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- Idomeneo, K.366 (Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus)
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International Music Company , Arranger Richard Metzdorff Henry Litolff's Verlag , n. Arrangements from the Scores of the Great Masters, Vol. X-section and Return of the Tonic. The X-section and Return of the Tonic repeat the four stanzas of the Exposition with significant differences. A chromatic trill on c-sharp moves abruptly from the end of the Exposition to the X-section, in which the main theme suddenly appears in d-minor. Eighteenth-century composers believed that particular keys had special semantic associations, and d-minor was often identified with demonic power or revenge.
Boccherini, a contemporary of Mozart's, wrote a symphony with the title House of the Devil , and his listeners would have expected a piece with such a title to be in d-minor, which in fact it is. You can say that when Osmin suddenly sings in d-minor he steps out of the role of comic villain and reveals the devil that is in him. The d-minor version of the theme is more aggressive.
Its chromatic trill moves up rather than down, and whereas the F-major version had stayed within the compass of a fifth, the demonic energy of d-minor drives it up a whole octave. The appearance of the main theme in the wrong but highly revelatory key of d-minor changes the function of the following parts. The transitional second stanza that had led to the second theme in the dominant now prepares for the tonic, and the Return of the Tonic is marked by the march-like motif of the third stanza, a function for which it is well suited.
A big difference comes with the last line of the fourth stanza, in which Osmin revels in his smartness. This had served as a mini-finale for the Exposition and now appears to serve as the real finale. First the quadruple repetition of I am very smart is repeated one octave lower—a nice bit of bravura singing—and then the phrase is set in a manner that has ending written all over it. The Affirmation and Denial of the Tonic.ericmelcha.tk
ballet music for opera idomeneo k full score Manual
If the aria had ended at this point listeners would not necessarily miss anything. It has been an aria of some length bars with a respectable coda of 24 bars. But two more codas, one conventional, and the other surprising, are to come and extend the length of the piece by another 50 bars. The dramatic point of this is obvious. Revenge is obsessive, and Osmin cannot let go. Both codas very explicitly signal another start after something that appeared to be over. The first of the two codas sets a new text, a four-line stanza in which Osmin swears by the beard of the prophet that only the death of Pedrillo will satisfy him.
It is quite aggressive in the repetition of a dotted motif that first appears with the words now by the propet's beard , but harmonically it is quite straightforward and can be read as a conventional affirmation of the tonic. It ends with a standard orchestral flourish. I haven't done anything to you" Osmin explodes into a vision of vengeance.
This is set in the remote key of a-minor, Mozart's preferred key for writing alla turca. Mozart in a very interesting letter to his father wrote about the artistic problem facing an artist representing a character who loses it , as we say. The character may lose it, but the artist may not, and the controlled representation of something out of control is an aesthetic challenge. Mozart manages this problem by pushing repetition to its extreme. The text provides him with a kind of meaningless repetition: To this verbal clue Mozart responds by shortening the cycle of musical repetition.
The shorter the unit of repetition, the more obsessive its presence. Osmin cannot get away from the brief phrases that measure his vindictive rage, and his outburst exhausts itself in an eleven-fold repetition of a curiously insane five-finger exercise in the bass.
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With a stroke of dramatic economy and genius Mozart reused this 30 second coda in the finale of the third act. This is a sentimental vaudeville in which all the characters praise the magnanimity of the Bassa in forswearing revenge. Mozart spices up this final scene by having Osmin break into the peaceful and almost insipid tableau. This provides the stimulus for a final moment of sublimity in the opera when all the characters join in the codemnation of revenge and the music takes on a more serious and almost sacred tone.
The cardinal point about Belmonte's second aria is that it follows and responds to Osmin's violent outburst. The last twelve bars of that eruption set up a tonal background of an exceptional brutal and exotic a-minor, against which you hear first the A-major chords of a minimal recitative with Belmonte avoiding C-sharp , and then, as the the first note of the aria, the C-sharp that affirms A-major. This is very similar to Belmonte's opening aria, whose theme is the major version of a theme heard in its minor form in the middle section of the overture.
But the effect here is more immediate and dramatic. The minor episode of the overture had been melancholy rather than violent, and the musical memory that hears the c-minor background of the C-major theme must reach across some eighty bars of intervening music. Belmonte's and Osmin's arias are separated by a minute or so of dialogue.
In the first aria, the major third that confirms C-major, is the high, but quite short note of the opening phrase. In the second aria, the major third is held on a crescendo for most of the opening bar. We hear a more intense version of the Belmonte we had encountered before. The aria has a fluid and episodic structure, perhaps suggested by the oddly disjointed words of the libretto:. The first stanza and Exposition. The text of the aria is less a poem than a sequence of three stanza fragments, and even within each stanza, the ideas are loosely joined together.
The first stanza has two ideas: The beating heart is very obvious in the singer's opening phrases, not to speak of the orchestral accompaniment. Less obvious is the progression in the phrase from anxiety to love. The dominant staccato rhythms yield to drawn out coloraturas on the phrase full of love. This is the aria in which the singer can demonstrate his technical virtuosity, but the coloraturas are quite strictly subordinated to a dramatic purpose. The second line balances the tears of reunion against the pains of separation.
Mozart uses the same phrase for reunion and separation, but on the final word of the second phrase pain , he suddenly moves to the minor and then he repeats the half-line about the pain of separation but sets it in an extravagant syncopated phrase that moves from a-minor to e-minor. Such a move to the dominant minor is quite rare, and whether or not you are familiar with the technical language of harmony, it is certainly audible as a striking effect.
The second stanza and X-section. The second stanza divides into the first two lines, which describe the lover's fear, and the last which creates suspense in the phrase of the swelling bosom. The music of the first two lines follows directly from the final pain phrase of the first stanza. It stays in e-minor and lasts for only four bars, but the next six bars are given over to a triple repetition of the rising swelling bosom. The singer's phrases are set over an ostinato F-sharp that sounds like a dominant pedal going to an expected b-minor.
An agitated phrase in the violins underscores the sense of expectation. The third stanza and X-section. The setting of the third stanza is based on a surprise. Belmonte has a vision of Konstanze, the way she talks and sighs. Then he wonders whether it was a dream. The visionary quality of this stanza is marked by a harmonic shift. The dominant pedal on F-sharp does not lead to an expected tonic of B. Instead after a general pause, the music suddenly starts in D-major, and an ethereal figure in the violins underscores the sudden harmonic shift.
There is another way in which Mozart emphasizes the visionary quality of this section. When Belmonte asks Is that her lisping? Are these her sighs? As with the second stanza, Mozart puts his chief emphasis on the final line. Three times he had repeated the phrase about the swelling bosom, and now he asks three times whether it was all a dream. The third phrasing of the question is particularly insistent. The Return of the Tonic. There is an excellent reason why Mozart puts so many question marks behind the last repetition of Was it a dream?
It is time to return to the Tonic, and tonic assertion arises more persuasively from a background of deep questioning. The Return of the Tonic is set as a rondo, a musical form in which the repetition of the main theme alternates with episodic materials: He chooses the materials from the first part of each stanza but reverses their order so that he ends up with the structure There are good reasons for both those decisions. He does not repeat the materials from the second part because he had greatly elaborated them the first time round. And he reverses the order because the first episode was in the minor, and he wants to place the minor episode late in his piece so that the final appearance of the major theme will emerge from a gloomy background.
Mozart also makes some changes to the main theme. When it returns for the first time he observes the slow-fast structure it had in its original appearance. But when it returns for the second and third time, he sets the entire first line of the first stanza to the beating heart phrase and gives it the character of a rondo theme. A triple repetition of the loving heart phrase and a final ritornello make up the coda of the piece. Blondchen's aria opens the second act and is closely related to the duet with Osmin that follows. The two scenes together are a major contribution to the gender politics of the opera.
Blondchen is to Konstanze as Emilia is to Desdemona. She is somewhere between a servant and a friend. She complements her mistress' high-minded perspective with a pragmatic view. But she is not only honest and courageous, but also English , and the political ramifications of her origin are important to the duet.
The entire text of the aria is set in the Exposition. Restless and jagged figures in the orchestra mimic the various kinds of boorish male behavior that Blondchen complains about. On the three words Bullying, Quarreling, Griping the celli and double bass play an angry upward staccato scale. A little cadenza allows the singer to show off her stuff. There is no X-section in this aria, and the Return of the Tonic follows immediately on the Exposition. The first stanza is repeated literally. But in the second stanza there are elaborations and intensifications.
The first time round, the last two lines of the second stanza had been repeated and made the text of the mini-finale. Now the ending is elaborated. The entire second stanza is repeated. We hear twice about the boorish behavior of men, and the second time the celli and bases improve on their angry upward runs. The biggest change however has to do with the cadenza. Because after the Return of the Tonic the second part stays in A-major rather than modulates to E-major, the singer's cadenza starts a fourth higher, on A rather than E.
The first time, the singer's cadenza had moved her from E to the high B a twelfth above the starting note. The second time round, she starts higher, and the cadenza takes her only to a tenth, a C-sharp that is a whole tone higher than the B and is a high note for a soprano. But then the cadenza is repeated, and this time the singer goes all the way up to an E that is at the very outer range of a soprano's voice.
So there is some vocal athleticism at work. A little postlude concludes the aria. It is an iron rule of opera that women prefer tenors. They will sometimes put up with a baritone, but never with a bass, and the relationship of a bass with a soprano is a matter of sexual coercion or paternal benevolence, unless, as in The Magic Flute it is one turning into the other. The duet between Blondchen and Osmin intensifies the general theme of sexual coercion by turning the despotic Turkish bass against the freedom-loving English soprano.
Why is Blondchen English and why does this duet make such a fuss about it? The answer to that question tells us at the same time much about the symbolic meaning of the Orientalizing setting of the opera. Belmonte and Konstanze are Spanish noblemen. Their story is set against the background of deep hostility between Catholic Spain and the Turkish Empire. In this opposition the West understands itself as the place of enlightened order against the despotism of the East. But there is also an intra-Western opposition that pits an authoritarian and theocratic state against an enlightened and secular civil society.
In that opposition, Spain is always the place of reaction. If Spain is in the cultural imagination the most authoritarian and traditional European country, England is the most democratic and progressive place. You associate freedom with England, but not with Spain. And the Habsburg Empire with its large hinterland in Eastern Europe was always in a state of cold or hot war with the Ottoman Empire. But in a world where talk of freedom was in the air, was the Habsburg Empire more like Osmin or more like Blondchen? So the aggressive identification of Blondchen as an Englishwoman with ideas about political freedom and the emancipation of women, carries a fair amount of ideological baggage, and the sentimental plot has its clear political valences.
The duet follows a quarrel in dialog between an Osmin who demands total subordination and a Blondchen, who speaks about being born to freedom but also pulls rank because through Konstanze she can get to the Bassa and through him back at Osmin. The duet epitomizes the quarrel in musical form, a very common structure of musical theatre.
Like the end of the first act, the action of the duet is based on a theatrical event. Blondchen tells Osmin to leave, and the external action is generated by his reluctance to leave, and Blondchen's threats to scratch his eyes out, if necessary. And give your women their will. If one gets such a fruit. Osmin So sprichst du mit mir? You talk to me like that? Jetzt musst du gehen. Now you must go. The text divides clearly into three parts.
The first part is built around two exchanges of couplets connected by stichomythy. In the first set of couplets Osmin says he will go, while she expresses her dislike of him. Then he says he will not go until she promises obedience, while she rejects his command. The middle section consists of two four-line stanzas. Osmin laments the folly of Englishmen who let their womenfolk do what they want. Blondchen thinks of herself as "born to freedom" and will retain her dignity even in slavery.
In the third section Blondchen once more tells Osmin to leave in three stichomythic exchanges. In a final couplet she threatens to tear his eyes out, and he agrees to leave. The triple structure of the words is echoed in the music, whose blueprint is quite similar to the overture: The stichomythic exchange that follows can be interpreted as an X-section and has the jagged and open form one finds often in that part of a sonata.
Mozart then plays a musical joke. When Osmin asks for an oath of obedience, he moves slowly to a low E-flat at bottom of the bass range before jumping suddenly to a high F. Blondchen imitates him mockingly, moving to the very bottom of the soprano range and then jumps to a high B-flat. The middle section is the stroke of genius in this duet.
It is set in a very Moorish c-minor, broadly reminiscent of the the middle section of the overture and Osmin's opening song. It is quite literally a duet in that there is a melodic line, played either by an oboe or sung by Blondchen, and a bass line played by a bassoon or sung by Osmin.
The combination of oboe and bassoon gives the piece its exotic flavor.
Osmin sings the first two lines of his stanza in unison with the bassoon. Then Blondchen takes over from the oboe and sings her first tow lines. Then Blondchen and Osmin join as melody and bass in the second part of their stanzas. This section ends in g-minor, and you may think of it as the Exposition to a very short sonata. This is followed by a very brief but powerful X-section in g-minor in which Osmin three times exclaims O Englishmen and then skips from the first to the third and fourth lines of his stanza.
You understand a lot about the complexities of European Orientalism if you can unpack the whole set of meanings associated with Osmin's triple exclamation against Englishmen. C-minor returns with the repetition of the third and fourth lines. The Return of the Tonic in the third section is marked by an orchestral flourish that yields to patter song in which Osmin and Blondchen fight it out musically.
Half of this section is given over to a coda built largely on the words "Your eyes are at risk" and "Quiet, I will go". The point of such finales is never to develop further but to affirm a position with frequent repetition. This finale to the second act of the opera is the core of the work, and its action is the best example of the recursive principle by which the central plot of the opera as a whole reappears in its constituent parts. The text divides or is articulated by the music into five parts.
It is a very simple text with no great pretensions to literary power. But it has some interest in casting the drama of physical separation and reunion as a psychological drama of quarrel and reconciliation, with distrust at the root of quarrel. The text clearly comes from a pre-feminist world, but in putting the blame squarely on the men, you may read it as an instance of self-critique that is available, and indeed quite common, in a patriarchal order.
In the first part the lovers express their initial joy of reunion. Each of the lovers has a three-line stanza, and there are connecting one-liners. The high-minded Konstanze and Belmonte express romantic emotions. The more practical Pedrillo and Blondchen talk about the details of the escape. A four-line stanza expresses their joint delight. Konstanze Ach Belmonte, ach mein Leben! Oh Belmonte, oh my life! Belmonte Ach Konstanze, ach mein Leben!
Oh Konstanze, oh mylife! Nun muss aller Kummer schwinden! Now all grief must pass! Let me kiss them away! Belmonte Ja, noch heute wirst du frei! Yes, today you will be free. Pedrillo Also Blondchen, hast's verstanden? So, Blondchen, did you get it? Wel'll be here at midnight. We see the end of our suffering. In the second section, the men express their jealous suspicions. After embarrassed beating about the bush, Belmonte asks whether Konstanze loves the Bassa.
Pedrillo more drastically asks whether Osmin forced Blondchen to have sex with him:. Many a scecret worry. Pedrillo Doch Blondchen, ach! The ladder, Bist du wohl so viel wert?
Are you worth it all? Have you lost it? Pedrillo Doch Herr Osmin. And exercise them on you? Oh how you make me said! That would be a bad bargain. In the third section, the women answer. Blondchen unceremoniously slaps Pedrillo's face. Konstanze, the virtuoso of martyrdom, puts on a great show of injured indignation.
Both women unite in sisterly solidarity against the irrational jealousy of their menfolk. At the end of this section the women in a four-line stanza make a general statement of male jealousy, and the men, in a similar statement, argue that such indignation is a proof of constancy. Blondchen Da, nimm die Antwort drauf! There is your answer! Now I am enlightened. Belmonte Konstanze, ach vergib! Konstanze Ob ich dir treu verblieb? Whether I remained faithful to you!
There is no doubt about it. And free of all suspicion. In the fourth section the men plead forgiveness, but the women take their time before they grant it. Pedrillo Liebstes Blondchen, ach, verzeihe! Dear Blondchen, please forgive me. That only beats for you?
Idomeneo, K.366 (Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus)
Dearest Blondchen, please forgive! In the fifth and very short part, the four lovers agree to put all this behind them and sing a hymn to praise love and banish jealousy. All Wohl es sei nun abgetan! Let us put this behind us! Es lebe die Liebe! Nur sie sei uns teuer, Nichts fache das Feuer Der Eifersucht an. Love only be dear to us. Let nothing stir the fire Of jealousy. Musically, these five sections can be reduce to three: Or to put it thematically: The first section unfolds in a very orderly fashion and introduces the four singers of the quartet separately and together.
There is a ritornello stating the main theme. Then the two lovers share a stanza. First they alternate between its four lines, then they combine in a proper love duet, singing the third and fourth lines together. The practical servant lovers dispense with protestations of love and concentrate on the details of the flight. A trill figure in the violins marks their less serious status and also indicates that the key has changed to the dominant. Blondchen's stanza is set to the same music as Pedrillo's, and their reunion takes just twelve bars compared with the 38 bars given over to Konstanze and Belmonte.
But the change of pace and texture enlivens the total effect. After a transitional passage of a single bar the Tonic returns with the four lovers sharing in a hymn of joy at past suffering. They now sing the theme that the Ritornello previously had played so that this theme now appears in an intensified form. It only takes up the first two lines of their hymn, and the third and fourth lines are set differently. A bubbling instrumental figure in the violins anticipates the delight of which they now sing, and this figure plays an important role in the little coda for this section that Mozart sets to a repetition of the third and fourth lines.
The lovers' easy goodbye to their sufferings sounds too good to be true, and it is. Doubts arise, and the process of raising and dispelling them is painful. Then Pedrillo chimes in and the tension mounts as the music continues for almost two minutes in a harmonically, melodically, and rythmically disturbed environment.
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Urged on by the women, the men now state their questions. They do so together in a musical form that is much more closed. Belmonte's nobler question Do you love the Bassa? The men's confidence or impudence is marked by a change from g-minor to E-flat major. The questions are asked in forty seconds, as compared with the previous two minutes of beating about the bush. To point to such temporal ratios may sound primitive but it points to an important aspect of the composer's musical strategy: In the women's answers the music takes on a more open and obviously dramatic form.
The whole weight of Konstanze's indignation and disappointment comes down on Belmonte as a crushing psychological punishment in the form of downward sweeping accompagnato phrase in b-flat minor. The soubrette Blondchen sings a quick cadential phrase in B-flat major and slaps Belmonte's face. That is the central and psychologically lowest moment, from which the finale slowly moves upward towards reconciliation and harmony.
The immediate consequence, however, is anger on the women's, and mortificaton on the men's, side. For ten bars of an allegro assai, Mozart stays in b-flat minor, a rare key that in Idomeneo he explicitly associates with the apparition of a monster. It is possible that Mozart thought of the "green-eyed monster" in Othello or of Emilia's words They are not ever jealous for the cause But jealous for they're jealous. It is a monster Begot upon itself, born on itself. In the following episode there is an interesting tension between the words and the music, which is, as it were, ahead of the words.
The lovers continue to sing as a chorus. The women express their general indignation at male jealousy, whereas the men find in that very indignation a proof of constancy. If you were wondering what would follow from the previous suspense, it is impossible to listen without hearing that things are taking a turn for the better. If you look at the score, you notice that the piece is in A-major, Mozart's preferred key for lovers, and nearly always a key for markedly amiable music. The ritornello with its woodwind coloring takes you into a pastoral world, but when the four lovers begin to sing as a chorus, a touch of solemnity is added.
You might say that the music goes to church. The natural and the sacred often go together in Mozart, especially when he writes serious music about marriage, a sacrament for him as a devout Catholic, and the central meeting place of the natural and the sacred in human life.
From the solemn and serene harmonies ofthe pastoral arises the men's plea for forgiveness. Pedrillo begins with a flowing theme that has a rondo character to it and moves irresistibly forward. The Belmonte picks it up. The women sing against it in various shades of how could you? The music slows down again to a formal scene of repentance and forgiveness. The men apologize and ask for forgiveness against a musical background of a dominant pedal with weird and shifting chromatic harmonies in the woodwinds.
The formal apology is owed a formal forgiveness, and it comes, in a slightly stiff and deliberately old-fashioned counterpoint from the two women. Here the music once more goes to church, and Mozart writes for six bars in the manner of J. The oblique bows to church music have a deep structural function: After a general pause, the long delayed tonic D-major at last returns. It returns at first in a delicate transitional episode on the theme of now that it's over, what next?
The finale has been so long and complex that it requires a substantial Affirmation of the Tonic. This happens in a bar coda, which is introduced by a wild instrumental motif in the violins and continues at breakneck speeed with some contrapuntal fireworks thrown. Not much happens in this coda: But so much has happenend in the extended middle section of this drama of broken and restored trust that it needs saying over and over again.
Mozart's Marriage of Figaro is based on a play by the French writer Beaumarchais. Beaumarchais was a writer who dabbled in literature, journalism, politics, and business, became famous and notorious in the decade preceding the French Revolution, and was at different times of his life quite rich and quite poor.
The Figaro character is a bit of a self-portrait.
It is not an accident that one of the most famous French newspapers is named after the writer-intellectual Figaro-Beaumarchais. Both of Beaumarchais's plays are set in Seville. From a French perspective, Spain was a backward country, dominated by Catholicism, untouched by the Enlightenment, given to hierarchy, privilege, and a particularly jealous patriarchal social structure. Seville is the major city of the South of Spain, which because of its long association with Islam, had a particularly exotic valence for Europeans. So Seville symbolizes for Beaumarchais everything that is wrong with and interesting about the old world.
The idea that Spain is an intriguingly old-fashioned, sexy, and exotic place also sits behind an opera like Carmen , which was written about a century after The Marriage of Figaro. Figaro is the modern man on the make. He is actually a modern version of a very ancient thing: Just like Oedipus, he does not know his parents and must make his own way in the world without the help of family or wealth that provide the support structure for the children of privilege. But Figaro is smart and entrepreneurial, and he finds the traditional world of Seville a perfect opportunity for getting ahead.
He is much more interested in getting ahead than in improving the world, by the way. There is an old lawyer, Dr. Bartolo, who wants to marry his rich and pretty ward, Rosina. But a young Count by the name of Almaviva is in love with Rosina as well, and Rosina is in love with him.
Figaro teams up with Almaviva and as his loyal and scheming servant he manages to wrest the ward Rosina from the clutches of the ogre guardian Bartolo. It is the plot of Rossini's famous opera, which was wirtten some thirty years after Mozart. In The Marriage of Figaro, these events lie a few years back. The Count has tired of the Countess.
He is both a philanderer and intensely jealous--a combination not any more likeable for being quite common. He has a particular interest in the servant Susanna, who is in love with Figaro. But Figaro has borrowed money from Marcellina, an older woman, and has promised to marry her. So the marriage of Figaro and Susanna is threatened by various intrigues.
Bartolo has never forgiven Figaro for helping to steal Rosina, and he is only too delighted to take up Marcellina's cause. In a turn of the plot that deliberately parodies the Oedipus story, we discover that Bartolo and Marcellina were once lovers and that Figaro is their son. So the new man is not quite so new: Beaumarchais' plays were scandalous in a way that strengthened in them. They were alternately censored, rewritten, produced in scandalous environments, and spoke in a general way to the restless mood of the pre-revolutionary 's.
The Marriage of Figaro is now the oldest opera that is in the central canon of Western opera.
But it was in its day a daring and contemporary musical comedy. It was first performed in Vienna in The Austrian Emperor of the day, Joseph II, was an odd mixture of progressive and conservative views. The libretto of the opera is not only a shortened, but also a toned-down version of the French play. But it wouldn't be right to say that Mozart's opera was a liberal work in a conservative society. It was a very popular work that fitted extremely well into the tensions of the day.
A proper opera begins with an orchestral piece known as an overture. It gives the audience a chance to get their act together, allows latecomers to be seated, etc. In most operas, the thematic material of the overture bears some relation to the themes of the opera itself.
In fact, some overtures are simply medleys or potpourris of the main themes, almost like a trailer for a movie. There are also overtures for non-existent operas or overtures that were never intended as introductions to a particular opera. One of Brahms's most popular pieces is the Academic Festival Overture, which is a medley of German fraternity songs.
Some overtures are much more popular than the operas they once introduced: Rossini's overture to his Whilhelm Tell opera the Lone Ranger theme is a very popular virtuoso piece for an orchestra, while the opera itself is rarely produced. The overture to The Marriage of Figaro is remarkable for sharing no themes with the opera.
You could argue that it sets to music the subtitle of the French play on which the opera is based: Figaro and Susanna prepare for their wedding. He measures a room for furniture. She tries on a hat. The music dramatizes marital noncommunication before concluding with the lovers' duet.
There are six distinct parts to this scene:. Figaro explains to Susanna why it is a good idea to have their bedroom adjacent to the rooms of the Countess and the Count. This will allow the Countess to ring for Susanna ding-ding , and the Count to ring for Figaro dong-dong Example 2. This is a very musical joke underscored by brutal notes from the horn, the traditional instrument of jealousy Example 2.