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- USS Yorktown (CV) - Wikipedia
She was also equipped with two lift cranes, two flight-deck catapults, and carried 36 aircraft. He added that this system of fore-and-aft wires was used on U. Originally designed as battlecruisers, these carriers were much more efficient than Langley. At feet in length and with a displacement of 37, tons, the Lexington class carriers traveled at a speed of A proper hangar, two elevators and one aircraft catapult housed and handled the 78 aircraft that Lexington class carriers were designed to carry.
By , these carriers accommodated 2, personnel. Navy to be designed and built from the keel up as an aircraft carrier. She had a displacement of 14, tons, measured feet in length, traveled at a speed of At her maximum, she carried 86 aircraft and was equipped with three elevators and three catapults. The fast and versatile Yorktown class carriers had a displacement of 20, tons, measurement of feet in length, traveling speed of They carried up to 90 aircraft and were equipped with three elevators and two flight deck catapults.
Yorktown was actually the first carrier to use hydraulic catapults. The United States continued with a massive production of escort carriers throughout the WWII to meet the increasing operational needs for aircraft carriers. These carriers were typically half the length and a third the displacement of larger fleet carriers. While they were slower, carried fewer planes and were less well armed and armored, escort carriers were cheaper and could be built quickly, which was their principal advantage.
Escort carriers could be completed in greater numbers as a stop-gap when fleet carriers were scarce. However, the lack of protection made escort carriers particularly vulnerable and several were sunk with great loss of life. The Bogue class were a group of escort carriers built in the United States in total 45 vessels were built!
The ships operated by the Royal Navy were renamed and grouped as the Attacker class and the Ruler class. The last ship of the class was decommissioned in There were three Avenger class escort carriers in service with the Royal Navy during the Second World War and one ship of the class in the United States Navy called the Charger Type of class escort carrier. The Casablanca class escort aircraft carriers followed. These are the most numerous class of aircraft carriers ever built. Fifty were laid down, launched and commissioned within the space of less than two years - 3 November through to 8 July Five were lost to enemy action during World War II and the remainder were scrapped.
The first class to be designed from keel up as an escort carrier, the Casablanca class had a larger and more useful hangar deck than previous conversions.
List of aircraft carriers of the United States Navy
It also had a larger flight deck than the Bogue class. The Casablanca class escort carriers were succeeded by the 19 carriers of the Commencement Bay class. Unlike most earlier CVE classes which were laid down as something else and converted to aircraft carriers mid-construction, the Commencement Bays were built as carriers from the keel up.
Their general layout was similar to the Sangamon-class escort carriers, but some of the Sangamon's engineering shortcomings were addressed. After the war they were seen as potential helicopter, anti-submarine, or auxiliary transport carriers, and a number of ships served in these roles during the Korean War.
The last vessel was decommissioned in The Commencement Bay-class ships were seen as the finest escort carriers ever built. She was the sole ship of a class built to use up the remaining tonnage allowed to the U. After the construction of the carriers Yorktown and Enterprise , the U. As a reduced-size version of the Yorktown-class aircraft carrier hull, Wasp was more vulnerable than other United States aircraft carriers available at the opening of hostilities. Better design features made Essex class carriers more resilient and efficient.
The long-hull Essexes were constructed with a lengthened bow above the waterline which provided deck space for two quadruple 40mm mounts. The flight decks were also shortened forward to provide better arcs of fire. Continuous improvements to the Essex class carriers enabled them to serve through World War II, the Korean War, the Vietnam War, and assist in the space program until They, however, failed to sink that carrier.
They also attacked several other ships in the Japanese force, though no records show a confirmed sinking to the credit of the Yorktown air group. On 21 June, the carrier joined in the futile stern chase on the enemy carried out by TF 58 but gave up that evening when air searches failed to contact the Japanese. Yorktown returned to the Marianas area and resumed air strikes on Pagan Island on 22—23 June. On 24 June, she launched a series of raids on Iwo Jima. On 25 June, she laid in a course for Eniwetok and arrived there two days later. On 30 June, the aircraft carrier headed back to the Marianas and the Bonins.
On 6 July, the warship resumed strikes in the Marianas and continued them for the next 17 days. On 23 July, she headed off to the west for a series of raids on Yap , Ulithi , and the Palaus. She carried out those attacks on 25 July and arrived back in the Marianas on 29 July. She completed repairs on 6 October and departed Puget Sound on 9 October. She stopped at the Alameda Naval Air Station from 11—13 October to load planes and supplies and then set a course back to the western Pacific.
She departed the lagoon on 1 November and arrived at Ulithi on 3 November. There, she reported for duty with TG The task group left Ulithi on 6 November.
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On 7 November, the aircraft carrier changed operational control to TG Detached from the task force on 23 November, Yorktown arrived back in Ulithi on 24 November. She remained there until 10 December, at which time she put to sea to rejoin TF She rendezvoused with the other carriers on 13 December and began launching air strikes on targets on the island of Luzon in preparation for the invasion of that island scheduled for the second week in January.
On 17 December, the task force began its retirement from the Luzon strikes. During that retirement, TF 38 steamed through the center of the famous typhoon of December That storm sank three destroyers — Spence , Hull , and Monaghan — and Yorktown participated in some of the rescue operations for the survivors of those three destroyers.
The warship arrived back in Ulithi on 24 December. Yorktown fueled and provisioned at Ulithi until 30 December , at which time she returned to sea to join TF 38 on strikes at targets in Formosa and the Philippines in support of the landings at Lingayen. The carriers began with raids on airfields on 3 January on the island of Formosa and continued with various targets for the next week.
On 12 January, her planes visited the vicinity of Saigon and Tourane now named Da Nang Bay, Indochina , in hopes of catching major units of the Japanese fleet. Though foiled in their primary desire, TF 38 aviators still managed to rack up an exceptional [ citation needed ] score — 44 enemy ships, of which 15 were combatants. On 15 January, raids were launched on Formosa and Canton in China. The following day, her aviators struck at Canton again and also went to Hong Kong. She participated in a raid on Formosa on 21 January and another on Okinawa on 22 January before clearing the area for Ulithi.
On the morning of 26 January, she re-entered Ulithi lagoon with TF Yorktown remained at Ulithi arming, provisioning, and conducting upkeep until 10 February. Spruance relieved William Halsey, Jr. On 17 February, she repeated those strikes before heading toward the Bonins. Her aviators bombed and strafed installations on Chichi Jima on 18 February. The landings on Iwo Jima went forward on 19 February, and Yorktown aircraft began support missions over the island on 20 February. Those missions continued until 23 February at which time Yorktown cleared the Bonins to resume strikes on Japan proper.
She arrived at the launch point on 25 February and sent two raids aloft to bomb and strafe airfields in the vicinity of Tokyo. Yorktown re-entered the anchorage at Ulithi on 1 March. She remained in the anchorage for about two weeks. On 14 March, the carrier departed the lagoon on her way to resume raids on Japan and to begin preliminary support work for the Okinawa operations scheduled for 1 April.
The task group came under air attack almost as soon as operations began. The ship opened fire almost immediately and began scoring hits quickly. The plane began to burn but continued his run passing over Yorktown ' s bow and splashing in the water on her starboard side. Just seven minutes later, another Frances tried but also went down, a victim of the combined fire of the formation. No further attacks developed until that afternoon; and, in the meantime, Yorktown continued air operations.
That afternoon, three Yokosuka D4Y "Judy" dive-bombers launched attacks on the carrier. The first two failed in their attacks and were shot in their attempts. The third succeeded in planting his bomb on the signal bridge. It passed through the first deck and exploded near the ship's hull. It punched two large holes through her side, killed five men, and wounded another Yorktown , however, remained fully operational, and her anti-aircraft gunners brought the attacker down. She continued air operations against the three southernmost islands of Japan and retired for fueling operations on 20 March.
On 21 March, she headed for Okinawa, on which she began softening-up strikes on 23 March. Those attacks continued until 28 March when she started back to Japanese waters for an additional strike on the home islands. That afternoon, at about The anti-aircraft guns scored numerous hits. On 30 March, Yorktown and the other carriers of her task group began to concentrate solely on the island of Okinawa and its surrounding islets. For two days, they pounded the island in softening-up strikes. On 1 April, the assault troops stormed ashore; and, for almost six weeks, she sent her planes to the island to provide direct support for the troops operating ashore.
About every three days, she retired to the east to conduct fueling rendezvous or to rearm and re-provision. The only exception to that routine came on 7 April when it was discovered that a Japanese task force built around the elusive battleship Yamato was steaming south for one last, desperate, offensive. Yorktown and the other carriers quickly launched strikes to attack that valued target.
Air Group 9 aviators claimed several torpedo hits on Yamato just before the battleship exploded and sank. The pilots also made strafing runs on the escorting destroyers and claimed to have left one afire in a sinking condition. At the conclusion of that action, Yorktown and her planes resumed their support for the troops on Okinawa. On 11 April, she came under air attack again when a single-engine plane sped in on her. Yorktown ' s anti-aircraft gunners brought down the plane. Yorktown entered the lagoon at Ulithi on 14 May and remained there until 24 May at which time she sortied with TG On 28 May, TG That same day, the carrier resumed air support missions over Okinawa.
That routine lasted until the beginning of June when she moved off with TF 38 to resume strikes on the Japanese homeland. On 3 June, her aircraft made four different sweeps of airfields. The following day, she returned to Okinawa for a day of additional support missions before steaming off to evade a typhoon. On 6—7 June, she resumed Okinawa strikes.
After the second day's strikes, Yorktown began retirement with TG She arrived in San Pedro Bay at Leyte on 13 June and began replenishment, upkeep, rest, and relaxation. The warship remained at Leyte until 1 July when she and TG Those strikes lasted from 13—15 July. A fueling retirement and heavy weather precluded air operations until 18 July, at which time her aviators attacked the Japanese naval base at Yokosuka. From 19—22 July, she made a fueling and underway replenishment retirement and then, on 24 July, resumed air attacks on Japan.
For two days, planes of her air group pounded installations around the Kure naval base. Another fueling retirement came on 26 July, and on 27—28 July, her planes were in the air above Kure again. On 29—30 July, she shifted targets back to the Tokyo area before another fueling retirement and another typhoon took her out of action until the beginning of the first week in August. On 10 August, she sent them back to Tokyo. On 11 and 12 August, another fueling retirement and a typhoon evasion was scheduled. On 13 August, her aircraft hit Tokyo for the last time. On 14 August, she retired to fuel destroyers again; and on 15 August, Japan agreed to capitulate so that all strikes planned for that day were canceled.
From 16—23 August, Yorktown and the other carriers of TF 58 steamed around the waters to the east of Japan awaiting instructions while peace negotiations continued. She began providing that air cover on 25 August and continued to do so until mid-September. After the formal surrender on board battleship Missouri on 2 September, the aircraft carrier also began air-dropping supplies to Allied prisoners of war still living in their prison camps.
She remained there, engaged in upkeep and crew recreation through the end of the month. On 1 October, the carrier stood out of Tokyo Bay on her way to Okinawa. She remained at the air station until 31 October at which time she shifted to Hunters Point Navy Yard to complete minor repairs. On 2 November, while still at the navy yard, she reported to the Service Force, Pacific Fleet, for duty in conjunction with the return of American servicemen to the United States.
That same day, she stood out of San Francisco Bay, bound for Guam on just such a mission. She arrived in Apra Harbor on 15 November and, two days later, got underway with a load of passengers. She arrived back in San Francisco on 30 November. On 8 December, the warship headed back to the Far East. Initially routed to Samar in the Philippines, she was diverted to Manila en route. She arrived in Manila on 26 December and departed there on 29 December. She reached San Francisco again on 13 January Later that month, she moved north to Bremerton, Washington , where she was placed in reserve while still in commission, on 21 June.
She remained there in that status through the end of the year.
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In June , she was ordered reactivated, and work began on her at Puget Sound. On 15 December , she was placed in commission, in reserve, at Bremerton. Her conversion continued into and she conducted post-conversion trials late in January. The aircraft carrier conducted normal operations along the west coast through most of the summer of She arrived in Pearl Harbor and remained there until 27 August, at which time she continued her voyage west.
On 5 September, the carrier arrived in Yokosuka , Japan. The Korean War armistice had been signed two months earlier; and, therefore, the carrier conducted training operations rather than combat missions.
She served with TF 77 until 18 February , at which time she stood out of Yokosuka on her way home. She made a stop at Pearl Harbor along the way and then moored at Alameda once more on 3 March. After a brief repair period at Hunters Point Naval Shipyard, Yorktown put to sea to serve as a platform for the filming of the Academy Award nominated short subject documentary film Jet Carrier. She conducted further, more routine, operations along the west coast until 1 July, at which time she headed back to the Orient.
She stopped at Pearl Harbor from 8—28 July before continuing on to Manila, where she arrived on 4 August. Yorktown operated out of the Manila- Subic Bay area, conducting 7th Fleet maneuvers, for the duration of the deployment. She did, however, take periodic breaks from that schedule to make frequent port visits to Yokosuka; and, during the Christmas holidays, she made a liberty call at Hong Kong on the Chinese coast.
In January , she was called upon to help cover the evacuation of Nationalist Chinese from the Tachen Islands located near the communist-controlled mainland. Yorktown entered Yokosuka for the last time on 16 February but departed again on 18 February to return home. After an overnight stop at Pearl Harbor on 23—24 February, she resumed her voyage east and arrived in Alameda on 28 February.
On 21 March , she was placed in reserve while still in commission at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard where she was to receive extensive modifications—most significantly, an angled flight deck to increase her jet aircraft launching capability. She completed her conversion that fall, and on 14 October was placed back in full commission. The carrier resumed normal operations along the west coast soon after recommissioning.
That assignment lasted until mid-March On 19 March, she stood out of San Francisco Bay on her way to her third tour of duty with the 7th Fleet since her reactivation in Yorktown stopped at Pearl Harbor from 24 March — 9 April and then continued her voyage west. She arrived in Yokosuka, Japan on 18 April and departed again on 29 April.
The warship operated with the 7th Fleet for the next five months. On 7 September, the aircraft carrier stood out of Yokosuka and pointed her bow to the east. After a non-stop voyage, she arrived back at Alameda on 13 September. She resumed west coast operations for about two months. On 13 November, she embarked upon a round-trip to Pearl Harbor, from which she returned to Alameda on 11 December.
Yorktown resumed normal operations out of Alameda upon her return and remained so employed until March On 9 March, she departed Alameda for yet another tour of duty in the Far East. She made stops at Oahu and Guam along the way and arrived at Yokosuka on 19 April.
She put to sea to join TF 77 on 25 April and served with that task force for the next three months. On 13 August, the warship departed Yokosuka for the last time, made a brief pause at Pearl Harbor, and arrived in Alameda on 25 August. That yard period lasted until the beginning of February She departed the naval ammunition depot at Bangor, Washington on 7 February and entered Long Beach five days later. For the next eight months, Yorktown conducted normal operations along the west coast.
On 1 November, she departed San Diego to return to the western Pacific. After a stop at Pearl Harbor from 8—17 November, Yorktown continued her voyage west and arrived in Yokosuka on 25 November. During that deployment, the aircraft carrier qualified for the Armed Forces Expeditionary Medal on three occasions. The first time came on 31 December and 1 January , when she participated in an American show of strength in response to the communist Chinese shelling of the offshore islands, Quemoy and Matsu , held by Nationalist Chinese forces.
During January, she also joined contingency forces off Vietnam during internal disorders caused by communist guerrillas in the southern portion of that country.
USS Yorktown (CV) - Wikipedia
That month she earned the expeditionary medal for service in the Taiwan Strait. The remainder of the deployment—save for another visit to Vietnamese waters late in March—consisted of a normal round of training evolutions and port visits. She concluded that tour of duty at San Diego on 21 May. The warship resumed normal operations along the west coast, and that duty consumed the remainder of