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  1. The Black Death (article) | Khan Academy
  2. Origin and incidence
  3. The Black Death
  4. Black Death Begins

Doctors were powerless against infectious disease. People were weakened by war and harvest failures.

The Black Death (article) | Khan Academy

Germs, the fleas which carried them, and the rats which carried the fleas, flourished in the dirty towns. Busy trade routes carried the plague from one place to another. The plague arrived at Melcombe Regis in Dorset in June and it spread throughout the south of England.

Medieval Apocalypse The Black Death BBC Documentary

In it reached Wales, Ireland and the north of England. By , it had made it to Scotland. Even the great and powerful, who were more capable of flight, were struck down: Canterbury lost two successive archbishops, John de Stratford and Thomas Bradwardine; Petrarch lost not only Laura, who inspired so many of his poems, but also his patron, Giovanni Cardinal Colonna.

The papal court at Avignon was reduced by one-fourth. Whole communities and families were sometimes annihilated.


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  5. Black Death.

The consequences of this violent catastrophe were many. A cessation of wars and a sudden slump in trade immediately followed but were only of short duration. A more lasting and serious consequence was the drastic reduction of the amount of land under cultivation, due to the deaths of so many labourers.

This proved to be the ruin of many landowners.

Origin and incidence

The shortage of labour compelled them to substitute wages or money rents in place of labour services in an effort to keep their tenants. There was also a general rise in wages for artisans and peasants. These changes brought a new fluidity to the hitherto rigid stratification of society. The psychological effects of the Black Death were reflected north of the Alps not in Italy by a preoccupation with death and the afterlife evinced in poetry, sculpture, and painting; the Roman Catholic Church lost some of its monopoly over the salvation of souls as people turned to mysticism and sometimes to excesses.

Anti-Semitism greatly intensified throughout Europe as Jews were blamed for the spread of the Black Death.

The Black Death

A wave of violent pogroms ensued, and entire Jewish communities were killed by mobs or burned at the stake en masse. The economy of Siena received a decisive check. In England the immediate effects of the epidemic of seem to have been of short duration, and the economic decline which reached its nadir in the midth century should probably be attributed rather to the pandemic recurrence of the plague.

The population in England in was perhaps half what it had been years earlier; in that country alone, the Black Death certainly caused the depopulation or total disappearance of about 1, villages. A rough estimate is that 25 million people in Europe died from plague during the Black Death. The population of western Europe did not again reach its pre level until the beginning of the 16th century. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles. You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind.

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Black Death Begins

Bubonic plague causes fever, fatigue, shivering, vomiting, headaches, giddiness, intolerance to light, pain in the back and limbs, sleeplessness, apathy, and delirium. It also causes buboes: Pneumonic plague affects the lungs and causes symptoms similar to those of severe pneumonia: Fluid fills the lungs and can cause death if untreated. Other symptoms may include insomnia, stupor, a staggering gait, speech disorder, and loss of memory. Septicemic plague is an infection of the blood.

Its symptoms include fatigue, fever, and internal bleeding. Nature of the disease. The effects of the Black Death were many, although not all of them were necessarily bad. Trade suffered for a short time, and wars were temporarily abandoned. Many laborers died, which was hard on the landowners who relied on them as tenant farmers. However, the labor shortage caused landowners to substitute wages or money rents in place of labor services in an effort to keep their tenants.

Wages for artisans and peasants increased. Art in the wake of the Black Death became more preoccupied with mortality and the afterlife. Anti-Semitism greatly intensified throughout Europe as Jews were blamed for the spread of the Black Death, and many Jews were killed by mobs or burned at the stake en masse.

Learn More in these related Britannica articles: Although the outbreak of the Black Death in dominated the economy of the 14th century, a number of adversities had already occurred in the preceding decades. Severe rains in and caused famine, which led to the spread of disease. Animal epidemics in succeeding years added to the…. The Black Death , a pandemic of both bubonic and pneumonic plague that was carried on shipboard from the Levant, reached Provence in , ravaged most of France in , and faded out only in Nothing worked to check the disease in populations without immunity—neither bonfires….