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  1. Art of the Third Reich - Wikipedia
  2. Accessibility links
  3. Government
  4. Seven key structures

Hitler believed that religion was a threat to the Nazis' control over people's minds, so he tried different ways to reduce the power of the church over people. Hitler ordered Nazification - the imposition of Nazi values - on all aspects of German life. German Labour Front ] , boasted that he controlled workers' lives from the 'cradle to the grave'.

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Art of the Third Reich - Wikipedia

The lives of young people were controlled both in and out of school to turn them into fanatical Nazis. Josef Goebbels controlled the Propaganda Ministry, which aimed to brainwash people into obeying the Nazis and idolising Hitler. This page summarises the main aspects of life where the Nazis took control, and the methods they used to maintain control. All the glass panes shatter. My mother sits with us children in a sand pit at a playground because she thinks this way nothing is going to happen to her.

  • An Afternoon Tryst.
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  • The theatres of Paris, with illustrations after Madrazo, Carolus Duran, Gaucherel, Sarah Bernhardt, and others.

When a soldier comes out of the basement I grab his trouser leg and shout: There the mother and daughter lie on the bed, naked, raped with their throats cut. My grandmother shouts at the drunken Russian until they leave. View image of Gisela, born in Credit: When we hear on the radio that Silesia must be vacated we join the crowd heading east. Every evening when it gets dark the road must be vacated and everyone has to look for somewhere to sleep.

We are sitting with her at dinner when the animals jump wildly across the table and chairs. My grandmother finds cats disgusting and is appalled. But the woman forces us out of the apartment and into an old mine. Panic breaks out when the air raid sirens go off. More and more people push into the mine, some fall and are stamped to death. The cats have warned and saved us. View image of Hannelore, born in Credit: The doctors can only observe that the appendix has burst and the pus has already reached the abdominal cavity.

They say the only thing that may help is Penicillin. This is only available on the black market. My youngest aunt somehow manages to secure the medicine, but it is too late. She is enveloped in a smell of putrefied flesh.

When she says she is thirsty I run from one bar to the next in tears to buy her lemonade. Soon after she dies. View image of Horst, born in Credit: The city lies in ruins, an adventure playground.

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On the way to school I pass the Gereonskirche. One of the two steeples is destroyed, in the other the bells still hang. Near the central station I walk beneath the railway bridge. Everything is in ruins. My mother tells me that here used to be the hospital in which I was born. Only the exterior walls are still standing; the same is true for our house in Blumenthalstrasse in which we lived prior to the war.

By the Reich Culture Chamber had , members. Membership is open only to those who fulfil the entrance condition. In this way all unwanted and damaging elements have been excluded. Goebbels and some others believed that the forceful works of such artists as Emil Nolde , Ernst Barlach and Erich Heckel exemplified the Nordic spirit; as Goebbels explained, "We National Socialists are not un-modern; we are the carrier of a new modernity, not only in politics and in social matters, but also in art and intellectual matters.

Belief in a Germanic spirit—defined as mystical, rural, moral, bearing ancient wisdom, noble in the face of a tragic destiny—existed long before the rise of the Nazis; Richard Wagner celebrated such ideas in his work. Nazi art bears a close similarity to the Soviet propaganda art style of Socialist Realism , and the term heroic realism has sometimes been used to describe both artistic styles.

In July , four years after it came to power, the Nazi party put on two art exhibitions in Munich. The Great German Art Exhibition was designed to show works that Hitler approved of, depicting statuesque blonde nudes along with idealized soldiers and landscapes. The second exhibition, just down the road, showed the other side of German art: According to Klaus Fischer, "Nazi art, in short, was colossal, impersonal, and stereotypical.

People were shorn of all individuality and became mere emblems expressive of assumed eternal truths.

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In looking at Nazi architecture, art, or painting one quickly gains the feeling that the faces, shapes, and colors all serve a propagandistic purpose; they are all the same stylized statements of Nazi virtues—power, strength, solidity, Nordic beauty. Art of the Third Reich was characterized by a style of Romantic realism based on classical models. While banning modern styles as degenerate , the Nazis promoted paintings that were narrowly traditional in manner and that exalted the " blood and soil " values of racial purity , militarism , and obedience. In general, painting—once purged of "degenerate art"—was based on traditional genre painting.

Landscape painting featured prominently in the Great German Art exhibition. Nazi theory explicitly rejected "materialism", and therefore, despite the realistic treatment of images, "realism" was a seldom used term. The worker, the farmer, the soldier are the themes Heroic subjects dominate over sentimental ones". With the advent of war, war paintings became far more common. The first goal of our new German creation of art [ Analogous to the recovering of architectural art which began here in Munich, here also started the purification in the sphere of painting and sculpture, that maybe had been even more devastated.

The whole swindle of a decadent or pathological trend-art has been swept away. A decent common level has been reached. And this means a lot. Only out of this can the truly creative genius arise. By , nearly 16, works by German and non-German artists had been seized from German galleries and either sold abroad or destroyed. The monumental possibilities of sculpture offered greater material expression of the theories of Nazism. Music was expected to be tonal and free of jazz influence; films and plays were censored. Germany's urban centers in the s and 30s were buzzing with jazz clubs, cabaret houses and avant garde music.

In contrast, the National Socialist regime made concentrated efforts to shun modern music which was considered degenerate and Jewish in nature and instead embraced classical German music. Anton Bruckner was highly favored as his music was regarded as an expression of the zeitgeist of the German volk. German composers who had their music performed more often during the Nazi period were Max Reger and Hans Pfitzner. Richard Strauss continued to be the most performed contemporary German composer, as he had been prior to the Nazi regime.

Music by non-German composers was tolerated if it was classically inspired, tonal, and not by a composer of Jewish origin or having ties to ideologies hostile to the Third Reich. Composers of enemy nations such as Debussy, Ravel and Stravinsky were largely banned and almost never performed — although there were some exceptions. There has been controversy over the use of certain composers' music by the Nazi regime, and whether that implicates the composer as implicitly Nazi.

Composers such as Richard Strauss, [50] who served as the first director of the Propaganda Ministry's music division, and Carl Orff have been subject to extreme criticism and heated defense. As the Nazi regime accrued power in , musicologists were directed to rewrite the history of German music in order to accommodate Nazi mythology and ideology.

Richard Wagner and Hans Pfitzner were notable preexisting composers who conceptualized a united order Volksgemeinschaft where music was an index of the German community. In a time of disintegration, Wagner and Pfitzner wanted to revitalize the country through music. In a book written about Hans Pfitzner and Wagner, published in Regensburg in followed not only the birth of contemporary musical parties, but also of political parties in Germany.

Adorno —who wanted music to be autonomous from politics, Nazi control and application. Although Wagner and Pfitzner came before the Third Reich, their sentiments and thoughts, Wagner's Gesamtkunstwerk , were appropriated by Hitler and his propagandists—notably Joseph Goebbels.

According to Michael Meyer, "The very emphasis on rootedness and on tradition music underscored Nazi understanding of itself in a dialectic terms: Composers, librettists, educators, critics, and especially musicologists, through their public statements, intellectual writings, and journals contributed to the justification of a totalitarian blueprint to be implanted through nazification. All music was then composed for the occasions of Nazi pageantries, rallies, and conventions. Composers dedicated so called 'consecration fanfares,' inaugurations fanfares and flag songs to the Fuhrer.

When the Fuhrer assumed power the Nazi revolution was immediately expressed in musicological journalism. Certain progressive journalism pertaining to modern music was purged. By the end of the s the Mitteilungen der Reichsmusikkammer became another prominent journal that reflected the music policy, organizational and personnel changes in musical institutions. In the early years of the Third Reich, the musicologists and musicians redirected the orientation of music, defining what was "German Music" and what was not.


Nazi ideology was applied to the evaluation of musicians for hero status; musicians defined in the new German musical era were given titles of prophets, while their accomplishments and deeds were seen as direct accomplishments of the Nazi regime. The contribution of German musicologists led to the justification of Nazi power and a new German music culture in whole. The musicologists defined the greater German values that musicians would have to identify with, because their duty was to integrate music and National Socialism in way that made them look inseparable.

Nazi myth making and ideology was forced upon the new musical path of the Third Reich rather than truly embedded in the rhetoric of German music. The poster became an important medium for propaganda during this period. Combining text and bold graphics, posters were extensively deployed both in Germany and in the areas occupied. Their typography reflected the Nazis' official ideology.

Seven key structures

The use of Fraktur was common in Germany until , when Martin Bormann denounced the typeface as "Judenlettern" and decreed that only Roman type should be used. According to Grunberger, "At the beginning of the war this department supervised no less than 2, publishing houses, 23, bookshops, 3, authors, 50 national literary prizes, 20, new books issued annually, and a total of 1 million titles constituting the available book market. Richard Grunberger says, "In literary criticism as hitherto understood was abolished; henceforth reviews followed a pattern: The Third Reich permitted much foreign literature to be read, in part because they believed that the writings of authors such as John Steinbeck and Erskine Caldwell substantiated the Nazis' condemnation of Western society as corrupt.

Themes in Nazi literature were defined as a range of "permissible literary expression" largely limited to four subjects: This was one of the most popular themes during the interwar period. Writers celebrated the "heroics of front-line soldiers in [World War I],

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