In Asia this wave of missions was pioneered by men like Dr G. The "two thirds missions movement" as it is referred to, is today a major force in missions. Most modern missionaries and missionary societies have repudiated cultural imperialism, and elected to focus on spreading the gospel and translating the Bible. Often, missionaries provide welfare and health services, as a good deed or to make friends with the locals. Thousands of schools, orphanages, and hospitals have been established by missions. One service provided by missionaries was the Each one, teach one literacy program begun by Dr.
Frank Laubach in the Philippines in The program has since spread around the world and brought literacy to the least enabled members of many societies. During this period missionaries, especially evangelical and Pentecostal missionaries, witnessed a substantial increase in the number of conversions of Muslims to Christianity. The word "mission" was historically often applied to the building, the " mission station " in which the missionary lives or works.
In some colonies, these mission stations became a focus of settlement of displaced or formerly nomadic people. Particularly in rural Australia, missions have become localities or ghettoes on the edges of towns which are home to many Indigenous Australians. The word may be seen as derogatory when used in this context. Major nations not only send and fund missionaries abroad, but also receive them from other countries. In , the United States sent out , missionaries, while 32, came to the United States.
Brazil was second, sending out 34,, and receiving 20, France sent out 21, and received 10, Britain sent out 15, and received 10, India sent out 10, and received Other major exporters included Spain at 21, sent out, Italy at 20,, South Korea at 20,, Germany at 14,, and Canada at 8, Large recipient nations included Russia, receiving 20,; Congo receiving 15,; South Africa, 12,; Argentina, 10,; and Chile, 8, The largest sending agency in the United States was the Southern Baptist Convention, with 4, missionaries, plus support staff working inside the United States.
In recent years, however, the Southern Baptist foreign missionary operation the International Mission Board has operated at a deficit, and it is cutting operations by 15 percent. It is encouraging older missionaries to retire and return to the United States. The Lausanne Congress of , birthed a movement that supports evangelical mission among non-Christians and nominal Christians.
It regards "mission" as that which is designed "to form a viable indigenous church -planting and world changing movement. The definition is claimed to summarize the acts of Jesus ' ministry, which is taken as a model motivation for all ministries. This Christian missionary movement seeks to implement churches after the pattern of the first century Apostles.
The process of forming disciples is necessarily social. In this view, even those who are already culturally Christian must be "evangelized". Church planting by cross-cultural missionaries leads to the establishment of self-governing, self-supporting and self-propagating communities of believers.
This is the famous "three-self" formula formulated by Henry Venn of the London Church Missionary Society in the 19th century. Cross-cultural missionaries are persons who accept church-planting duties to evangelize people outside their culture, as Christ commanded in the Great Commission Matthew The objective of these missionaries is to give an understandable presentation of their beliefs with the hope that people will choose to following the teaching of Jesus Christ and live their lives as His disciples.
Modern mission techniques are sufficiently refined that within ten to fifteen years, most indigenous churches are locally pastored, managed, taught, self-supporting and evangelizing. The process can be substantially faster if a preexisting translation of the Bible and higher pastoral education are already available, perhaps left over from earlier, less effective missions.
One strategy is to let indigenous cultural groups decide to adopt Christian doctrines and benefits, when as in most cultures such major decisions are normally made by groups.
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In this way, opinion leaders in the groups can persuade much or most of the groups to convert. When combined with training in discipleship, church planting and other modern missionary doctrine , the result is an accelerating, self-propelled conversion of large portions of the culture. A typical modern mission is a co-operative effort by many different ministries, often including several coordinating ministries, such as the Faith2Share network, often with separate funding sources. One typical effort proceeded as follows:. The most crucial part of church planting is selection and training of leadership.
Classically, leadership training required an expensive stay at a seminary, a Bible college. Modern church planters deprecate this because it substantially slows the growth of the church without much immediate benefit. Modern mission doctrines replace the seminary with programmed curricula or even less expensive books of discussion questions, and access to real theological books.
The materials are usually made available in a major trading language in which most native leaders are likely to be fluent. In some cases, the materials can be adapted for oral use. It turns out that new pastors' practical needs for theology are well addressed by a combination of practical procedures for church planting, discussion in small groups, and motivated Bible-based study from diverse theological texts.
As a culture's church's wealth increases, it will naturally form classic seminaries on its own. Another related mission is Bible translation. The above-mentioned literature has to be translated. Missionaries actively experiment with advanced linguistic techniques to speed translation and literacy. Bible translation not only speeds a church's growth by aiding self-training, but it also assures that Christian information becomes a permanent part of the native culture and literature.
Some ministries also use modern recording techniques to reach groups with audio that could not be soon reached with literature. Vatican II made a deep impact on Catholic missions around the world. The Church's relations to non-Christian religions like Judaism and Islam were revisited. A steep decline in the number of people entering the priesthood and religious life in the West has made the Church look towards laity more and more.
Communities like Opus Dei arose to meet this need. Inculturation increasingly became a key topic of missiological reflection for Catholics. Inculturation is understood as the meeting of the Christian message with a community in their cultural context.
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Liberation Theology and liturgical reform have also been important in forming and influencing the mission of the Catholic Church in the 20th and 21st Centuries. In relation to mission, Pope Benedict XVI has made the re-evangelization of Europe and North America a priority in his own ministry,  even while the upper leadership of the Roman Catholic hierarchy and the college of cardinals has more members from Latin America, Africa, and Asia than ever before. Christian mission organisations have long depended on the printed word as a channel through which to do mission.
At times when countries have been "closed" to Christians, great efforts have been made to smuggle Bibles and other literature into those countries. Brother Andrew, the founder of Open Doors, started smuggling Bibles into communist countries in the s. The internet now provides Christian mission organisations a convent way of reaching people in the form of podcasts.
Podcasts provide a way of dissemination for a message that has potential to endanger the recipient, since it is very hard to track who has downloaded a specific podcast. An example of this is the Crescent Project. Objections to missionary work among isolated, indigenous populations involve the claim that the goal of mission is to Westernize them. Such claims have been raised by indigenous rights groups organizations, such as Friends of Peoples Close to Nature and Survival International. The Europeans contact with indigenous since has killed million from the imported diseases to which tribes had no immunity.
Smallpox , measles , even the common cold , have been blamed on their arrivals. However, he says that commercial traders were the main agents of disease. Yet, for the period between the s and the s, trading vessels were the main agents of disease, creating in the Pacific what Emmanuel Le Roy Ladurie has called a "paroxysm" of the "microbian unification of the world. Political scientist Robert Woodberry uses statistics to argue that conversionary Protestants were a crucial catalyst in spreading religious liberty, education, and democracy.
He shows that statistically the prevalence of such missionaries account for half of the variance in democracy in Africa, Asia, Latin America and Oceania. In India, Hindu organisations such as the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh assert that most conversions undertaken by zealous evangelicals occur due to compulsion, inducement or fraud. Some Catholic Church leaders and aid organizations have expressed concern about new Christian groups coming in and luring Iraqis to their churches with offers of cash, clothing, food or jobs Reports of aggressive proselytism and reportedly forced conversions in mostly Hindu India have fueled religious tensions and violence there and have prompted some regional governments to pass laws banning proselytism or religious conversion Sadhvi Vrnda Chaitanya, a Hindu monk from southern India, told CNS that India's poor and uneducated are especially vulnerable to coercive or deceptive methods of evangelization Aid work must not hide any ulterior motives and avoid exploiting vulnerable people like children and the disabled, she said.
In an interview with Outlook Magazine, Sadhvi Vrnda Chaitanya said "If the Vatican could understand that every religious and spiritual tradition is as sacred as Christianity, and that they have a right to exist without being denigrated or extinguished, it will greatly serve the interests of dialogue, mutual respect, and peaceful coexistence. While there is a general agreement among most major aid organizations not to mix aid with proselyting, others see disasters as a useful opportunity to spread the word.
One such an occurrence was the tsunami that devastated parts of Asia on December 26, The Christian Science Monitor echoes these concerns The Bush administration has made it easier for U. Missionaries say that the government in India has passed anti-conversion laws in several states that are supposedly meant to prevent conversions from "force or allurement," but are primarily used, they say, to persecute and criminalize voluntary conversion due to the government's broad definition of "force and allurement. Voice of the Martyrs reports that aid-workers claim that they are being hindered from reaching people with much needed services as a result of this persecution.
Today, they say you have no right to convert, Tomorrow you have no right to worship in certain places. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Mission disambiguation.
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Missionary - Wikipedia
Retrieved 8 January The Lost History of Christianity: Retrieved 7 January The Catholic Frontier in India 16th—17th centuries. Studies in World Christianity. Anglican and Episcopal History. Retrieved 11 January A History of Global Anglicanism. Stanford University Press, ch 1. Noll, The Rise of Evangelicalism: The Age of Edwards, Whitefield and the Wesleys The Encyclopedia of Christianity 1: Echoes from Edinburgh In Jonathan James and Malcolm Tan.
That Asia May Know: Perspectives on Missions in Asia 40th Anniversary Commemorative ed. Asia Evangelistic Fellowship International. Retrieved 1 February Home—Years of overspending to support Southern Baptist missionary work has led to budget crunch," Wall Street Journal 25 October, Missionaries work with a companion of the same gender during their mission, with the exception of couples, who work with their spouse.
Single men serve missions for two years and single women serve missions for 18 months. Missionaries receive their assignment from Church headquarters and are sent only to countries where governments allow the Church to operate. Missionaries do not request their area of assignment and do not know beforehand whether they will be required to learn a language.
Prior to going to their assigned area, missionaries spend a short period of time at one of 15 missionary training centers throughout the world. There they learn how to teach the gospel in an orderly and clear way and, if necessary, they begin to learn the language of the people they will be teaching. A typical missionary day begins by waking at 6: The day is spent proselytizing by following up on appointments, visiting homes or meeting people in the street or other public places.
Missionaries end their day by In some parts of the world, missionaries are sent only to serve humanitarian or other specialized missions. Those missionaries do not proselytize.
Missionary work is voluntary. Missionaries fund their own missions — except for their transportation to and from their field of labor — and are not paid for their services. Contacts with family and friends during this time of service are limited to letters and occasional phone calls to family at special times.