technologies that will change the way we drive our cars. De rigeur for many drivers, electronic passes and GPS systems represent the tip of the iceberg in terms of emerging applications of new technology. Not far off are networks consisting of vehicles, lane markers, exit ramps, and other highway structures that work together to create safer highways. Inter- and Intra-Vehicle Communications provides details on the current state-of-the-art in wireless communication technology within and between vehicles.

Inter/Intra-Vehicle Wireless Communication

The author describes the operation of vehicle systems and sensors and provides a tutorial covering the fundamental concepts associated with communications and transmission technologies that can be used for inter- and intra vehicle operations. The book includes detailed information on wired and wireless communications within a vehicle and how such communications provide the capability for vehicle communications and the intelligent roadway. It also examines protocols used to transfer data, and analyzes the role of sensors used inside and outside a vehicle as a mechanism for developing smart automobiles.

The author examines the issues from every angle, elucidating problems surrounding security, radio frequency interference, and operation under severe conditions and offers actual and potential solutions. These features provide an in-depth exploration of the possibilities and how to bring them into reality. Request an e-inspection copy. Architectures, Protocols and Standards. A Wireless Technology Revolution.

Taking Wireless to the MAX. The Bookshelf application offers access: The standard coverage, bit rate and application of the long range communication technologies are shown in Table 3.

Inter- and Intra-Vehicle Communications

The detail long-range communication technologies are explained as follows. Bluetooth is currently the most widely used automotive wireless technology in many vehicles. In a Bluetooth-enabled vehicle, the car audio system takes over the phone function. In addition, other Bluetooth devices can easily interconnect within a Bluetooth enabled car: Table 4 reports the data transfer speeds required by some audio systems. Beyond entertainment and phone calls there are other emerging possibilities, including remote starting to warm-up the car in the winter or start the air conditioning in summer, a remote parking garage or home garage door controller and payment for gas at the pump and toll road payments Sugiura and Dermawan, However, Bluetooth has several drawbacks in an IVC context.

1st Edition

Perhaps the most important drawback is that Bluetooth imposes a Piconet structure which is difficult to maintain in IVC systems that are much more dynamic than the stationary systems Bluetooth targets. It was shown, using accurate Bluetooth simulations which Piconet and Scatternet formation may take as long as 7 and 45 sec, respectively. Furthermore, new nodes joining existing Piconets encounter significant delays Pokharel et al. Finally while the specifications allows for transmission ranges of up to m, almost all current chipsets only allow for ranges of up to 10 m the lowest specified in the standard.

Even the m range is considerably smaller than that of DSRC. An alternative to Bluetooth is a new radio frequency technique called UWB. UWB has recently attracted much attention as an indoor short-range high-speed wireless communication. One of the most exciting characteristics of UWB is that its bandwidth is over Mbps up to Mbps which can satisfy most of the multimedia applications such as audio and video delivery in home networking and it can also act as a wireless cable replacement of high speed serial bus such as USB 2.

Inter/Intra-Vehicle Wireless Communication

UWB uses very short pulses, so that the spectrum of the emitted signals spread over several GHz, because of the wideband nature of the signal, UWB has been used in radar applications Hu et al. UWB is the newcomer in the area of vehicle communication system.

Basic Vehicle Communication Network

The main advantages of UWB technology are its high data rate, low cost and immunity to interference. It is applicable for vehicular collision-detection systems and suspension systems that respond to road conditions Richardson et al. But due to the fact that UWB could potentially interfere with communication sources, is a technical problem that must be solved before it could be used in IVC systems.

In addition, there is a concern that UWB's radio coverage could extend to uninvolved vehicles which could generate false or irrelevant information. Based on the IEEE ZigBee provides self-organized, multi-hop and reliable mesh networking with long battery lifetime ZigBee fills a gap not provided by the other technologies, namely the interconnection of wireless sensors for control applications Hannan et al.

ZigBee is expected to be used in monitoring and control applications, related to temperature and humidity measurement as well as heating, ventilation, air-conditioning and lighting control. One of them is rental car monitoring. A ZigBee-enabled monitoring system could allow customers to quickly drop off a rental car without waiting for the attendant to check gas or mileage. Other interesting automotive applications are tire-pressure monitoring and remote keyless entry.

Further proposals involve attaching a ZigBee device to anything which should not be lost e. Due to the low transmission rate and small area coverage, ZigBee manufactures slow to make an appearance on the market. In order to establish communication in vehicular network, many technical issues and challenges must be addressed. All Communication technologies come with their own set of requirements, especially in the aspects of quality of service, speed and link establishment etc.

Selection of communication technology: Selection of proper technologies required support of high data rate and high mobility in dense Vehicle communication network Jerbi et al.

Interference issues in short range communication: When communication interference appears, wireless transmitters in the immediate vicinity operating in the same frequency band invariably cause Misra et al. The high radio density can result in substantial delays in time to transmit and even data losses. Due to high mobility, a VANET is extremely dynamic in nature and requires extreme configurations, high-speed movement of vehicles cause frequent topology changing Park et al.

In the worst case, if two cars with high speeds drive in opposite directions, the link will last only a very short amount of time. Further, Handover becomes a challenging task in high mobile environment, where high-speed nodes frequently handoff between Access Points APs along the road. A high velocity of vehicles causes a large and fast variation of the channel conditions which may increase Frame Error Rate FER e.

Vehicle moving at speed 60 km h -1 caused variation of the channel conditions and may increase FER dramatically due to the flat fading Rayleigh channel Afonso et al. IVC system requires fast association and low communication latency between communicating vehicles in order to guarantee: In real time wireless communication , multiple objects could degrade the strength and quality of receiving signal and, therefore, have a negative impact on messages reception rates Sun et al.

Moreover, due to mobile nature of vehicles, fading effects have to be taken in account. Because of fast fading phenomena, a transmitter can experience a different multipath environment each time when it sends a packet. Due to the low strength radio wave in far apart nodes or if there are some barriers between these nodes, they cannot detect the traffic status of each other Toor et al.

This is so called Hidden Nodes problem which may cause a high possibility of collision. Security becomes more challenging in ad hoc network due high-speed mobility in extremely large network. It is obvious that any malicious behavior of users, such as a modification and replay attack with respect to the disseminated messages, could be fatal to other users. At this moment only few number of cars will be have the equipment required for the DSRC radios, so, if we make a communication we have to assume that there is a limited number of cars that will receive the communication, in the future we must concentrate on getting the number higher, to get a financial benefit that will courage the commercial firms to invest in this technology Javadi et al.

The technologies used for vehicular networks are still not mature and will probably not be implemented in the immediate future.

Table of contents for Inter- and intra- vehicle communications / Gilbert Held.

The future introduction vehicular networks offer a tremendous opportunity to increase the safety of the transportation system and reduce traffic fatalities. This study presents the review of the wireless communication s technologies used for data exchange in vehicular networks in the forms of InV, V2V and V2I communications and the issues that are being facing problems Dressler et al.

The most recent technologies have been considered based on their range. The characteristics of them have been investigated through vehicular network to achieve related applications in data communication Toor et al. Within different ranges, a comprehensive study is provided to employ the most suitable technology by considering the advantages and drawbacks of every single technology Willke et al. However, on this way there are number of challenges and issues due to the nature of vehicular networks such as mobility and hardware, frame error rate, hidden nodes, network scalability, etc.

In comparison with other surveys in this field which focused on a specific technology, this study has discussed a wide range of technologies and compared them to each other to achieve a comprehensive vision to apply them for IVC systems.

As the emerging area of vehicular networks has attracted a number of researchers in the world, this review then introduces the consortiums and initiatives working on advanced automotive technologies. In the future, vehicular networks certainly play a vital role in enhancing the automotive industry for safety, security and entertainment. This project was supported by Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia under the grant number: Similar Articles in this Journal.

Search in Google Scholar. How to cite this article: Information Technology Journal, September 12, ; Accepted: November 29, ; Published: Current trends in vehicular Ad Hoc networks. Throughput analysis and optimal configuration of Multi-channel Multi-radio using A feasibility study on vehicle-to-infrastructure communication: De Castro Lima and O. Parking spaces detection in indoor environments based on Zigbee.

Requirements and objectives for secure traffic information systems. Multi-Carrier and Spread Spectrum Systems: Sensing systems and algorithms for airbag deployment decision. Development of an embedded vehicle safety system for frontal crash detection. Decision fusion of a multi-sensing embedded system for occupant safety measures. Performance analysis of the IEEE Vehicle crash analysis for airbag deployment decision. A robust vision-based lane boundaries detection approach for intelligent vehicles.

Characterizing multi-hop communication in vehicular networks. Current Trends and Challenges. Control experiment of a wheel-driven mobile inverted pendulum using neural network. Simulation-based performance analysis and improvement of orthogonal frequency division multiplexing Routing in vehicular ad hoc networks: End-to-end QoS framework for heterogeneous wired-cum-wireless networks. A survey on clustering routing protocols in wireless sensor networks. A multifaceted approach to modeling agent trust for effective communication in the application of mobile Ad Hoc vehicular networks.

A survey of multimedia streaming in wireless sensor networks. Short-range wireless communications for Next-generation networks: Collaborative QoS architecture between DiffServ and Analysis on effectiveness of wave absorbers to improve DSRC electromagnetic environment on express highway.